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An aphrodisiac is a substance that increases sexual desire.[1][2] The name comes from Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of sexuality and love. Throughout history, many foods, drinks, and behaviors have had a reputation for making sex more attainable and/or pleasurable. However, from a historical and scientific standpoint, the alleged results may have been mainly due to mere belief by their users that they would be effective (i.e., the placebo effect). In particular, Western medical science has no substantiated claims that any particular food increases sexual desire or performance.[3]

Some purported aphrodisiacs gain their reputation from the principles of sympathetic magic, for example oysters, due to their shape. The same factor explains the trade in the phallic-looking horn of the rhinoceros. Other animal-based aphrodisiacs gain their reputation from the apparent virility or aggressiveness of the animal source, such as tiger penis.


[edit] Aphrodisiacs

Rhinoceros horn thought to have aphrodisiac properties.

[edit] Testosterone

Libido is clearly linked to levels of sex hormones, particularly testosterone.[4] When a reduced sex drive occurs in individuals with relatively low levels of testosterone[5] (e.g., post-menopausal women or men over age 60[6]), testosterone supplements will often increase libido. Approaches using a number of precursors intended to raise testosterone levels have been effective in older males,[7] but have not fared well when tested on other groups.[8]

[edit] Yohimbine

Yohimbine is the main alkaloid of Yohimbe. Yohimbe, but not Yohimbine, is often popularly referred to as