1001 Questions and Answers
on Orthography and Reading

By B. A. Hathaway



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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1888,


In the office of the librarian of Congress at Washington, D.C.

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In presenting this, the seventh book of the "1001 Question and Answer Series," we feel that a great want is partially met. It is evident, from the number of inquiries made for such a book, that the works devoted to the subject of Orthography are very limited.

We are also aware that the Authors of the different Grammars devote such a limited space to the subject of Orthoepy and technical Orthography, that both Teacher and Pupil turn away from the subject in disgust.

In preparing this list of questions and answers we have consulted the best authority of the present day, and believe we have gone over the ground in such a way that it will meet the approval of all interested.

The questions and answers on Reading we trust will add to the interest of the book, and only hope that it will be received with as gracious a welcome and hearty approval as the rest of the series.

B.A.H. APRIL, 1888.

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Letters, 5
Orthoepy, 13
Substitutes, 17
Definitions and Words, 20
Rules and Terms, 25
Numerical Values of the Letters, 32
Capitals and Italics, 35
Abbreviations, 38
Accent and Punctuation, 40
Diacritical Marks, 44
Prefixes and Suffixes, 46
Promiscuous Questions, 56
Reading and Elocution, 60
Miscellaneous Exercises, 80

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1. _What is Orthography?_
The science and art of the Letters of a language.

2. _Of what does Orthography treat?_
The nature and power of letters, and correct spelling.

3. _From what is the word Orthography derived?_
Two Greek words, signifying "To write right."

4. _What is a Letter?_
A character used to represent an elementary sound, or combination
of sounds.

5. _What is an Alphabet of a Language?_
A complete list of its letters.

6. _What is the origin of the word Alphabet?_
It is derived from the first two letters of the Greek Alphabet:
Alpha and Beta.

7. _Where did the Alphabet originate?_
The English comes from the Greek, which was brought by Cadmus from
Phoenicia, about the year 1490 B.C.

8. _What was the first Alphabet ever used?_
The Hebrew.

9 _How many letters were in the original Alphabet?_

10. _Where did the other letters originate?_
They have been added since the time of Cadmus, as their use became

11. _What was the last letter added to the English Alphabet?_

12. _Why was it called W?_
On account of it being composed of two u's, or a double u.

13. _How many letters in the English Alphabet?_

14. _How many in the Latin Alphabet?_

15. _What is the difference between the Latin Alphabet and the
The Latin omits the letter W.

16. _What Alphabet has the greatest number of letters?_
The Chinese.

17. _How many letters in the Chinese Alphabet?_
Over two hundred.

18. _What is a Perfect Alphabet?_
One which contains the same number of letters that it has
elementary sounds.

19. _Is the English a perfect Alphabet?_
It is not.

20. _How many Elementary sounds in the English Language?_
About forty-three.

21. _What is an Imperfect Alphabet?_
One in which the number of sounds exceeds the number of letters.

22. _What is an Equivocal Alphabet?_
An Imperfect one.

23. _What is an Unequivocal Alphabet?_
Same as Perfect.

24. _Is the English Alphabet Equivocal or Unequivocal?_

25. _What is a Univocal Alphabet?_
One that has a separate character for each elementary sound.

26. _What is an Alphabetic Language?_
A language in which the characters represent separate articulate

27. _What is a Phonetic Alphabet?_
One in which there is a separate character for each elementary

28. _Is there any Phonetic Alphabet of the English Language?_
There have been several published, but they are not in general use.

29. _How many letters in the English Phonetic Alphabet?_

30. _What is the name of a Letter?_
The appellation by which it is known.

31. _What is the difference between a Letter and its Name?_
The letter is the character, and the name is its appellation.

32. _What Letters name themselves?_
The vowels A, E, I, O, and U.

33. _How are the Letters divided?_
Into Vowels and Consonants.

34. _What are Vowels?_
Those letters which represent only pure tones.

35. _Name all the Vowels._
A, E, I, O, U, and in some situations W and Y.

36. _What is a Consonant?_
A letter that represents an interruption of sound or breath.

37. _Why called Consonants?_
Because they cannot be used alone in a word, but must be connected
with a Vowel.

38. _How many kinds of Consonants are there?_
Two; single Letters and Combinations.

39. _Name the Consonant letters._
B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, and Z.

40. _Name the Consonant Combinations._
Th, Sh, Ch, Zh, Wh, and Ng.

41. _Name the two Orders of the Consonants._
Mutes and Semi-vowels.

42. _What are Mutes?_
Those letters which admit of no escape of breath while the organs
of speech are in contact.

43. _Name the Mutes._
B, D, K, P, T, and C and G hard.

44. _What other term is often applied to the Mutes?_
Close Consonant.

45. _What are Semi-vowels?_
Those letters that admit of an escape of breath while the organs
of speech are in contact.

46. _Name the Semi-vowels._
F, H, J, L, M, N, R, S, V, W, X, Y, Z, and C and G soft.

47. _Are the Combinations Mutes or Semi-vowels?_
They are all Semi-vowels.

48. _What letters are called Nasals?_
M, N, and Ng.

49. _What other term is often applied to the Semi-vowels?_
Loose Consonant.

50. _What letters are called Liquids?_
L, M, N, and R.

51. _Why are the Liquids so called?_
Because of their flowing sound, which readily unites with the
sound of other letters.

52. _What are Sibilants?_
Letters which have a hissing sound; as, S and Z.

53. _What letter is called the Mute Sibilant?_
The letter X.

54. _What letters represent no sound of their own?_
C, Q, and X.

55. _What are these letters called?_
Redundant letters.

56. _Why are they so named?_
Because they are not necessary for the completion of the Alphabet.

57. _By what letters are the sounds of C represented?_
K and S.

58. _What letters represent the sound of Q?_

59. _What letters represent the sound X?_

60. _What letters of themselves form words?_
A, I, and O.

61. _Spell all of the Consonants._
Bee, Cee, Dee, Eff, Gee, Aitch, Jay, Kay, Ell, Em, En, Pee,
Kw, Ar, Ess, Tee, Vee, Double-u, Ex, Wy, and Zee.--_Goold

62. _What letters are called the Twins?_
Q and U.

63. _Why so called?_
Because Q is always followed by U in English spelling.

64. _Is there any exception to this rule?_
The word LEECLERCQ is sometimes given as an example, but in
English it is spelled LEECLERC.

65. _What is meant by style of letters?_
Different type; as, Roman, Script, Italics, etc.

66. _How many forms have letters?_

67. _What are they?_
Small letters and Capitals.

68. _What are the Natural Divisions of Consonants?_
Subvocals and Aspirates.

69. _What are Subvocals?_
Those Consonants which produce an undertone of voice when their
sounds are uttered.

70. _Name the Subvocals._
B, D, G hard; J and G soft; L, M, N, R, V, W, Y, Z, Zh, and Ng.

71. _What are Aspirates?_
Mere whispers made by the organs of speech and breath.

72. _Name the Aspirates._
C, F, H, K, P, Q, S, T, X, Ch, Sh, and Wh.

73. _What Combination is both Aspirate and Subvocal?_

74. _What are Cognate letters?_
Those which are produced by the same organs of speech in a similar

75. _Give an example of a Cognate letter._
D is a cognate of T.

76. _What are Quiescent letters?_
Those that are silent.

77. _How many uses have Silent letters?_

78. _What are they?_
To modify vowels; to modify consonants; to determine
signification; to determine origin; and to distinguish
words of like signification.

79. _What are Explodents?_
Those letters whose sound cannot be prolonged.

80. _Name the Explodents._
B, D, G, J, P, Q, T, and K.

81. _What are the principle organs of speech?_
Lips, teeth, tongue, and palate.

82. _What is meant by Organical division of the consonants?_
Pertaining to those particular organs used in their pronunciation.

83. _Name the Organical divisions._
Labials, Dentals, Linguals, and Palatals.

84. _What are Labials?_
Those letters whose sounds are modified by the lips.

85. _Name them._
B, F, M, P, V, W, and Wh.

86. _What are Dentals?_
Those letters whose sounds are modified by the teeth.

87. _Name them._
J, S, Z, Ch, Sh, Zh, C and G soft.

88. _What are Linguals?_
Those letters whose sounds are modified by the tongue.

89. _Name them._
D, L, N, R, T, Y, and Th.

90. _What are Palatals?_
Those letters whose sounds are modified by the palate.

91. _Name them._
K, Q, X, Ng, C and G hard.

92. _What letters have no Organical classification?_
H, and all the vowels.

93. _What is an Aphthong?_
A silent letter or combination.

94. _How many kinds of Aphthongs?_

95. _What are they?_
Vowels, Consonants, and Combinations.

96. _What letters are never silent?_
F, J, Q, R, and X.

97. _In what words is V silent?_
Sevennight and twelvemonth.

98. _In what word is Z silent?_

99. _What letters are never doubled?_
X and H.

100. _How many words contain all the vowels in regular order?_

101. _What are they?_
Abstemious and Facetious.

102. _What is a Diphthong?_
Two vowels sounded together in the same syllable.

103. _Name the Diphthongs._
Ou, Ow, Oi, and Oy.

104. _How many sounds do they represent?_

105. _What are the sounds called?_
Diphthongal sounds.

106. _How many kinds of Diphthongs are there?_

107. _What are they?_
Separable and Inseparable.

108. _Which ones are Separable?_
Oi and Oy.

109. _What is an Improper Diphthong?_
The union of two vowels in a syllable, one of which is silent.

110. _By what other name are they known?_

111. _How many Digraphs are there?_

112. _Name them._
Aa, Ae, Ai, Ao, Au, Aw, Ay, Ea, Ee, Ei, Eo, Eu, Ew, Ey, Ie, Oa,
Oe, Oi, Oo, Ou, Ow, Ua, Ue, Ui, and Uy.

113. _What is a Trigraph?_
A union of three vowels in one syllable, two of which are silent,
or all three representing one sound.

114. _How many Trigraphs are there?_

115. _Name them._
Awe, Aye, Eau, Eou, Eye, Ieu, Iew, and Uoi.

116. _What is a Tetragraph?_
Union of four vowels in one syllable.

117. _How many Tetragraphs are there?_

118. _What is it?_
Ueue in the word Queue.

119. _May the terms Digraph, etc., be used with the Consonants?_
They may.

120. _Give example of Consonant Digraph._
Gh, in the word laugh.

121. _Give example of Consonant Trigraph._
Thr, in the word throw.

122. _Give example of Consonant Tetragraph._
Phth, in the word phthisic.

123. _What is a regular Triphthong?_
A vowel trigraph in which all three of the vowels are sounded.

124. _Give an example._


1. _What is Orthoepy?_
That science which treats of the elementary sounds and the
pronunciation of words.

2. _What is Phonology?_
The science of the elementary sounds uttered by the human voice in

3. _What is an Elementary sound?_
One that cannot be divided so as to be represented by two or more

4. _What is Sound?_
A sensation produced on the auditory nerve by the rapid vibratory
motion of any elastic substance.

5. _What is the least number of vibrations that will produce an
audible sound?_
Sixteen per second.

6. _What is the greatest number that can be heard?_
About forty thousand per second.

7. _What is Voice?_
Sound produced by the vocal chords.

8. _What is an Articulate sound?_
One made by the organs of speech and used in language.

9. _What is a Vocal sound?_
One that is modified but not obstructed by the articulatory organs.

10. _What is a simple Vocal sound?_
One made without any change in the position of the articulatory
organs during its emission.

11. _What is a Coalescent?_
An articulate sound that always precedes and unites with a vocal.

12. _What is a Guttural sound?_
One that is modified by the soft palate.

13. _What are Unarticulate sounds?_
The sounds of the vowels.

14. _How many Elementary sounds do the vowels represent?_

15. _How many do the Consonants represent?_

16. _How many do the Combinations represent?_

17. _How many do the Diphthongs represent?_
Only one, as oi and oy only repeat sounds already represented by a
and i.

18. _How many sounds has A?_

19. _What are they?_
Long, Short, Medial, Flat, and Broad.

20. _How many sounds has E?_

21. _What are they?_
Long and Short.

22. _How many sounds has I?_

23. _What are they?_
Long and Short.

24. _How many sounds has O?_

25. _What are they?_
Long, Short, and Slender.

26. _How many sounds has U?_

27. _What are they?_
Long, Short, and Medial.

28. _How many sounds has B?_
One; as heard in the word babe.

29. _How many sounds has C?_
None that may be properly called its own.

30. _How many sounds has D?_
One; as heard in the word did.

31. _How many sounds has F?_
One; as heard in the word flew.

32. _How many sounds has G?_
Two; as heard in the words go and age.

33. _How many sounds has H?_
One; as heard in the word high.

34. _How many sounds has J?_
None of its own, but represents one; the sound of G.

35. _How many sounds has K?_
One; as heard in the word key.

36. _How many sounds has L?_
One; as heard in the word lily.

37. _How many sounds has M?_
One; as heard in the word money.

38. _How many sounds has N?_
One; as heard in the word nat.

39. _How many sounds has P?_
One; as heard in the word pie.

40. _How many sounds has R?_
One; as heard in the word roar. (REM.--Some authors give r three

41. _How many sounds has S?_
One; as heard in the word same.

42. _How many sounds has T?_
One; as heard in the word tight.

43. _How many sounds has V?_
One; as heard in the word view.

44. _How many sounds has W?_
One; as heard in the word we.

45. _How many sounds has X?_
None of its own, as it is a redundant letter.

46. _How many sounds has Z?_
One; as heard in the word ooze.

47. _How many sounds has Th?_
Two; as heard in the words thigh and the.

48. _How many sounds has Ch?_
One; as heard in the word church.

49. _How many sounds has Sh?_
One; as heard in the word ash.

50. _How many sounds has Zh?_
One obscurely; represented by _si_ in such words as fusion, _zi_
in glazier.

51. _How many sounds has Wh?_
One; as heard in the word what.

52. _How many sounds has Ng?_
One; as heard in the word sing.

53. _What are regular sounds?_
The long sounds of the letters.


1. _What is a Substitute?_
A letter representing a sound usually represented by another.

2. _What are Equivalent letters?_
Letters representing the same sound.

3. _What properties do Substitutes assume?_
The properties of the letter whose sound it represents.

4. _How many Substitutes has a long?_

5. _What are they?_
_E_ in tete; _ei_ in feint; _ey_ in they; and _ao_ in gaol.

6. _How many Substitutes has a middle?_

7. _What are they?_
_E_ in there; and _ei_ in heir.

8. _How many Substitutes has a broad?_

9. _What are they?_
_O_ in cord; and _ou_ in sought.

10. _How many Substitutes has e long?_

11. _What are they?_
_I_ in marine; _ie_ in fiend; and _ay_ in quay.

12. _How many Substitutes has e short?_

13. _What are they?_
_A_ in says; and _u_ in bury.

14. _How many Substitutes has i long?_

15. _What are they?_
_Y_ in chyme; and _oi_ in choir.

16. _How many Substitutes has i short?_

17. _What are they?_
_Y_ in hymn; _e_ in England; _u_ in busy; _o_ in women; _ee_ in
been; and _ai_ in captain.

18. _How many Substitutes has o long?_

19. _What are they?_
_Eau_ in beau; and _ew_ in sew.

20. _How many Substitutes has o short?_

21. _What is it?_
_A_ in what.

22. _How many Substitutes has u long?_

23. _What is it?_
_Ew_ in new.

24. _How many Substitutes has u short?_

25. _What are they?_
_E_ in her; _i_ in sir; and _o_ in son.

26. _How many Substitutes has u medial?_

27. _What is it?_
_O_ in wolf.

28. _How many Substitutes has F?_

29. _What are they?_
_Gh_ in laugh; and _ph_ in philosophy.

30. _How many Substitutes has J?_

31. _What are they?_
_G_ in rage; _di_ in soldier; and _d_ in verdure.

32. _How many Substitutes has S?_

33. _What are they?_
_C_ soft, as in central; and _z_ in quartz.

34. _How many Substitutes has T?_

35. _What is it?_
_Ed_ final, after any aspirate except t.

36. _How many Substitutes has V?_

37. _What is it?_
_F_ in of.

38. _How many Substitutes has W?_

39. _What is it?_
_U_ in quick.

40. _How many Substitutes has X?_

41. _What is it?_
_Ks_ in exist.

42. _How many Substitutes has Y?_

43. _What is it?_
_I_ in alien.

44. _How many Substitutes has Z?_

45. _What are they?_
_S_ in was; _c_ in suffice; and _x_ in xebec.

46. _How many Substitutes has Ch?_

47. _What are they?_
_Ti_ in question; and _t_ in nature.

48. _How many Substitutes has Sh?_

49. _What are they?_
_Ce_ in ocean; _ci_ in social; _si_ in mansion; _ti_ in motion;
_ch_ in chaise; and _s_ in sugar.

50. _How many Substitutes has Zh?_

51. _What are they?_
_Si_ in fusion; _zi_ in brazier; _z_ in azure; and _s_ in rasure.

52. _How many substitutes has Ng?_

53. _What is it?_
N generally before palate sounds; as, conquer, etc.

54. _What letters have no Substitutes?_
B, D, G, H, L, M, N, P, and R.

55. _What combinations have no Substitutes?_
Th and Wh.

56. _Why is X never doubled?_
It already represents the sounds of K and S.

57. _What letter ends no English word?_


1. _What is Language?_
Any method for the communication of thought and feeling.

2. _What is Natural Language?_
Instinctive methods of communicating thought or feeling.

3. _What is Artificial Language?_
That which must be learned before it can be used.

4. _Is the English Language natural or artificial?_

5. _How many kinds of Artificial Language?_

6. _What are they._
Spoken and written.

7. _What is Spoken Language?_
That produced by the vocal organs.

8. _What is Written Language?_
Any method of communicating thought or feeling by the use of
written or printed characters.

9. _What are the messengers of thought?_

10. _What is a Sentence?_
An assemblage of words conveying a thought.

11. _What is a Word?_
A sign of an idea.

12. _What is Lexicology?_
That science which treats of the meaning of words.

13. _What is Etymology?_
That science which treats of the origin and derivation of words.

14. _What is Orthogeny?_
That science which treats of the classification of words into
parts of speech.

15. _What is Syntax?_
That science which treats of the relation and connection of words
in the construction of a sentence.

16. _What is Prosody?_
That science which treats of punctuation and the laws of

17. _Of what is a word composed?_
A syllable or combination of syllables.

18. _What is a Syllable?_
A letter or letters uttered by a single impulse of the voice.

19. _What is the essential part of a syllable?_
A vowel.

20. _Can there be a syllable without it containing a vowel sound?_
There cannot.

21. _What is Syllabication?_
That branch of etymology which treats of the division of words
into syllables.

22. _How many methods of Syllabication are there?_

23. _What are they?_
English and American.

24. _What is the object of the English method?_
To separate words into their elementary parts without regard to
pronunciation; as, a-tom.

25. _What is the object of the American method?_
To indicate the proper pronunciation by separating affixes from
the roots.

26. _What is a word of one syllable called?_
A monosyllable.

27. _What is a word of two syllables called?_
A dissyllable.

28. _What is a word of three syllables called?_
A trisyllable.

29. _What is a word of more than three syllables called?_
A polysyllable.

30. _What is the Ultimate syllable of a word?_
The last syllable.

31. _What is the Penultimate syllable?_
Next to the last syllable in a word.

32. _What is the Antepenultimate syllable?_
The last syllable but two in a word.

33. _What is the Preantepenultimate syllable?_
The last syllable but three in a word.

34. _What other way may the syllables be described?_
In their numerical order; as, first, second, etc.

35. _How many syllables can a word have?_
As many as it has vowels or diphthongs sounded.

36. _How many words in the English language?_
About one hundred and twenty thousand.

37. _How are words divided in reference to form?_
Into simple and compound.

38. _How are they divided in reference to origin?_
Into primitive and derivative.

39. _What is a Simple word?_
One that is not composed of two or more whole words.

40. _What is a Compound word?_
One that is composed of two or more distinct words.

41. _What is a Primitive word?_
One in no way derived from another in the same language.

42. _What is a Radical word?_
Same as primitive.

43. _What is a Derivative word?_
One formed by joining to a primitive some letter or letters to
modify its meaning.

44. _What is Analysis?_
Separating a word or syllable into its elements or parts.

45. _What is Synthesis?_
The process of combining elements to form syllables and words.

46. _What is the Base of a Compound word?_
That word representing the fundamental idea.

47. _What is the Modifier in a Compound word?_
That word which describes the other.

48. _What is the Base of a Derivative word?_
The primitive from which it is derived.

49. _What is the Modifier in a Derivative word?_
The affix.

50. _What is an Affix?_
That part of a derivative word attached to the root.

51. _How many Root words in the English language?_
Over one thousand.

52. _What is a Prefix?_
That part of a derivative word placed before the root.

53. _What is a Postfix?_
That part of a derivative word placed after the root.

54. _What is a Suffix?_
Same as a postfix.

55. _What are Affixes?_
Prefixes and postfixes together are called affixes.

56. _How many kinds of Derivatives are there?_

57. _What are they?_
Regular and irregular.

58. _What is a Regular derivative?_
One that is formed by the addition of affixes without changing the
letters in the primitive part (except final _e_ silent).

59. _What is an Irregular derivative?_
One in which the letters of the primitive part are changed.

60. _In using Affixes, what rule should be observed?_
The affix and root should be from the same language.

61. _Is the same rule to be observed in forming Compound words?_
It is.

62. _What is a Mongrel compound word?_
One formed contrary to the rule.

63. _Give an example._
Cable-graph and cable-gram.

64. _What are Barbarisms?_
Same as mongrel.

65. _When use the hyphen in Compound words?_
When they are not permanently compounded.

66. _What is an Obsolete word?_
One gone out of date.


1. _What is Spelling?_
A distinct expression of the letters or sounds of a word in their
proper order.

2. _How many kinds of Spelling?_

3. _What are they?_
Orthographic and Phonic.

4. _What is Orthographic spelling?_
An expression of the letters of a written or printed word in their
proper order.

5. _What is Phonic spelling?_
An expression of the elementary sounds of a word in their proper
order, according to established usage.

6. _What is meant by good usage?_
The usage, or custom, of the best speakers and writers of the times.

7. _How do we know when we have spelled a word correctly?_
By reference to the Dictionary?

8. _What is a Lexicographer?_
An author of a dictionary.

9. _Can we spell by Rules?_
We cannot.

10. _Why?_
Because there are too many exceptions.

11. _What makes a rule in Orthography?_
Whenever a letter is silent, or usually so, a rule is formed.

12. _Why is c placed before r in acre, massacre, etc.?_
To preserve the hard sound of c.

13. _What is the rule for Digraphs?_
A digraph must have one vowel silent.

14. _Give rule for E final._
E final is silent when another vowel precedes it in the same

15. _What effect does final E have on the preceding vowel?_
It usually preserves its long sound.

16. _When is B silent?_
Before _t_, or after _m_, in the same syllable.

17. _When is C silent?_
Before _k_ in the same syllable; also, before _z_, _l_, or
_t_, in a few words.

18. _When is D silent?_
Before _g_ in the same syllable.

19. _When is G silent?_
Before _m_ or _n_ in the same syllable.

20. _When is H silent?_
After _g_ or _r_ in the same syllable; and _h_ final after a
vowel is always silent; also, in a few words after _t_, and
initial in a few words.

21. _When is L silent?_
After _a_ when followed by _f_, _m_, _k_, or _v_, except in the
word valve; also, before _d_ in could, etc.

22. _When is M silent?_
Before _n_ in a few words.

23. _When is N silent?_
Final after _l_ or _m_.

24. _When is P silent?_
Initial before _n_, _s_, or _t_.

25. _When is S silent?_
In a few irregular words; as, _isle_, _puisne_, _viscount_,
_corps_, etc.

26. _When is T silent?_
Before _ch_ in the same syllable; also, in _Christmas_, _eclat_,
_mortgage_, etc.

27. _When is V silent?_
In two words only--_Sevennight_ and _Twelvemonth_.

28. _When is W silent?_
Before _r_ in the same syllable also, in _whoop_, _sword_, _two_,

29. _When is Gh silent?_
After _i_ in the same syllable; also, after _au_ and _ou_ in some

30. _When is Ch silent?_
In a few words; as, _drachm_, _yacht_, etc.

31. _When is Z silent?_
In one word only--_Rendezvous_.

32. _What letters are never silent?_
F, J, Q, and R.

33. _What is meant by Antecedent part of a syllable?_
That part before the vowel.

34. _What is the Consequent part of a syllable?_
That part which follows the vowel.

35. _How many words end in Ceed?_

36. _What are they?_
Exceed, proceed, and succeed.

37. _How many of the English words are derived from the Latin?_
About, three-fourths.

38. _What Language is called "Our mother tongue?"_

39. _From what language do we get most of our Scientific terms?_
The Greek.

40. _How many English words begin with_ IN _as a prefix?_
Two hundred and fifty.

41. _How many begin with im?_

42. _How many begin with un?_
About two thousand.

43. _Were final E not silent, what would be the result?_
Another syllable would be formed.

44. _When is final E dropped in spelling?_
Before vowel terminations mostly.

45. _Why is the final E retained in such words as changeable and
To preserve the soft sound of the c or g.

46. _In the words fleeing, seeing, etc., why retain both Es?_
To determine the proper meaning of the word.

47 _What is a Figure of orthography?_
Any departure from the ordinary spelling of a word.

48. _How many Figures are there?_

49 _What are they?_
Archaism and Mimesis.

50. _What is Archaism?_
The spelling of a word according to ancient usage.

51. _What is Mimesis?_
The spelling of a word in imitation of a false pronunciation.

52. _When is i used as a consonant?_
When followed by a vowel in the same syllable; as in alien, etc.

53. _When is y final changed to e?_
Before the suffix ous; as in beauteous.

54. _When is y final changed to i?_
Before the suffix ful; as in beautiful.

55. _What is a Redundant prefix?_
One that does not change the signification of the root; as, _a_ in
the word adry.

56. _When is ie changed to y?_
Before the ending _ing_.

57. _When use the digraph ei in spelling?_
Ei follows c soft, and begins words.

58. _When use ie in spelling?_
Ie follows consonants (except c soft), and ends words.

59. _In changing the word hoe to hoeing, why retain the e?_
To preserve its signification.

60. _What is the origin of the suffix less?_

61. _What is the origin of the word English?_
It is derived from the word Angles.

62. _Who were the Angles?_
They were a tribe of people who came from the land of the Low
Germans and settled in Britain in the fifth century.

63. _What does the word England mean?_
"The land of the Angles."

64. _Why is our language sometimes called the "Teutonic language"?_
Because it is derived from the ancient Germans, who were called

65. _What kind of words end in ize?_
Verbs derived from the Greek.

66. _What kind of words end in ise?_
Most words derived from the French.

67. _Why is the English called a Composite Language?_
Because it is derived from so many different sources.

68. _Does adding a single consonant to a word ever make an
additional syllable?_
It does.

69. _Give examples._
Grade, grad-ed; confide, con-fi-ded.

70. _Can a word be compound and derivative at the same time?_
It can; as, ball-player.

71. _How distinguish between an affix and a part of a compound
If all the parts retain their literal signification they form
a compound; if not, the part which loses its signification
becomes an affix in a derivative.

72. _Is the word outside compound or derivative?_
It is compound.

73. _Is the word outrun compound or derivative?_
It is derivative.

74. _What is Derivation?_
That branch of etymology which treats of the sources of the words
of a language.

75. _How many kinds of Derivation?_

76. _What are they?_
Paronymous and Historical.

77. _What is Paronymous derivation?_
That part of etymology which treats of present sources of English

78. _Give examples of Paronymous derivation._
Kingdom, from king; Manly, from man, etc.

79. _What is Historical derivation?_
That part of etymology which treats of the foreign sources of the
English language.

80. _Give examples of Historical derivation._
Book, from boc; Moon, from mona, etc.

81. _When use a, and when an, in a sentence?_
Use a before all words beginning with a consonant sound, and
use an before words beginning with a vowel sound,
_h_ mute, or _h_ initial, if the accent is on any other
syllable than the first.

82. _Why do words in the English language become obsolete?_
Because it is a living language.

83. _What is a new word?_
One that has recently come into use.

84. _Name some new words._
Outsider, intensify, repudiate, and idiom.

85. _What is meant by suspended animation of a word?_
A word that passes out of use for a while and then resumes its
place in literature.

86. _Give examples of suspended words._
The words reckless, abate, and abandon, fell into disuse in the
seventeenth century, but have since been revived.

87. _What letters are called the pivots?_
Y and w.

88. _Why are they so called?_
Because of their peculiar sounds in changing from vowels to

89. _What kind of new words should be avoided?_
Any word formed contrary to the genius of the language.

90. _What is meant by idiom?_
A peculiar mode of expression.

91. _What is diction?_
Diction treats of the selection and right use of words.

92. _When is our diction pure?_
When we use only such words as belong to the idiom of our language.

93. _What are Synonyms?_
Words having a similar signification.

94. _What is a Synonymicon?_
A dictionary of synonymous words.

95. _What is meant by a reputable word?_
One that is used by educated people.

96. _What is an Anacoluthic word?_
One that is unnecessary to the completion of a sentence.

97. _What is an Idiomatic word?_
A word belonging to an individual language.

98. _What is an Ideographical language?_
One in which the characters represent ideas rather than sounds.

99. _Can there be a derivative word without an affix?_
There can; as, brought from bring.

100. _What is Dactylology?_
The art of spelling words with the fingers.

101. _What is the Pythagorean letter?_
Y.--_Am. Cyclopedia_.

102. _Why so called?_
Because its Greek original represents the sacred triad used to
designate the diverging paths of virtue and vice.


1. _What is meant by the Numerical value of letters?_
Its value as a numeral used in the notation of different languages.

2. _Have all the letters Numerical value?_
All except J, U, W, and Y.

3. _What is the Numerical value of A?_

4. _By whom used?_
The ancient European Nations.

5. _What is the Numerical value of B?_

6. _By whom used?_
The Romans.

7. _What is the Numerical value of C?_
100 in the Roman notation.

8. _What is the Numerical value of D?_
500 in the Roman notation.

9. _What is the Numerical value of E?_

10. _By whom used?_
The ancient Greeks.

11. _What is the Numerical value of F?_
40 in some of the Ancient notations; 80 in the Arabian; and 10,000
in the Armenian.

12. _What is the Numerical value of G?_

13. _By whom used?_
The Latins.

14. _What is the Numerical value of H?_
100 in the Greek notation; and 200 in the Latin.

15. _What is the Numerical value of I?_
1 in the Roman notation; and 100 in some of the Ancient notations.

16. _What is the Numerical value of K?_
20 in the Greek notation; and 60 in the Semitic.

17. _Give the Numerical values of L._
50 in Roman, and 30 in Semitic notation.

18. _What are the Numerical values of M?_
As a Roman numeral, 1,000; Greek and Hebrew, 40.

19. _What is the value of N as a Numeral?_
In the Greek notation, 50; Roman, 90; and by some other, 900.

20. _What is the Numerical value of O?_
70 in the Greek; and 11 in the Ancient Latins.

21. _What is the Numerical value of P?_
In the Greek notation, 5; in the Latin, 80; and in the Roman, by
some authors, 7, by one, 100, and by still another, 400.

22. _As a Numeral, what is the value of Q?_

23. _By whom used?_
Several of the Ancient Nations of Europe.

24. _What is the Numerical value of R?_

25. _By whom used?_
The ancient Romans.

26. _What is the Numerical value of S?_

27. _By whom used?_
The Ancients.

28. _Give the values of T as a Numeral._
300 in the Greek notation; in the Latin, 160.

29. _What is the Numerical value of V?_
5 in the Roman notation.

30. _What are the values of X as a Numeral?_
In the Roman, 10; in the Greek, 60.

31. _What are the Numerical values of Z?_
7 in the Greek notation; and 2,000 in the Roman.

32. _Why have J, U, W, and Y no Numerical values?_
Because they have been introduced into the Alphabet since the
Science of Arithmetical Notation was invented.

33. _What effect does it have on the value of a letter to draw a
line above it?_
In most cases it increases its value a thousand times.

34. _Is a line ever drawn beneath a letter for the same purpose?_
In some instances it is.

35. _What effect does it have on a letter as a numeral to repeat
Repeats its value as often as it is repeated.


1. _What is a Capital letter?_
A large letter.

2. _What is an Italic letter?_
A form of oblique letters derived from the Italians.

3. _What is Rule 1 for the use of Capitals?_
Title pages and headings of chapters should be entirely in capitals.

4. _Give Rule 2._
The first word of every book, tract, essay, letter, etc., should
begin with a capital.

5. _Give Rule 3._
The first word of every sentence should begin with a capital.

6. _Give Rule 4._
Clauses separately numbered should begin with a capital.

7. _Give Rule 5._
The first word after an interrogation point should usually begin
with a capital.

8. _Give Rule 6._
The first word of a clause, or sentence, given as an example,
should begin with a capital.

9. _Give Rule 7._
In quoting a title of a book, each important word of the title
should begin with a capital.

10. _Give Rule 8._
First word of a direct question should begin with a capital.

11. _Give Rule 9._
The first word of a direct quotation should begin with a capital.

12. _Give Rule 10._
All letters used as numerals should be written or printed in

13. _Give Rule 11._
The pronoun I should always be a capital.

14. _Give Rule 12._
The vocative particle O should always be a capital.

15. _Give Rule 13._
The first word of every line of poetry should begin with a capital.

16. _Give one exception to Rule 13._
In humorous poetry, when a word is divided at the end of a
line, the detached syllable at the beginning of the next line
should begin with a small letter.

17. _Give Rule 14._
All names and titles of the Deity should begin with a capital.

18. _Give Rule 15._
All proper names should begin with a capital.

19. _Give Rule 16._
All words derived from proper nouns should begin with a capital.

20. _Give Rule 17._
Titles of honor and distinction should begin with capitals.

21. _Give Rule 18._
The words father, mother, sister, brother, aunt, etc.,
when followed by a proper noun, should always begin with a

22. _Give Rule 19._
All words referring to the Bible should begin with a capital.

23. _Give Rule 20._
All proper adjectives should begin with a capital.

24. _Give Rule 21._
The names of famous events, historical eras, noted documents,
etc., should begin with a capital.

25. _What establishes a rule for Capitals?_
Good usage, or custom.

26. _Give Rule 1 for the use of Italics._
Words for emphasis should be printed in italics.

27. _Give Rule 2._
Names of books, poems, etc., are usually printed in italics.

28. _Give Rule 3._
Words from foreign languages are printed in italics, e.g.: Keuschheit.

29. _Give Rule 4._
Words in the Bible supplied by the translators are printed in

30. _How are written words marked that are to be printed in
By underscoring the words with two lines.

31. _How are written words marked that are to be printed in
By underscoring the words with one line.

32. _When use the Interjection O?_
The letter O is a vocative particle, and should always be
used before nouns or pronouns in the absolute case by direct

33. _When use Oh?_
In all cases where it is not followed by nouns, or pronouns, in
the vocative case.--[_Ridpath._]


1. _What is an abbreviation?_
One or more of the letters of a word standing for the whole word.

2. _What is the signification of A.C.S.?_
American Colonization Society.

3. _Give meaning A.B.C.F.M._
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.

4. _What is the signification AAA.?_

5. _What is the signification of Ang.-Sax.?_

6. _Give signification of A.T._

7. _What is the signification of C.A.S.?_
Fellow of the Connecticut Academy.

8. _What is the signification of C.C.?_
County Court, or County Commissioner.

9. _What is the meaning of D.C.L.?_
Doctor of Civil Law.

10. _What is the signification of D.M.?_
Doctor of Music.

11. _What is the signification of A.U.C.?_
In the year of the city.

12. _What is the meaning of F.E.S.?_
Fellow of the Entomological Society.

13. _What is the signification of H.R.I.P.?_
Here rests in peace.

14. _What is the signification of L.C.J.?_
Lord Chief Justice.

15. _What is the signification of N.u.?_
Name unknown.

16. _What is the signification of P.a.?_
Participial adjective.

17. _What is the signification of P.v.?_
Post village.

18. _What is the signification of Qy.?_

19. _What is the signification of Ro.?_
Righthand page.

20. _What is the signification S.C.L.?_
Student of the Civil Law.

21. _What is the signification of S.R.I.?_
Holy Roman Empire.

22. _What is the signification of S.J.C.?_
Supreme Judicial Court.

23. _What is the signification of U.S.S.?_
United States Ship.

24. _What does U.K. signify?_
United Kingdom.

25. _What does V.R. signify?_
Queen Victoria.

26. _What does V.G. signify?_
For example.

27. _What does Xt. signify?_

28. _What does Xmas. signify?_

29. _What is the signification of Y.B.?_
Year Book.

30. _What is the signification of Zoöl.?_

31. _What does Yt. signify?_

32. _What is the signification of S.T.P.?_
Doctor of Divinity.


1. _Why is a word divided into syllables?_
For the purpose of showing their proper pronunciation and
etymological composition.

2. _What is Accent?_
A greater stress of voice placed on one syllable of a word than
the others.

3. _What kind of words have no accent?_

4. _Why?_
Accent implies comparison, and there can be no comparison with one

5. _How many kinds of accent?_
Common, Emphatic, and Discriminating.

6. _What is common accent?_
Ordinary accent of spelling.

7. _How many kinds of common accent?_

8. _What are they?_
Primary and secondary.

9. _What is primary accent?_
The principal accent.

10. _What is secondary accent?_
The partial accent.

11. _What kind of accent is essential to every word of more than
one syllable?_

12. _How close can primary and secondary accent come together?_
Not closer than two syllables.

13. _How many primary accents can one word have?_
Only one.

14. _How many secondary accents can a word have?_

15. _In case of two secondary accents, where are they placed?_
On the first and third.

16. _In case of two secondary, where is the primary accent?_
On the last but two.

17. _Do the primary and secondary ever change places?_
They do.

18. _In words of two syllables, where is the accent?_
Usually on the first.

19. _In trisyllables, what syllable is accented?_
Usually the first.

20. _Are there any exceptions?_
There are.

21. _In polysyllables, where is the accent?_
On the antepenult usually.

22. _In all words ending in ation, where is the accent?_
On the syllable next to the last.

23. _What is Emphatic accent?_
Accent used for emphatic distinction.

24. _Have monosyllables any accent?_
They have sometimes an emphatic, or poetic.

25. _What is Discriminating accent?_
That used to determine parts of speech.

26, _Give some examples._
Au'gust, Au-gust'; Reb'el, Re-bel'.

27, _What is Punctuation?_
The use of certain characters to aid the reader in determining the
thought of the writer.

28. _How many kinds of punctuation are there?_

29. _What are they?_
Rhetorical, Etymological, for Reference, and for the Printer.

30. _What is Rhetorical punctuation?_
That used for rhetorical effect.

31. _What is Etymological punctuation?_
That used in Orthography and Orthoepy.

32. _What is Reference punctuation?_
That used to refer the reader to the margin of the page.

33. _What is punctuation for the Printer?_
That used by the writer to inform the printer the kind of type to

34. _What are the principal Etymological points?_
Apostrophe, Caret, Dieresis, Macron, Breve, Tilde, Grave Accent,
Acute Accent, Circumflex Accent, Hyphen, and Period.

35. _What is the use of the Apostrophe?_
To indicate the omission of a letter, or letters, of a word.

36. _What letter is omitted in the word o'clock?_
The letter f.

37. _What is the use of the Caret?_
To correct an error of omission.

38. _Is the Caret used in printed copy or manuscript?_
In manuscript.

39. _For what is the Dieresis used?_
To separate two vowels which would otherwise form a diphthong.

40. _Give an example of the use of the Dieresis._
Zoölogy, and Diëresis.

41. _What is the use of the Macron?_
To mark the long quantity of syllables.

42. _What is a long syllable?_
One in which the vowel has the long sound.

43. _What is the use of the Breve?_
To mark the short quantity of syllables.

44. _What is a short syllable?_
One in which the vowel has the short sound.

45. _What kind of a mark is the Tilde?_
A Spanish mark.

46. _How many uses has the Tilde?_

47. _What are they?_
Placed over _n_ it gives the sound of _ny_ as, in cañon. In
English it indicates certain sounds of the vowels.

48. _How many accent marks are there?_

49. _What are they?_
Grave, Acute, and Circumflex.

50. _What is the use of the Grave accent?_
To mark the falling inflection.

51. _What is the use of the Acute accent?_
To mark the primary accent, and the rising inflection.

52. _What is the use of the Circumflex?_
To mark the peculiar inflection of the voice in the pronunciation
of a word.

53. _How many uses has the Hyphen?_

54. _What are they?_
To separate the parts of a compound word; to separate a word into
syllables; and to divide a word at the end of a line.

55. _When should the Hyphen be used in a compound word?_
When the word has not become permanently compounded.

56. _When use the Dieresis instead of the Hyphen?_
When the syllables are divided by the hyphen, there is no hyphen
used between the vowels of the digraph.

57. _What is the use of the Period?_
To denote an abbreviation.

58. _Are there any other uses of the Period?_
There are.

59. _Where else is the Period used?_
In Rhetorical punctuation.

60. _Name the points used in Reference punctuation._
Asterisk, Obelisk, Parallels, Section, Paragraph, and Index.

61. _Are these marks ever doubled?_
They are.

62. _Are Letters ever used for reference?_
They are.


1. _What are Diacritical Marks?_
Characters indicating the different sounds of letters.

2. _Name the Diacritical Marks._
Macron, Breve, Dieresis, Semi-Dieresis, Caret, Tilde, Cedilla, and
the inverted T.

3. _Make the Diacritical Marks in the order named:_
(¯); ([breve]); (¨); (·); ([caret]); (~); (¸); ([T]).

4. _What does the Macron indicate?_
Over a vowel, its long sound; under e, the sound of a, long;
across c, the sound of k; over g, the hard sound; across
th, the subvocal sound, and over oo, the long sound.

5. _What are the uses of the Breve?_
Over vowels, it indicates their short sound, and over oo, its
short sound.

6. _What does the Dieresis indicate?_
Over a, its Italian sound; under a, its broad sound; over i,
the sound of e, long; under u, when preceded by r,
makes it equivalent to o, Italian.

7. _What is the use of the Semi-Dieresis?_
Over a, gives it the medium sound; under a, the sound of o,
short; over o, the sound of u, short; under o, the sound;
over g, the soft sound; and under u, the sound of Italian o.

8. _Where is the Cedilla used?_
Under c, to give it the sound of s.

9. _What is the use of the Caret as a Diacritical Mark?_
Over a, it indicates the flat sound; over e, the sound of a, flat;
over u, the sound of e, in her.

10. _Where is the Tilde used?_
Over n in Spanish words it indicates that the sound of y
immediately follows. It is also used over e in such words
as her, and over i in sir, etc.

11. _What is the use of the inverted [T]?_
Under s, it gives it the sound of z; under x, it gives the sound
of gz.

12. _Give some words illustrating the use of the Macron._
M[=a]te, b[=e]am, f[=i]ne, b[=o]at, t[=u]be, r[=oo]d, [=g]o, and

13. _Give words showing the use of the Breve._
M[)a]t, s[)e]t, l[)o]t, t[)u]b, and f[)oo]t.

14. _Illustrate the use of the Dieresis._
Cär, polïce, f[a:]lling, and tr[u:]e.

15. _Give words showing the use of the Semi-Dieresis._
M[.a]sk, wh[a.]t, m[.o]ney, [.g]in, w[o.]lf, and b[u.]sh.

16. _Illustrate the use of the Caret._
Fâir, thêre, sûrge, and sometimes over o as in stôrm.

17. _Give words showing the use of the Tilde._
M[~e]rge and cañon.

18. _Illustrate the use of the Cedilla._
Çell and çhaise.

19. _Give some words showing the use of the inverted t._
Wa[sT] and e[xT]ist.

20. _Are there any other names for the inverted t?_
It has been given different names by different authors.

21. _What are they?_
"The Perpendicular," "Suspended Macron," etc.

22. _Is the letter y ever marked by Diacritical Marks?_
It is, sometimes.

23. _What marks are used for y?_
Macron and Breve.

24. _Give examples where y is marked with the Macron._
Sp[=y], sl[=y], st[=y], etc.

25. _Give example where y is marked with the Breve._

26. _What mark is used to cancel silent letters?_
Short bar, similar to the Macron.


1. _What is the signification of A as a Prefix?_
On, in, at, to, or towards.

2. _Is A as a prefix ever redundant?_
It is.

3. _Give examples._
Adry and ameliorate.

4. _What does the prefix Ab signify?_

5. _What does Ab signify?_
Away from.

6. _What is the signification of Ante?_

7. _Name all the prefixes meaning To._
Ad, ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, and at.

8. _What does Anti signify?_

9. _What does Bis signify?_

10. _What other prefix means the same?_
Dis, from the Greek.

11. _What does Be signify?_

12. _What does Circum signify?_
Around, as circumscribe.

13. _What is the meaning of Cis?_
On this side, as cisalpine.

14. _What prefixes signify With?_
Con, com, co, col, and cor.

15. _What prefixes signify Against?_
Contra and counter.

16. _What does Di signify?_
Two, as ditone.

17. _What prefixes signify Out of, or From?_
E, and ex.

18. _What does Dys signify?_
Ill, or difficult, as dysentery and dyspepsia.

19. _What does Enter signify?_
Between or among.

20. _What does Epi signify?_
On, as epitaph; during, as ephemeral.

21. _What prefix signifies Equal?_
Equi, as equidistant.

22. _What does Extra signify?_
Beyond, as extraordinary.

23. _What is the signification of Eu?_
Well, or agreeable, as euphony.

24. _What does Gain signify?_
Against, as gainsay.

25. _What is the signification of Hex?_
Six, as Hexagon.

26. _What does Hyper signify?_
Over, as hypercriticism.

27. _What does Hypo signify?_
Under, or beneath, as hypotenuse and hypocrite.

28. _What prefixes signify Not or In?_
In, im, il, and ir.

29. _What is the signification of Inter?_
In the midst of, or between, as intellect and intermarry.

30. _What does Intra signify?_
Within, or on the inside of.

31. _What other prefix means the same as Intra?_

32. _What is the signification of Juxta?_
Joined to, or next, as juxtaposition.

33. _What does Mal signify?_
Bad, as malpractice and maladministration.

34. _What is the signification of Meta?_
In the middle, after, and with.

35. _What does Mis signify?_
Amiss, or wrong, as misapply and mishap.

36. _What is the signification of Mono?_
One, as monotheistic.

37. _What prefixes signify Many?_
Multi and poly, as multiform and polysyllable.

38. _What does Non signify?_
Not, as nonsense, nonessential, etc.

39. _What other prefixes signify Not?_
Neg, as in negative, and ne, as in nefarious.

40. _What does Ob signify?_
In the way of, as obstruct.

41. _What does Oct signify?_
Eight, as octagon.

42. _What does Omni signify?_
All, or complete, as omnipresent.

43. _What is the signification of Out?_
Beyond, as outlaw, outbid, outbalance, etc.

44. _What does Over signify?_
Above, as overseer, overreach, etc.

45. _What does Ovi signify?_
An egg, as oviform.

46. _What does Para signify?_
Beside, as parallel, paragraph, etc.

47. _What is the signification of Pene?_
Almost, as peninsula--almost an island.

48. _What does Per signify?_
Through, or by, as permit, perchance, etc.

49. _What does Peri signify?_
Around, as perimeter, periosteum.

50. _What does Pleni signify?_
Completeness, or full, as plenitude, etc.

51. _What does Post signify?_
After, or backwards, as postfix, and postpone.

52. _What does Pre signify?_
Before, as prefer, prefix, etc.

53. _What is the signification of Preter?_
Beyond, as preternatural.

54. _What is the signification of Pro?_
Before, forth, and for.

55. _What does Pros signify?_
To, as proselyte.

56. _What is the signification of Proto?_
First, as protocol, protoplasm, etc.

57. _What does Quad signify?_
Four, as quadrangle, etc.

58. _What does Re signify?_
Back, or again, as react, recollect, etc.

59. _What prefixes signify Right?_
Rect and Recti.

60. _What does Retro signify?_
Backwards, as retrospect and retrograde.

61. _What does Se signify?_
By itself, as separate, seclude, etc.

62. _What prefixes signify Half?_
Semi, demi, and hemi, as semicircle, demitone, and hemisphere.

63. _What does Sine signify?_
Without, as sinecure.

64. _What does Stereo signify?_
Solid, as stereotype.

65. _What does Sub signify?_
Under, or inferior, as subterranean and subordinate.

66. _What does Super signify?_
Over, above, or beyond, as supernatural, etc.

67. _What does Suf signify?_
Less or after, as suffix, etc.

68. _What does Supra signify?_
Same as Super.

69. _What does Sur signify?_
More than, as surcharge.

70. _What prefixes signify Together?_
Syn, sy, syl, and sym, as in syntax, system, syllable, and symbol.

71. _What does Trans signify?_
Beyond, across, and again, as transalpine, transatlantic, and

72. _What does Tra signify?_
Across, as traverse.

73. _What is the signification of Tri?_
Three, as trisyllable, triangle, etc.

74. _What does Ultra signify?_
Beyond, as ultramarine.

75. _What does Un signify?_
Not, as unhappy, unable, etc.

76. _What is the signification of Under?_
Below, as undercurrent, underrate, etc.

77. _What does Ve signify?_
No or not, as vehement.

78. _What does Vice signify?_
Instead of, as Vice-President.

79. _What does With signify?_
Against or back, as withstand, withdraw.

80. _What other signification has With in some words?_
Near, as within; together, as withal, etc.

81. _What suffixes signify "able to be"?_
Able, ible, and ile, as curable, audible, and visible.

82. _What suffixes signify rank, or office?_
Acy, ate, ric; dom, and ship, as in curacy, pontificate, bishopric,
kingdom, and clerkship.

83. _What is the signification of Age?_
Act of, as marriage, passage, etc.

84. _Has the suffix Age any other signification?_
From the Latin ago, it means collection.

85. _What does An signify?_
One who, or the person who acts, as equestrian, pedestrian, etc.

86. _What does Ana signify?_
A collection of memorable sayings, as Franklinana--the sayings of

87. _What does Ant signify?_
Being, and has the force of ing, as dominant, verdant, etc.

88. _What is the signification of the suffix Art?_
One who, as braggart.

89. _What does Ary signify?_
Place where, or place which, as library, aviary, etc.

90. _What does Ate signify?_
Full of, or abundance, as desolate, passionate, etc.

91. _What is the signification of Celli?_
Little, as vermicelli, etc.

92. _What other suffixes also signify Little?_
Cle, cule, el, en, kin, let, ot, ling, ock, and ie.

93. _What does Ene signify?_
Belonging to, as terrene, etc.

94. _What is the signification of Eous?_
Full of, as beauteous, etc.

95. _What does Ed signify?_
When added to a verb it signifies did, as played; but to a participle,
was, as completed.

96. _What is the signification of Er?_
More or often, as brighter, glimmer, etc.

97. _What does Erly signify?_
Direction of, as northerly.

98. _What does Es signify?_
More than one, as foxes, etc.

99. _What does Escent signify?_
Growing or becoming, as convalescent.

100. _What does Esque signify?_
Belonging to, or like, as picturesque, etc.

101. _What does Ess signify?_
Feminine when added to nouns, as tigress.

102. _What does Est signify?_
Greatest or least, as largest, smallest, etc.

103. _What does Head signify?_
State or nature, as Godhead.

104. _What does Ics signify?_
Things relating to, as optics, etc.

105. _What does Ides signify?_
Resemblance, as alkaloides, etc.

106. _What is the signification of Im?_
More than one, as cherubim.

107. _What does Ina signify?_
Feminine, as Czarina.

108. _What does Ing signify?_
Continuing, as singing, etc.

109. _What is the signification of Ior?_
More, as superior.

110. _What does Ique signify?_
Belonging to, as antique.

111. _What is the signification of Ish?_
Like, as boyish, girlish, etc.

112. _What does Isk signify?_
Little, as asterisk, etc.

113. _What does Ite signify?_
That which, as appetite.

114. _What does Ive signify?_
Able to do, as adhesive, etc.

115. _What does Ion signify?_
State or act, as location.

116. _What does Ism signify?_
Doctrine, as Calvinism, etc.

117. _What does Ix signify?_
Feminine of nouns, as testatrix.

118. _What does Kin signify?_
A son of, or little, as lambkin.

119. _What does Kind signify?_
Race, as mankind.

120. _What does Less signify?_
Without, as guiltless, breathless, etc.

121. _What does Ling signify?_
Young, as duckling, etc.

122. _What does Ly signify?_
Like, or in a manner, as manly, calmly, etc.

123. _What does Most signify?_
Greatest or furthest, as hindmost.

124. _What does Ment signify?_
State or act, as settlement, judgment, etc.

125. _What does Ness signify?_
The quality of, or state of, as whiteness, etc.

126. _What does Ock signify?_
Small or young, as hillock, bullock, etc.

127. _What does Oid signify?_
Likeness, as spheroid, etc.

128. _What does Or signify?_
One who, as actor, director, etc.

129. _What does Ory signify?_
Having the quality of, as vibratory, etc.

130. _What does On signify?_
Large, as million, etc.

131. _What does Ous signify?_
Having the quality of, as solicitous.

132. _What does Ot signify?_
Little, as idiot.

133. _What does Re signify?_
Same as _Er_, as it is another form of it.

134. _What does Red signify?_
Those who, as kindred, etc.

135. _What is the signification of Ress?_
Feminine of nouns, as instructress.

136. _What does Ric signify?_
Office of, as bishopric.

137. _What does Ry signify?_
Place where, or things collectively.

138. _What does Se signify?_
To make, as cleanse.

139. _What does San signify?_
The person who, as partisan, etc.

140. _What does Ship signify?_
The condition, as professorship.

141. _What does Some signify?_
Full, as quarrelsome.

142. _What does Ster signify?_
The person who, as teamster.

143. _What does Teen signify?_
Ten to be added, as fourteen.

144. _What is the signification of Tude?_
The state of being, as similitude.

145. _What does Ty signify?_
To multiply into, as seventy, forty, etc.

146. _What does Ude signify?_
Same as _Tude_, the state of being.

147. _What does Ule signify?_
Little, as globule.

148. _What does Ward signify?_
Direction of, as eastward, etc.

149. _What does Ways signify?_
Manner, as crossways, lengthways, etc.

150. _What does the suffix Y signify?_
Plenty, as smoky; also abounding in, as wealthy.

151. _Are there any exceptions to the meaning of the foregoing
Prefixes and Postfixes?_
There are some, and therefore great judgment must be exercised in
applying them to the analysis of words.

152. _What is meant by the term "Good Bye"?_
God be with you.

153. _What does the suffix Ster signify?_
Feminine, as spinster.


1. _Is A the first letter of all written alphabets?_
All but one, the Abyssinian.

2. _What number is A in the Abyssinian alphabet?_
The thirteenth.

3. _Is double A ever written together as a word?_
It is, as a proper noun.

4. _What is Aa the name of?_
About forty small rivers in Europe.--_Cyclopedia._

5. _Is B the second letter of all alphabets?_
All except the Ethiopic.

6. _What number is B in the Ethiopic?_

7. _Give a word in which P has the sound of B._

8. _What letter is the Sonorous counterpart of T?_
The letter D.--_Cyclopedia._

9. _Give the Periodic changes of the English language._
Saxon, Semi-Saxon, Old English, Middle English, and Modern English.

10. _Give date of "Saxon period."_
Previous to 1150 A.D.

11. _Give date of "Semi-Saxon period."_
1150 to 1250.

12. _Give date of "Old English period."_
1250 to 1350.

13. _Give date of "Middle English period."_
1350 to 1550.

14. _Give date of "Modern English period."_
Time since 1550.

15. _What constitutes a Period in Language?_
Any great change in the Literature of a People.

16. _What causes these changes?_
Mostly national invasion.

17. _What is assimilation of Consonants?_
When an aspirate and subvocal comes together, it is necessary
to change the sound of one or the other, to make the
combination pronounceable.

18. _What is meant by an Element of Speech?_
An indivisible portion of language.

19. _What is a Sonant sound?_
One uttered with intonated or resonant breath.

20. _In changing the word traffic to trafficked, why supply the
letter k?_
To preserve the proper sound of c.

21. _Under what condition is a consonant never doubled at the end
of a word?_
When immediately following a diphthong.--_Webster._

22. _When is C followed by K in spelling?_
Words ending with the sound of k, and in which c follows the vowel.

23. _Give some examples._
Back, black, fleck, etc.

24. _Are there any exceptions?_
There are, as sac, arc, etc.

25. _Why is the word Humbugged spelt with two g's?_
To prevent sounding the g like j.

26. _Give some words spelled differently in the U.S. and in
Woolen--woollen, honor--honour, etc.

27. _When do words, ending in double e, drop one e on taking an
additional syllable?_
When the suffix begins with e.

28. _Why?_
To prevent three e's coming together.

29. _Does pluralizing a word ever change the accent?_
Sometimes it does.

30. _Give an example._

31. _In such words as Defense, which is correct, se or ce for the
Se, because the s belongs to the words from which they are

32. _Should words of English origin end in ise or ize?_
Ize; same as those from the Greek.

33. _Are there any exceptions to these rules?_
There are; as advertise, from English, etc.

34. _Are the words ox, calf, sheep, and pig of French or Saxon

35. _From what language do the words beef, veal, mutton, and pork
The Norman-French.

36. _What is a Lexicon?_
A Dictionary.

37. _What is an irregular sound?_
Sound of a Redundant letter.

38. _How are words divided as regards Specie?_
Primitive and Derivative.

39. _How may the meaning of a word be changed?_
By accent; as Aug'ust, August'.

40. _What is an irregular derivative?_
One in which the letters of the root are changed in forming the

41. _What is Pronunciation?_
The distinct utterance of the sounds of a word.

42. _What are the significant parts of a word?_
Root, prefix, and suffix.

43. _How are words divided as to variety?_
Italic, Roman, Old English, etc.

44. _Name some compound word in which both parts retain their own

45. _Name some word in which one part loses its accent._

46. _Can all the vowels form syllables themselves?_
All except W.

47. _When has R a rough sound?_
When it begins a word.

48. _How are words distinguished?_
By their forms and uses.

49. _Why do Consonants ever unite?_
To form complex sounds: as rr in Burr.

50. _From what language are most words derived that end in less?_

51. _Is Z the last letter of all alphabets?_
All except the Greek, and Hebrew.

52. _What is its place in the Greek alphabet?_

53. _What is its place in the Hebrew?_

54. _What letter is the sonorous counterpart of S?_
The letter Z.--_Cyclopedia._

55. _What is spelling of Z in England?_
Zed, and also Izzard.

56. _What language has two letters representing the sound of Z?_
The Russian.

57. _When was the letter W first used?_
About the end of the Seventh Century.

58. _What changes the sound of a vowel from long to short?_
The absence of the accent.

59. _In what situation is gh always silent?_
After i in the same syllable.

60. _How many words of two syllables are changed from nouns to
verbs by accent?_
About eighty.

61. _What word contains a consonant Tetragraph?_

62. _What is Philology?_
The science of language.

63. _When is ue final, silent?_
After g and q; as fatigue and oblique.

64. _What are the elements of spoken language?_
Vocal and articulate sounds.

65. _What are Hybrid words?_
Mongrel compounds.

66. _What is Terminology?_
A treatise on technicalities.


1. _What is Reading?_
Silent perusal or distinct utterance of thought and feeling, as
seen expressed in written language.

2. _How many kinds of Reading are there?_

3. _What are they?_
Silent and Audible.

4. _What is Silent Reading?_
The perusal of Language without utterance.

5. _What is Audible Reading?_
The utterance of thought and feeling, as seen expressed in written

6. _What is Elocution?_
The science and art of the delivery of composition.

7. _How many kinds of Delivery are there?_

8. _What are they?_
Speaking, Declamation, and Oratory.

9. _What is Speaking?_
The utterance of thought and feeling without reference to the
written page.

10. _What is Declamation?_
The delivery of another's composition.

11. _What is Oratory?_
The delivery of one's own composition.

12. _How many kinds of Oratory are there?_

13. _What are they?_
Prepared and Extempore.

14. _What is Prepared oratory?_
That which has been studied previous to delivery.

15. _What is Extempore oratory?_
That which is accomplished simultaneously with the delivery.

16. _What is Vocal Culture?_
The training of the organs of speech for effective delivery.

17. _What should be the primary object in Audible reading?_
To convey to the hearer the ideas and sentiments of the writer.

18. _In order to accomplish this, what should the Reader do?_
Endeavor to make the feelings and sentiments of the writer his own.

19. _What are some of the essential qualities of a good Reader?_
To read slowly, observe the pauses, give proper inflections, read
distinctly, and with expression.

20. _What is Enunciation?_
The utterance of words.

21. _Under how many Divisions should the subject of reading be

22. _What are they?_
Articulation, Inflection, Accent, Emphasis, the Voice, and Gesture.

23. _What is Articulation?_
Distinct utterance of the elementary sounds, and of the

24. _Name four common faults in Articulation._
Omitting an unaccented vocal, dropping the final sound, sounding
incorrectly an unaccented vowel, and omitting syllables.

25. _What is Inflection?_
Sliding of the voice upward or downward.

26. _How many kinds of Inflection are there?_

27. _What are they?_
Rising and falling.

28. _What is the Rising inflection?_
An upward slide of the voice.

29. _What is the Falling inflection?_
A downward slide of the voice.

30. _Are the rising and falling inflections both ever given to the
same sound?_
They are.

31. _How is such inflection marked?_
By the Circumflex.

32. _How many kinds of Circumflex?_

33. _What are they?_
Rising and falling.

34. _What is the Rising Circumflex?_
The sliding of the voice downward and then upward on the same sound.

35. _What is the Falling Circumflex?_
The sliding of the voice upward and then downward on the same sound.

36. _What is a Monotone?_
Reading without sliding the voice either upward or downward.

37. _Give Rule 1 for falling inflection._
Propositions which make complete sense require the falling

38. _Does Emphasis ever reverse this rule?_
It does sometimes.

39. _Give Rule 2._
Emphasis generally requires the falling inflection.

40. _Where the sense is dependent, what inflection is generally
The rising.

41. _Does Emphasis ever affect this rule?_
Relative emphasis sometimes reverses it.

42. _What kind of inflection should be used at the end of an
interrogative sentence?_
Falling, if it cannot be answered by yes or no.

43. _Negative sentences require what kind of inflection?_

44. _Does Emphasis ever affect this rule?_
It does; often reversing it.

45. _Imperative sentences have what inflection?_
Usually the falling.

46. _What kind of words require opposite inflection?_
Words or members expressing antithesis or contrast.

47. _What is a Series?_
A number of particulars following one another in the same

48. _How many kinds of Series?_

49. _What are they?_
Commencing and Concluding.

50. _What is a Commencing Series?_
One that commences a sentence.

51. _What is a Concluding Series?_
One that concludes a sentence.

52. _What inflection is given to the members of a commencing
The rising.

53. _What inflection is given to the members of a concluding
The falling.

54. _Are there any exceptions to these rules?_
There are.

55. _What causes the exceptions?_

56. _What is a Parenthesis in reading?_
A sentence, or clause, set off by curves from the context.

57. _How should the Parenthesis be read?_
In a lower tone and more rapidly.

58. _What is the use of the Circumflex?_
To express irony, or sarcasm.

59. _What meaning is always suggested by the Circumflex?_
Doubtful or double meaning.

60. _What is the use of the Monotones?_
To produce an effect in grave and solemn subjects.

61. _What is Accent in reading?_
Increase of force on certain syllables of a word.

62. _Give an example of Emphatic accent._
This corrup'tion must put on in'terruption.

63. _What does Pitch signify?_
The place in the musical scale on which an element is sounded.

64. _What is Force?_
That property of the voice which relates to loudness of sound.

65. _How many different kinds of Force?_

66. _What are they?_
Suppressed, subdued, ordinary, energetic, and vehement.

67. _To what does Stress relate?_
Different modes of applying force.

68. _How many kinds of Stress?_

69. _What are they?_
Expulsive, Explosive, and Vanishing.

70. _What is meant by Quantity?_
Length of time the voice dwells on a word.

71. _What is Quality?_
That property which relates to the kind of voice.

72. _What is Movement?_
The degree of rapidity with which the voice moves from one word to

73. _How many kinds of Movement?_

74. _What are they?_
Very slow, slow, moderate, lively, rapid, and very rapid.

75. _What does Expression comprehend?_
The practical application of all the principles of reading and

76. _What is Cadence?_
The natural dropping of the voice at the end of a sentence,
denoting completeness of thought.

77. _What is a Rhetorical pause?_
A suspension of the voice for rhetorical effect.

78. _What is Emphasis?_
Giving force and energy to certain words.

79. _How many kinds of Emphasis?_

80. _What are they?_
Absolute and relative.

81. _What is Absolute emphasis?_
Emphasis made without any contrast with other words.

82. _What is Relative emphasis?_
Emphasis used where there is antithesis either expressed or implied.

83. _Is a whole Phrase ever made emphatic?_
It is often.

84. _For what purpose?_
To give it great force.

85. _What is the Emphatic pause?_
Pause made for emphasis.

86. _What is Antithesis?_
Two or more words opposed to each other in meaning.

87. _What is a Climax?_
A series of particulars increasing in importance to the last.

88. _What is Anti-climax?_
A series of particulars decreasing in importance to the last.

89. _What is meant by Transition?_
Any sudden change in reading.

90. _What is Emphatic repetition?_
Words repeated for emphasis.

91. _What is an Interrogation?_
A statement, or assertion, put in the form of a question.

92. _What is an Exclamation?_
A statement denoting strong emotions.

93. _What is Personation?_
One person imitating the actions and manners of some other person
or persons.

94. _How many kinds of style in reading?_

95. _What are they?_
Description, Argument, Narration, Persuasion, Exhortation.

96. _What should be characteristic of the Descriptive style?_
The Speaker should use the same manner that he would if he were
actually describing the thing spoken of.

97. _What should be characteristic of the Argumentative style?_
Directness and earnestness.

98. _What should characterize the Narrative?_
The Reader should proceed as though relating his own experience.

99. _What the Persuasive?_
Those tones, looks, and gestures which bring conviction to the

100. _What should characterize the Exhortative?_
The performer should appeal, beseech, and implore, as the case may

101. _What is the Slur?_
The smooth gliding of the voice in parenthetic clauses, etc.

102. _How are Emphatic words distinguished?_
By different styles of printing.

103. _How many kinds of letters are used to denote emphasis?_
Three usually.

104. _What are they?_
Italics, small capitals, and capitals.

105. _What is Antithetic emphasis?_
Same as Relative.

106. _What is Modulation?_
Variation of the voice in speaking and reading.

107. _What is Pure tone?_
A clear, flowing sound, with moderate pitch.

108. _What is the Orotund?_
Pure tone intensified.

109. _For what is it adapted?_
To express sublime and pathetic emotions.

110. _What is the Aspirated tone?_
An expulsion of breath, the words being spoken in a whisper.

111. _What is the Guttural quality?_
Deep undertone.

112. _What does it express?_
Hatred, contempt, loathing, etc.

113. _What is the Trembling tone?_
A constant waver of the voice.

114. _What does it express?_
An intense degree of suppressed excitement, or personates old age.

115. _What are Pauses?_
Suspensions of the voice in reading or speaking.

116. _How many kinds of pauses are there?_

117. _What are they?_
Grammatical and Rhetorical.

118. _What is Suspensive quantity?_
Prolongation of the voice at the end of a word without making an
actual pause.

119. _What does Quantity embrace?_
Force and rate.

120. _What quality of voice is mostly used in speaking and reading?_
Pure tone.

121. _What is meant by Prose?_
All composition which is not written in verse.

122. _What are some of the varieties of Prose?_
Letters, Essays, Travels, History, and Discourses.

123. _What is a Letter as a variety of prose?_
A written communication addressed by the writer to some other

124. _What is an Essay?_
A written discourse on some special subject.

125. _What are Travels?_
Records of journeys.

126. _What is History?_
A record of past events.

127. _What is a Discourse?_
A performance read or spoken to an audience.

128. _Should the voice agree in style with the different varieties
of prose?_
It should, and the performer should endeavor to produce the exact
sentiments of the writer.

129. _What is Poetry?_
A discourse written in verse and metrical language.

130. _What is a Verse?_
A single line of metrical language.

131. _Is it correct to use the term verse in speaking of a
division of prose?_
It is not.

132. _What should we call such division?_
Paragraph or Division.

133. _What is a Stanza?_
A number of metrical lines, or verses, combined according to a
regular system.

134. _How many kinds of metrical language?_

135. _What are they?_
Rhyme and Blank Verse.

136. _What is Rhyme?_
That language in which the concluding syllables of the verses have
a similarity of sound.

137. _How many kinds of Rhyme?_

138. _What are they?_
Perfect and imperfect.

139. _What is a Perfect rhyme?_
Where the vowels have the same sound.

140. _What is an Imperfect rhyme?_
Where the vowels have a different sound.

141. _What is Blank Verse?_
A kind of metrical language in which there is no similarity of

142. _What is the Cæsura pause?_
A rhythmic pause occurring in a verse.

143. _How many rules should be observed in the use of the Cæsura?_

144. _Give Rule 1._
The pause should be near the middle of the verse.

145. _Give Rule 2._
It should never divide a word.

146. _Give Rule 3._
Should not separate words from their modifiers, as adjectives from
nouns, adverbs from verbs, etc.

147. _Do all verses have the Cæsura pause?_
They do if over three feet in length.

148. _What is meant by a Foot in verse?_
A certain portion of a line divided according to accent.

149. _When melody comes in contact with accent, which should yield?_

150. _Is there any other rhythmic pause than the Cæsura?_
There is; the demi-cæsura is sometimes used.

151. _How many kinds of Poetry are there?_

152. _What are they?_
Epic, Dramatic, Lyric, Elegiac, Didactic, Satiric and Pastoral.

153. _What is an Epic poem?_
A poetical recital of some great and heroic enterprise.

154. _Are there many Epic poems?_
There are not; most nations have one.

155. _Name the three Epics of greatest note._
Homer's Iliad, Virgil's Æneid, and Milton's Paradise Lost.

156. _What language were these poems written in?_
The Iliad in Greek, Æneid in Latin, and Paradise Lost in English.

157. _What does the Iliad describe or narrate?_
The downfall of Troy, which was the most memorable event in the
early history of the Trojans and Greeks.

158. _What does the Æneid narrate?_
The perils and labors of Æneas, who was the reputed founder of the
Roman race.

159. _What does Paradise Lost describe?_
The downfall of not only the Human but of the Angelic host.

160. _What is a Dramatic poem?_
One similar in many respects to an Epic.

161. _Name some point of difference._
Epic relates past events; the Drama represents events as taking
place at the present time.

162. _Name the greatest Dramatic writer of the English._

163. _What is a Drama called that is set to music?_
An opera.

164. _What is a Melodrama?_
A dramatic poem some parts of which are spoken and some are sung.

165. _What is Lyric Poetry?_
It is the oldest kind of poetry, and was originally intended to be
sung to the accompaniment of the lyre.

166. _What are Sonnets?_
A kind of Lyric Poems.

167. _What is an Elegy?_
A poem of a mournful kind, usually celebrating the virtues of some
person deceased.

168. _What is an Epitaph?_
A short Elegy inscribed on a monument, or written in praise of any

169. _What is a Pastoral poem?_
One that describes country life.

170. _What is a Didactic poem?_
One the aim of which is to give instruction.

171. _What is Meditative Poetry?_
A kind of Didactic poetry.

172. _Name two noted Didactic poems._
Bryant's "Thanatopsis," and Campbell's "Pleasures of Hope."

173. _What is a Satire?_
One that holds up the follies of men to ridicule.

174. _Is a Satire personal?_
It is not.

175. _What is a Lampoon?_
A poem that attacks individuals.

176. _What is Gesture?_
Expression given to language by movements of the body, limbs, etc.

177. _What kind of Gesture is most appropriate?_
That which is natural.

178. _What attitude should be used in reading and speaking?_

179. _Which hand should hold the book?_
The left, if possible.

180. _Should a Reader keep his eyes on the book constantly?_
He should not; but cast the eyes away from the page as often as

181. _Should a gesture be made while the eyes are looking on the
It should not.

182. _In what kind of language are gestures inappropriate?_
Didactic or unimpassioned discourse.

183. _Should a Speaker begin to gesticulate as soon as he begins
his discourse?_
Very seldom, before he has entered fully into the discourse.

184. _How many positions are recognized for the hand when not used
in gesticulating?_

185. _What are they?_
Hanging naturally at the side; resting upon the hip with the elbow
thrown backward; and resting on your bosom.

186. _What are Descriptive gestures?_
Those used in describing objects.

187. _What are Significant gestures?_
Those which have special signification.

188. _Name some Significant gestures of the head._
It drops in grief and shame, and nods in assent; shakes in
dissent, and leans forward in attention.

189. _Name some Significant gestures of the eyes._
Raised in prayer, weep in sorrow, burn in anger, and are cast on
vacancy in thought.

190. _Name some of the passions of the mind._
Love, anger, joy, sorrow, fear, and courage.

191. _What tone of voice should be used in the expression of Love?_
Soft, smooth, and languishing voice.

192. _What tone of voice should be used to express Anger?_
Strong, vehement, and elevated voice.

193. _Where is the best place to practice elocution and reading?_
In the open air, or in a well ventilated room.

194. _Should a Reader or Speaker pay strict attention to the rules
of elocution?_
He should not, but study nature rather.

195. _What is the Soul of Oratory?_

196. _What is meant by the Compass of the voice?_
The range in which it can be properly controlled.

197. _How may the Compass of the voice be increased?_
By continued practice on a very low and very high key.

198. _Should a Reader or Speaker drink any liquid while exercising
the voice?_
He should not, for it is injurious to the vocal chords.

199. _What effect does Tobacco have on the voice?_
It enfeebles the nervous system and breathing organs, and makes
the voice dry, harsh, and ungovernable.

200. _What effect do Stimulants have on the voice?_
Irritate and inflame the vocal organs, which results in
hoarseness and produces too high a key, which terminates in a
squeaking tone.

201. _In faulty articulation what sounds are usually mispronounced?_
The vowel sounds of the unaccented syllables.

202. _What Consonants are often incorrectly dropped?_
The final consonants.

203. _How may distinct Articulation be acquired?_
By continued practice of the elementary sounds.

204. _What are the most prominent Elements of all words?_
The vowels.

205. _Which sounds should be practiced first?_
The vowels; as they are the most easily uttered.

206. _Can the sounds of the Consonants be given alone?_
They can by practice.

207. _What is the source of the greatest defect in Articulation?_
Improper sounding of the consonants.

208. _What kind of Inflection is generally given to words of great
The falling; unless the sentiment requires the rising.

209. _When is the Inflection of a question changed from the
falling to the rising?_
When it is repeated or made emphatic.

210. _In the introductory part of a sentence, where the sense is
incomplete, what inflection is used?_
Unless great emphasis is required, the rising should be used.

211. _The names of persons addressed in formal speech require what
The falling should always be used in such cases.

212. _General statements require what inflection?_
The falling.

213. _For the sake of harmony, what principle should govern the
When a sentence ends with the falling inflection, the rising
should precede it.

214. _When sentences commence with verbs, what inflection is
Mostly the rising.

215. _What is meant by an Echo in reading?_
Interrogative exclamations, where the question is repeated.

216. _Give an example of Echo._
What's the trouble? What's the trouble? trouble enough.

217. _What inflection should be given to members of sentences
connected disjunctively?_
First member, the rising; second member, the falling.

218. _When several Emphatic words or members come together, how
should they be inflected?_
The most emphatic, the falling; and the others the rising.

219. _What is a Simple Series in reading?_
A series of particulars that is composed of single words.

220. _What is meant by a Compound Series?_
One that is composed of clauses is called compound.

221. _What determines Accent?_
The usage of our best speakers and writers of the present.

222. _To whom does it belong to determine and record such usage?_
The Lexicographers.

223. _Are there any cases in which we can trace the reason for the
There are; in discriminating accent where it is used to determine
the parts of speech.

224. _Do we ever have two sets of Antitheses in the same sentence?_
We do; as each member may contain an antithesis.

225. _Give an example._
John was hurt; William escaped.

226. _How many sets of Antitheses may be used in one sentence?_
Often three; but seldom more.

227. _Should there be any difference in the tone of voice used in
reading verse and prose?_
There should be a difference.

228. _What different style ought to be used?_
The monotone and rising inflection are more frequently used in
verse than in prose.

229. _What is the greatest difficulty met with in reading or
declaiming poetic selections?_
In giving it that measured flow which distinguishes it from prose,
without falling into a continued monotone.

230. _What is a good method to break up this habit?_
Reduce the selection to prose, and deliver it in an earnest,
conversational style.

231. _Why should there be a short pause at the end of each line of
poetry, even where the sense does not require it?_
In order that the measure of the poem may be more perceptible to
the ear.

232. _What is it that constitutes the melody of a poem?_
The pauses and accents chiefly.

233. _What rule should govern the reader in the use of pauses and
Use variety, and not make them too prominent.

234. _What tone of voice should be used in reading a Simile in
The simile should be read in a lower tone than the rest of the

235. _What, with regard to the voice, is an important object to
every speaker and reader?_
The important object is to have a full, even tone of voice.

236. _What key of the voice should be most diligently improved?_
The natural key, or that which is used most.

237. _What is meant by the natural key or pitch?_
That which is peculiar to the individual, and in which he can use
most easily to himself, and most agreeably to others.

238. _How can the natural tone of voice be strengthened?_
By reading and speaking as loud as possible, without suffering the
voice to rise into a higher key.

239. _What is the best method of strengthening the natural key?_
By speaking and reading strong, animated passages in a small room.

240. _How may low tones be acquired?_
By continued practice in a lower key than the natural.

241. _How may a high key be acquired?_
In the same manner as a low key; by pitching the voice first
a little higher than the natural, and mastering that
thoroughly, then still higher and higher.

242. _What is meant by Rotundity of the voice?_
That peculiar form of tone which the Romans called "Ore rotundo,"
which signifies "Round mouth."

243. _In what kind of sentences is the Rotundity of the voice
In the hailing of vessels, and is used especially by sailors and

244. _Which is the most difficult: to raise the voice to a higher
pitch, or to bring it to a lower?_
The lowering of the voice is more difficult, and requires great
care and practice.

245. _What is a common fault with most public speakers?_
To run the voice into too high a key, and thus weary the hearers.

246. _What is a good rule by which to govern the voice?_
To start on a key lower than the natural, and thus avoid running
too high.

247. _What are the principal styles of different reading
Descriptive, Narrative, Senatorial, Moral, Didactic, Dramatic, and

248. _What tone of voice should be used in reading a Descriptive
The ordinary, natural tone, with a careful use of emphasis.

249. _What tone of voice is best adapted to the reading of a
The conversational tone, with as little reference to the printed
page as possible.

250. _What style is the best adapted to Senatorial reading?_
An imitative style and tone, being careful in the use of the
emphatic pause.

251. _What tone is best adapted to the reading of Moral and
Religious selections?_
Low and moderate tone, expressing feeling and sentiment, being
careful not to read too fast.

252. _What style is best adapted to Didactic reading?_
That peculiar style which is best adapted to impart instruction,
laying special stress on the important idea.

253. _What style and tone are best adapted to the reading of
Dramatic selections?_
A style and tone which are entirely imitative in character.

254. _What tone or character of voice is best suited to the
rendering of Amusing selections?_
That which will bring out the mirthful sentiment, to the exclusion
of all rules for accent, emphasis, etc.

255. _Should all persons use the same tones of voice and style in
reading selections?_
They should not; as individuals are differently constituted,
so they have different ways of expressing their ideas and



1. Abaissement.
2. Abductor.
3. Abelmoschus.
4. Aberration.
5. Abies.
6. Ablepsy.
7. Abnormal.
8. Abouchement.
9. Abscess.
10. Abscission.
11. Absinthium.
12. Abstergent.
13. Abominable.
14. Aborigines.
15. Abridgment.
16. Absinthe.
17. Abstemious.
18. Abstrusely.
19. Abysmal.
20. Acacia.
21. Academician.
22. Acanthus.
23. Acarpous.
24. Acaulous.
25. Accede.
26. Accelerate.
27. Accessible.
28. Accessory.
29. Accomplice.
30. Accostable.
31. Accoutre.
32. Acephalous.
33. Acerbity.
34. Acescent.
35. Acetify.
36. Acetometer.
37. Ache.
38. Achievable.
39. Achromatic.
40. Acicular.
41. Acolyte.
42. Acoustic.
43. Acquiesce.
44. Acquittal.
45. Acreage.
46. Acrobat.
47. Acropolis.
48. Acrostic.
49. Actualize.
50. Aculeate.
51. Baa.
52. Bacchanal.
53. Backsheesh.
54. Baconian.
55. Bagatelle.
56. Balk.
57. Bandelet.
58. Barbican.
59. Baryta.
60. Barru.
61. Basalt.
62. Basic.
63. Basilica.
64. Basilisk.
65. Bastile.
66. Baccae.
67. Caboodle.
68. Cacoethes.
69. Cacophony.
70. Cadaverous.
71. Cadenza.
72. Caducus.
73. Caduceus.
74. Caique.
75. Caisson.
76. Cæcal.
77. Calaboose.
78. Calciferous.
79. Caffeine.
80. Calcined.
81. Caldarium.
82. Caligo.
83. Calorimeter.
84. Caltha.
85. Calx.
86. Catechu.
87. Cellular.
88. Chemosis.
89. Chiastre.
90. Chilblain.
91. Chymification.
92. Cilium.
93. Clematis.
94. Cochineal.
95. Codeia.
96. Contagious.
97. Coronoid.
98. Dacryoma.
99. Dahline.
100. Daphne.
101. Datura.
102. Deciduous.
103. Decollation.
104. Dactylology.
105. Dahlia.
106. Decumbent.
107. Degmus.
108. Dawdle.
109. Dengue.
110. Deltoid.
111. Debut.
112. Decastyle.
113. Deliquium.
114. Decennial.
115. Dentatus.
116. Dentagra.
117. Demesne.
118. Diaphysis.
119. Diastole.
120. Didym.
121. Desuetude.
122. Echinus.
123. Echinops.
124. Ecarte.
125. Ebullition.
126. Eclat.
127. Edacious.
128. Eclysis.
129. Ecphlysis.
130. Eider.
131. Eke.
132. Effete.
133. Elysian.
134. Egophony.
135. Empiric.
136. Empyrean.
137. Encaustic.
138. Enceinte.
139. Elaine.
140. Encore.
141. Encyclical.
142. Encysted.
143. Elephas.
144. Enmity.
145. Expertsource
146. Facet.
147. Facetious.
148. Facial.
149. Factitious.
150. Falderals.
151. Falsetto.
152. Fantasia.
153. Fascicle.
154. Fauces.
155. Fauna.
156. Febrile.
157. Felly.
158. Felloe.
159. Fuzz.
160. Gala.
161. Gamboge.
162. Gamut.
163. Ganoid.
164. Gaol.
165. Garrote.
166. Gawk.
167. Gelatine.
168. Gelid.
169. Gemini.
170. Genial.
171. Geode.
172. Geognosy.
173. Geodesy.
174. Georama.
175. Hegira.
176. Heifer.
177. Helix.
178. Helve.
179. Hernia.
180. Hexahedron.
181. Hexastyle.
182. Hockle.
183. Hone.
184. Hookah.
185. Horologe.
186. Icarian.
187. Ibis.
188. Ibex.
189. Ichor.
190. Ichneumon.
191. Ichthyolite.
192. Ides
193. Idiom.
194. Idyl.
195. Ignescent.
196. Iguana.
197. Ileum.
198. Impede.
199. Impennate.
200. Indocile.
201. Inebriate.
202. Insidious.
203. Jabber.
204. Jacinth.
205. Jackal.
206. Jaconet.
207. Jalap.
208. Jaguar.
209. Janitor.
210. Jeer.
211. Jejune.
212. Jujube.
213. Junket.
214. Juno.
215. Kale.
216. Katydid.
217. Kistvaen.
218. Kyanize.
219. Lac.
220. Labyrinth.
221. Lachrymal.
222. Landwehr.
223. Limbo.
224. Llama.
225. Loo.
226. Mab.
227. Macaw.
228. Machinate.
229. Madrigal.
230. Magenta.
231. Monolith.
232. Nard.
233. Naphtha.
234. Nadir.
235. Naiad.
236. Niggard.
237. Nympha.
238. Obesity.
239. Obloquy.
240. Obverse.
241. Occiput.
242. Ochre.
243. Pabulum.
244. Palanquin.
245. Paletot.
246. Replevin.
247. Resuscitate.
248. Sabaoth.
249. Sacerdotal.
250. Sacrum.
251. Sadducee.


1. Aaron.
2. Abdiel.
3. Abiezer.
4. Adolphus.
5. Albion.
6. Alexander.
7. Alonzo.
8. Alpheus.
9. Alvah.
10. Alwin.
11. Ammi.
12. Amos.
13. Andronicus.
14. Antony.
15. Apollos.
16. Aristarchus.
17. Artemas.
18. Azariah.
19. Augustus.
20. Asher.
21. Baldwin.
22. Barnabas.
23. Barnaby.
24. Bartholomew.
25. Basil.
26. Benedict.
27. Benoni.
28. Barnard.
29. Bertram.
30. Brian.
31. Bruno.
32. Cæsar.
33. Caleb.
34. Calvin.
35. Cephas.
36. Clarence.
37. Claudius.
38. Clement.
39. Cornelius.
40. Crispus.
41. Cyril.
42. Cyrus.
43. Daniel.
44. Darius.
45. Demetrius.
46. Denis.
47. Dionysius.
48. Donald.
49. Duncan.
50. Ebenezer.
51. Edgar.
52. Edwin.
53. Elbert.
54. Eleazer.
55. Elias.
56. Elisha.
57. Ellis.
58. Elnathan.
59. Eneas.
60. Enoch.
61. Enoz.
62. Erasmus.
63. Erie.
64. Esau.
65. Everard.
66. Erwin.
67. Fernando.
68. Festus.
69. Frederic.
70. Gamaliel.
71. Germanie.
72. Gershon.
73. Godfrey.
74. Gregory.
75. Guy.
76. Hannibal.
77. Heman.
78. Hercules.
79. Herbert.
80. Hezekiah.
81. Hillel.
82. Homer.
83. Hubert.
84. Hugo.
85. Immanuel.
86. Ingram.
87. Ivan.
88. Jabez.
89. Jairus.
90. Japheth.
91. Jason.
92. Jeremy.
93. Jerome.
94. Jess.
95. Joel.
96. Jonah.
97. Josiah.
98. Jotham.
99. Judah.
100. Julius.
101. Justus.
102. Justun.
103. Jonathan.
104. Kennett.
105. Marion.
106. Philip.
107. Philander.


1. Sirup.
2. Skyey.
3. Proxy.
4. Piquant.
5. Pibroch.
6. Monkery.
7. Irascible.
8. Conceit.
9. Controllable.
10. Coquet (Verb).
11. Coquette (Noun).
12. Cyclopedia.
13. Fascine.
14. Steelyard.
15. Precious.
16. Seize.
17. Beeves.
18. Civilize.
19. Resuscitate.
20. Heinous.
21. Contemptible.
22. Transitory.
23. Conspiracy.
24. Feminine.
25. Petite.
26. Police.
27. Valise.
28. Verdigris.
29. Routine.
30. Douche.
31. Whorl.
32. Truffle.
33. Debut.
34. Cæsura.
35. Connoisseur.
36. Sumac.
37. Hymeneal.
38. Keelson.
39. Coterie.
40. Recipe.
41. Sapphire.
42. Cognac.
43. Restaurant.
44. Homicide.
45. Patricide.
46. Fratricide.
47. Regicide.
48. Suicide.
49. Matricide.
50. Infanticide.


1. Sice.
2. Says.
3. Phthisic.
4. Ennui.
5. Vignette.
6. Cortege.
7. Myrrh.
8. Chamois.
9. Sergeant.
10. Boudoir.
11. Hiccough.
12. Bureau.
13. Again.
14. Discern.
15. Bijou.
16. Flambeau.
17. Said.
18. Croquet.
19. Salon.
20. Suave.
21. Shew.
22. Strew.
23. Bouffe.
24. Enough.
25. Suffice.
26. Squirrel.
27. Busy.
28. Cough.
29. Buoy.
30. Many.
31. Pretty.
32. Canon.
33. Chapeau.
34. Menage.
35. Once.
36. Cafe.
37. Colonel.
38. Cuirass.
39. Gunwale.
40. Dahlia.
41. Soiree.
42. Sapphire.
43. Cognac.
44. Sacrifice.
45. Escritoire.
46. Barege.
47. Soldier.
48. Fortune.
49. Nephew.
50. Lettuce.
51. Entree.
52. Regime.
53. Physique.
54. Protege.
55. Sleuth.
56. Blonde.
57. Coiffure.
58. Afghan.
59. Glebe.
60. Chenille.
61. Chasseur
62. Gyves.
63. Guy.
64. Banyan.
65. Lapel.
66. Kerchief.
67. Gnostic.
68. Corymb.
69. Chevron.
70. Eleve.
71. Touch.
72. Chintz.
73. Meerschaum.
74. Buhr-stone.
75. Camphene.
76. Cigar.
77. Deleble.
78. Polyglot.
79. Diamond.
80. Courier.
81. Sorcery.
82. Extirpate.
83. Gaseous.
84. Docible.
85. Alias.
86. Potpourri.
87. Soprano.
88. Apparel.
89. Palaver.
90. Anchovy.
91. Hygiene.
92. Alchemy.
93. Ascendant.
94. Syzygy.
95. Barbecue.
96. Proboscis.
97. Carbine.
98. Disown.
99. Forbade.
100. Farewell.
101. Resource.
102. Extol.
103. Diverge.
104. Contour.
105. Bourgeois.
106. Disarm.
107. Whither.
108. Water.
109. Larynx.
110. Soul.
111. Crypt.
112. Fleche.
113. Weevil.
114. Lacquer.
115. Phenix.
116. Roguish.
117. Wheyey.
118. Sachel.
119. Rhymer.
120. Psychic.
121. Ptisan.
122. Calker.
123. Depot.
124. Catarrh.
125. Condemn.
126. Bristle.
127. Wriggle.
128. Christen.
129. Naphtha.
130. Chalky.
131. Gherkin.
132. Fraught.
133. Qualm.
134. Vault.
135. Knob.
136. Papaw.
137. Gauging.
138. Cologne.
139. Quadrille.
140. Skyish.
141. Sorghum.
142. Survey.
143. Victuals.
144. Scissors.
145. Gnomon.
146. Ghastly.
147. Phlegm.
148. Gnarl.
149. Gnash.
150. Tertian.
151. Phantom.
152. Livre.
153. Lyrist.
154. Nuisance.
155. Scheme.
156. Chief.
157. Siege.
158. Keyed.
159. Caucus.
160. College.
161. Leather.
162. Caught.
163. Skein.
164. Coerce.
165. Policy.
166. Legacy.
167. Codicil.
168. Domicile.
169. Hypocrite.
170. Tortoise.
171. Mortise.
172. Porridge.
173. Eagle.
174. Greasy.
175. Pardon.
176. Poleax.
177. Deanery.
178. Mechanics
179. Dialogue.
180. Inveigher.
181. Solstitial.
182. Official.
183. Reprieve.
184. Barter.
185. Succeed.
186. Accede.
187. Salmon.
188. Verger.
189. Wooed.
190. Sausage.
191. Pigeon.
192. Chloral.
193. Balance.
194. Silence.
195. Fallible.
196. Prelacy.
197. Foretell.
198. Going.
199. Chyle.
200. Fascinate.
201. Secrecy.
202. Vacillate.
203. Paralyze.
204. Advertise.
205. Ecstasy.
206. Exertion.
207. Cynical.
208. Article.
209. City.
210. Busily.
211. Guttural.
212. Scholar.
213. Sibyl.
214. Abscess.
215. Guinea.
216. Voracity.


1. Acts. 1. Ax.
2. Poll. 2. Pole.
3. Roe. 3. Row.
4. Gate 4. Gait.
5. Main. 5. Mane.
6. Bough. 6. Bow.
7. Hue. 7. Hugh.
8. Bear. 8. Beech.
9. Dear. 9. Deer.
10. Wright. 10. Write.
11. Right. 11. Rite.
12. All. 12. Awl.
13. Bay. 13. Bey.
14. Ark. 14. Arch.
15. Colonel. 15. Kernel.
16. Ruff. 16. Rough.
17. Might. 17. Mite.
18. Rode. 18. Road.
19. Seen. 19. Scene.
20. Corps. 20. Core.
21. Mold. 21. Mould.
22. Great. 22. Grate.
23. Sun. 23. Son.
24. Break. 24. Brake.
25. Dough. 25. Doe.
26. Night. 26. Knight.
27. Sweet. 27. Suite.
28. Four. 28. Fore.
29. Bier. 29. Beer.
30. Beat. 30. Beet.
31. Currant. 31. Current.
32. Viol. 32. Vile.
33. Sent. 33. Scent.
34. Sear. 34. Seer.
35. Lane. 35. Lain.
36. Able. 36. Abel.
37. Knot. 37. Not.
38. Raise. 38. Raze.
39. Hoard. 39. Horde.
40. Lyre. 40. Liar.
41. Symbol. 41. Cymbal.
42. Hawk. 42. Hough.
43. Sine. 43. Sign.
44. Rain. 44. Rein.
45. Lo. 45. Low.
46. Hie. 46. High.
47. Assent. 47. Ascent.
48. Lute. 48. Loot.
49. Lore. 49. Lower.
50. Sell. 50. Cell.
51. Sail. 51. Sale.
52. Lode. 52. Load.
53. Loan. 53. Lone.
54. Fete. 54. Fate.
55. Lien. 55. Lean.
56. Layer. 56. Lair.
57. Hay. 57. Hey.
58. Idle. 58. Idyl.
59. Hart. 59. Heart.
60. Bass. 60. Base.
61. Bale. 61. Bail.
62. Heel. 62. Heal.
63. Sight. 63. Cite.
64. Haul. 64. Hall.
65. Hale. 65. Hail.
66. Lac. 66. Lack.
67. Nay. 67. Neigh.
68. Altar. 68. Alter.
69. Day. 69. Dey.
70. Hair. 70. Hare.
71. Lye. 71. Lie.
72. Council. 72. Counsel.
73. Mean. 73. Mien.
74. Ate. 74. Eight.
75. Aught. 75. Ought.
76. Wrack. 76. Rack.
77. Reek. 77. Wreak.
78. Wreck. 78. Reck.
79. Rime. 79. Rhyme.
80. Ring. 80. Wring.
81. Wrote. 81. Rote.
82. Rest. 82. Wrest.
83. Hole. 83. Whole.
84. Leek. 84. Leak.
85. Wave. 85. Waive.
86. Week. 86. Weak.
87. Fort. 87. Forte.
88. Soul. 88. Sole.
89. Strait. 89. Straight.
90. Seed. 90. Cede.
91. Seen. 91. Seine.
92. Seize. 92. Cease.
93. See. 93. Sea.
94. Cole. 94. Coal.
95. Bourne. 95. Born.
96. Bite. 96. Bight.
97. Floe. 97. Flow.
98. Bell. 98. Belle.


1. The most skillful gauger I ever knew was a maligned cobbler, armed
with a poniard, who drove a peddler's wagon, using a mullein stalk as
an instrument of coercion to tyrannize over his pony shod with
calks. He was a Galilean Sadducee, and he had a phthisicky catarrh,
diphtheria, and the bilious intermittent erysipelas.

2. A certain sibyl, with the sobriquet of "Gypsy," went into ecstasies
of cachinnation at seeing him measure a bushel of peas and separate
saccharine tomatoes from a heap of peeled potatoes, without dyeing or
singeing the ignitible queue which he wore, or becoming paralyzed with

3. Lifting her eyes to the ceiling of the cupola of the capitol to
conceal her unparalleled embarrassment, making him a rough courtesy,
and not harrassing him with mystifying, rarefying, and stupefying
innuendoes, she gave him a couch, a bouquet of lilies, mignonette,
and fuchsias, a treatise on mnemonics, a copy of the Apocrypha
in hieroglyphics, daguerreotypes of Mendelssohn and Kosciusko, a
kaleidoscope, a dram-phial of ipecacuanha, a teaspoonful of naphtha
for deleble purposes, a ferrule, a clarionet, some licorice, a
surcingle, a carnelian of symmetrical proportions, a chronometer with
a movable balance-wheel, a box of dominoes, and a catechism.

4. The gauger, who was also a trafficking rectifier and a parishioner
of mine, preferring a woolen surtout (his choice was referrible to
a vacillating, occasionally occurring idiosyncrasy), wofully uttered
this apothegm: "Life is checkered; but schism, apostasy, heresy and
villainy shall be punished." The sibyl apologizingly answered: "There
is a ratable and allegeable difference between a conferrable ellipsis
and a trisyllabic diæresis." We replied in trochees, not impugning her


1. One enervating morning, just after the rise of the sun, a youth
bearing the cognomen of Galileo glided into his gondola over the
legendary waters of the lethean Thames. He was accompanied by
his allies and coadjutors, the dolorous Pepys and the erudite
Cholmondeley, the most combative aristocrat extant, and an epicurean
who, for learned vagaries and revolting discrepancies of character,
would take precedence of the most erudite of all Areopagite literati.

2. These sacrilegious _dramatis personæ_ were discussing in detail a
suggestive and exhaustive address, delivered from the proscenium
box of the Calisthenic Lyceum by a notable financier on obligatory
hydropathy, as accessory to the irrevocable and irreparable doctrine
of evolution, which had been vehemently panegyrized by a splenetic
professor of acoustics, and simultaneously denounced by a complaisant
opponent as an undemonstrated romance of the last decade, amenable
to no reasoning, however allopathic, outside of its own lamentable

3. These peremptory tripartite brethren arrived at Greenwich, wishing
to aggrandize themselves by indulging in exemplary relaxation,
indicatory of implacable detestation of integral tergiversation and
exoteric intrigue. They fraternized with a phrenological harlequin who
was a connoisseur in mezzotint and falconry. The piquant person was
heaping contumely and scathing raillery on an amateur in jugular
recitative, who held that the Pharaohs of Asia were conversant with
his theory that morphine and quinine were exorcists of bronchitis.

4. Meanwhile, the leisurely Augustine of Cockburn drank from a
tortoise-shell wassail cup to the health of an apotheosized recusant,
who was his supererogatory patron, and an assistant recognizance
in the immobile nomenclature of interstitial molecular phonics. The
contents of the vase proving soporific, a stolid plebeian took from
its cerements a heraldic violoncello, and, assisted by a plethoric
diocesan from Pall Mall, who performed on a sonorous piano-forte,
proceeded to wake the clangorous echoes of the Empyrean. They bade
the prolyx Caucasian gentlemen not to misconstrue their inexorable
demands, while they dined on acclimated anchovies and apricot
truffles, and had for dessert a wiseacre's pharmacopoeia. Thus the
truculent Pythagoreans had a novel repast fit for the gods.

5. On the subsidence of the feast they alternated between soft
languors and isolated scenes of squalor, which followed a mechanist's
reconnaissance of the imagery of Uranus, the legend of whose incognito
related to a poniard wound in the abdomen received while cutting
a swath in the interests of telegraphy and posthumous photography.
Meantime an unctuous orthoepist applied a homeopathic restorative
to the retina of an objurgatory spaniel (named Daniel) and tried to
perfect the construction of a behemoth which had got mired in pygmean
slough, while listening to the elegiac soughing of the prehistoric


1. Geoffrey, surnamed Winthrop, sat in the depot at Chicago, waiting
for his train and reading the Tribune, when a squadron of street Arabs
(incomparable for squalor) thronged from a neighboring alley,
uttering hideous cries, accompanied by inimitable gestures of heinous
exultation, as they tortured a humble black-and-tan dog.

2. "You little blackguards!" cried Winthrop, stepping outside and
confronting them, adding the inquiry, "Whose dog is that?"

3. "That audacious Caucasian has the bravado to interfere with
our clique," tauntingly shrieked the indisputable little ruffian,
exhibiting combativeness.

4. "What will you take for him?" asked the lenient Geoffrey, ignoring
the venial tirade.

5. "Twenty-seven cents," piquantly answered the ribald urchin,
grabbing the crouching dog by the nape.

6. "You can buy licorice and share with the indecorous coadjutors of
your condemnable cruelty," said Winthrop, paying the price and taking
the dog from the child. Then catching up his valise and umbrella
he hastened to his train. Winthrop satisfied himself that his sleek
protege was not wounded, and then cleaned the cement from the pretty
collar, and read these words; "Leicester. Licensed, No. 1880."

7. Hearing the pronunciation of his name, the docile canine expressed
gratitude and pleasure, and then sank exhausted at his new patron's
feet and slept.

8. Among the other passengers was a magazine contributor, writing
vagaries of Indian literature, also two physicians, a somber,
irrevocable, irrefragable allopathist, and a genial homeopathist,
who made a specialty of bronchitis. Two peremptory attorneys from the
Legislature of Iowa were discussing the politics of the epoch and the
details of national finance, while a wan, dolorous person, wearing
concave glasses, alternately ate troches and almonds for a sedative,
and sought condolence in a high, lamentable treble from a lethargic
and somewhat deaf and enervate comrade not yet acclimated.

9. Near three exemplary brethren (probably sinecurists) sat a group
of humorous youths; and a jocose sailor (lately from Asia) in a blouse
waist and tarpaulin hat was amusing his patriotic, juvenile listeners
by relating a series of the most extraordinary legends extant,
suggested by the contents of the knapsack which he was calmly and
leisurely arranging in a pyramidal form on a three-legged stool. Above
swung figured placards, with museum and lyceum advertisements, too
verbose to be misconstrued.

10. A mature matron of medium height, and her comely daughter, soon
entered the car, and took seats in front of Winthrop (who recalled
having seen them on Tuesday, in February, in the parquet of a
theater). The young lady had recently made her debut into society at a
musical soiree at her aunt's. She had an exquisite bouquet of flowers
that exhaled sweet perfume. She said to her parent, "Mamma, shall we
ever find my lost Leicester?"

11. Geoffrey immediately addressed her, saying, as he presented his

"Pardon my apparent intrusiveness; but, prithee, have you lost a pet

12. The explanation that he had been stolen was scarcely necessary,
for Leicester, just awakening, vehemently expressed his inexplicable
joy by buoyantly vibrating between the two like the sounding lever
used in telegraphy (for to neither of them would he show partiality),
till, succumbing to ennui, he purported to take a recess, and sat on
his haunches, complaisantly contemplating his friends. It was truly an
interesting picture.

13. They reached their destination ere the sun was beneath the
horizon. Often during the summer Winthrop gallantly rowed from the
quay, with the naive and blithe Beatrice in her jaunty yachting suit,
but no coquetry shone from the depths of her azure eyes. Little Less,
their jocund confidante and courier (and who was as sagacious as a
spaniel), always attended them on these occasions, and whene'er they
rambled through the woodland paths. While the band played strains
from Beethoven Mendelssohn, Bach and others, they promenaded the long
corridors of the hotel. And one evening, as Beatrice lighted the gas
by the etagere in her charming boudoir in their suite of rooms, there
glistened brilliantly a valuable solitaire diamond on her finger.

14. Let us look into the future for the sequel to perfect this
romance, and around a cheerful hearth we see again Geoffrey and
Beatrice, who are paying due homage to their tiny friend Leicester.


1. A sacrilegious son of Belial, who suffered from bronchitis and
diphtheria, and had taken much morphine and quinine, having exhausted
his finances, in order to make good the deficit, resolved to ally
himself to a complaisant, lenient, docile, young woman of the
Caucasian race. Buying a calliope, a coral necklace, an illustrated
magazine, and a falcon from Asia, he took a suite of rooms, whose
acoustic properties were excellent, and engaged a Malay as his

2. Being of an epicurean disposition, he threw the culinary department
of his hotel into confusion by ordering for his dinner vermicelli
soup, a bologna sausage, anchovies, calf's brains fried, and half
a gooseberry pie. For the resulting dyspepsia he took acetic and
tartaric acid, according to allopathy, and when his aunt, a fair
matron of six decades, called, he was tyrannic and combative, and
laughed like a brigand until she was obliged to succumb to his

3. Etiquette being thus annihilated, he became amenable to tenderer
passions. He sent a letter, inviting his inamorata to a matinee,
together with an eighteen-carat gold ring. She revolted at the idea of
accompanying him, and sent a note full of piquant raillery, which led
her suitor to procure a carbine and a sword, with some apparatus, and
to declare that he would not forge hymeneal chains upon any one.

4. So proceeding to an isolated spot, without comrades, he severed
his jugular vein, and discharged the carbine into his abdomen. When
inquiry was made, he was found dead, and the coroner sat on the debris
and did his exact duty, though it was no couch of eider he occupied.

5. Had the misguided youth read Ovid less often, and given precedence
to Hemans and Ingelow, his fate might have been different. True, he
might have hung on a greasy gallows like a highwayman, in squalor, and
been the sport of canines for aye; while now, disarmed by death, he
lies in a splendid mausoleum, far from the wharves and haunts of
men, and can't accent his antepenults, and afford the greatest
discrepancies extant in pronunciation.


1. Learned sages may reason, the fluent may talk,
But they ne'er can compute what we owe to the chalk.
From the embryo mind of the infant of four,
To the graduate, wise in collegiate lore;
From the old district school-house to Harvard's proud hall,
The chalk rules with absolute sway over all.

2. Go, enter the school-room of primary grade,
And see how conspicuous the blackboard is made.
The teacher makes letters and calls them by name,
And says to the children, "Now all do the same;"
Mere infants you see, scarcely able to walk,
But none are too feeble to handle the chalk.

3. We visit the school of much higher pretension,
The blackboard here claims undivided attention;
The walls, dark as Erebus, first greet the eye,
Before them bright misses and lads we espy;
And the sound of the crayon's irregular tappings
Reminds us of spirits' mysterious rappings.

4. One has pictured a vessel, with streamers unfurled,
Another is making a map of the world;
A third has a problem in fractions to solve,
A fourth is explaining how planets revolve;
While a young physiologist, skilled in the art,
Is sketching the muscles, the lungs, and the heart.

5. In the midst of this bustle the school-master stands,
And, lo! he's a crayon in each of his hands;
And the chalk in _his_ hand has a magical power:
A teacher might reason and talk by the hour,
But naught would avail all his reason and talk--
The truth is made plain by the use of the chalk.

6. And the teacher of music the blackboard employs,
The chalk must be used e'en in training the voice;
Be it rhythm or melody, accent or force,
He always insists on the regular course;
Declaring the secret of musical skill
Is found in the blackboard, the chalk, and the drill.

7. See the chalk in the hand of the artist. Behold
What beauteous forms as by magic unfold!
The store-house of Nature he swiftly displays,
Till the dazzled beholder is lost in the maze;
Designs without number appear to the view,
And show what the chalk and the blackboard can do.

8. O wise PESTALOZZI! we place on thy brow
A coronet, bright and unfading; for thou
A legacy rich hast bequeathed unto men:
Our _one_ feeble talent by thee is made _ten_;
We prize thy rare gift, but we never may know
How much to thy matchless invention we owe.

9. O chalk! What a powerful monarch thou art!
In this age of reform how important thy part;
Those minds that are swaying the world unrestrained
In childhood and youth in thy empire were trained.
Of the wonderful power of the press we may talk--
It never can vie with the blackboard and chalk.

10. An engine so powerful, so mighty to aid,
So simple in structure, so readily made,
A helper so potent in training the young--
'Tis meet that thy praise by the muse should be sung;
For though sages may reason, and orators talk,
They can ne'er make their mark without blackboard and chalk.

* * * * *



* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Web Miscellany

AlterLinks - Publishing services.

Babel Fish - Computerized translation. Good for laughs.

Book and Periodical Council - The people who sponsor Freedom to Read week and monitor censorship attempts.

Bookfinder - New, used, rare, and out-of-print books.

CanadaSources.ca - A hub featuring links to selected resources about Canada.

CanadaSources.org - A hub featuring links to selected sources about Canada.

CanadianSources.org - A hub featuring links to selected resources about Canadian sources.

Connexions - An information clearing house dealing with grassroots organizing, social and environmental alternatives, and social justice.

ExpertPages - A selection of some top "expert" pages and sites.

ExpertSource - More"expert" pages and sites.

Farragher.ca - Art by Elaine Farragher.

HotLink - A media relations resource featuring articles and resources dealing with publicity, media relations, and public relations.

Improbable Research - Research that makes people laugh and then think.

InfoSources - A selection of some of the best information sources for journalists, reporters, editors, and researchers, in Canada and abroad.

Marxism.ca - A hub featuring links to selected resources about Marxism.

MediaInfo - Media lists, media relations, media training, media resources.

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MediaSources - Media relations tools, resources and training.

Middle East Conflict: Resources for Peace, Justice, and Human Rights - For those looking for a solution to the Middle East crisis.

NewsSources.ca - A hub featuring links to selected news resources.

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Publicity Plus: Raise your profile and get media coverage - How to maximize your media impact using Sources.

Radical Digressions - Alternative perspective.

Red Menace
- A libertarian socialist newsletter.

Socialism.ca - A hub featuring links to selected resources about socialism, as well as other progressive sites of interest to socialists and activists.

Sourcebook.ca - Sources for the media and for those who need to reach the media.

Sources - Sources specializes in collecting, indexing, and disseminating information to help journalists, editors, and researchers quickly reach articulate experts and spokespersons who can provide background information and comment on a wide range of topics. Publications and services include Sources, SOURCES SELECT® Online, Parliamentary Names & Numbers, Media Names & Numbers, The Sources HotLink, and The Sources Calendar. Sources also provides mailing lists, publishing and research services, and consultations on publishing projects.

Sources News Releases - Recent news releases from Canadian organizations and companies.

SourcesAlert - Tools for reaching the media with your message.

SourcesCanada.com - A hub featuring links to selected resources in and about Canada.

SourcesCanada.net - A hub featuring links to selected resources about and in Canada.

SourcesCanada.org - A hub featuring links to selected resources about Canada.

SourcesOnline - Online sources of information for and about the media, and for those who need to reach the media.

SourcesSelect - Articles, reviews, and resources for reporters, writers, editors, researchers, and media relations and public relations practitioners.

SourceWatch.ca - A hub featuring links to selected sources.

SourceWatch.info - A hub featuring links to selected information resources.

Zatoun - Distributes olive oil from occupied Palestine and highlights the plight of Palestinian farmers and the destruction of their livelihood. Olive oil is a basic food which reminds us of our common humanity and the need for justice and peace.


Getting media exposure (Expose Yourself)

How to include yourself in Sources (PDF form)

How Sources magnifies your media relations impact - Effective public relations

Miscellaneous PR Resources - A potpourri of resources.

Seeds - Seeds of Change

Resource and Reading List from the Connexions Annual


Abandoning the public interest - The neo-liberal drive to cut red tape is costing lives. Exposing the hidden costs of deregulation and privatization.

Bain Co-op Meets Wages for Housework - The story of the struggle that gave birth to a housing co-operative and destroyed the credibility of the 'Wages for Housework' sect.

Contamination: The Poisonous Legacy of Ontario's Environmental Cutbacks - A story about fanaticism and death: The story of Ontario's right-way Harris government, which gutted health and environmental protection polices, leading to the Walkerton water disaster.

Dances with Guilt: Looking at Men Looking at Violence
- When we throw around indiscriminate terms like 'male violence' and give credence to theories that men are inherently violent, we are slandering men who are not violent and, unthinkingly, we are actually perpetuating the stereotype that to be a man is to be violent.

Medical Reform Group - History of a progressive doctors' group.

One Vote for Democracy - The 'consensus' model of group decision-making rarely works well. The democratic model is better both in principle and in practice.

Ten Health Care Myths: Understanding Canada's Medicare Debate - Medicare's opponents have launched a sustained ideological attack on medicare. Their propaganda relies on myths and misrepresentations.

Thinking About Self-Determination
- Does that familiar canon of the left, 'the right to self-determination', actually mean anything, or is it an empty slogan whose main utility is that it relieves us of the trouble of thinking critically?

What Do We Do Now? Building a social movement in the aftermath of Free Trade - We have the potential to create a social movement in this country that goes beyond single-issue organizing to work toward an integrated vision of a more just and caring society.

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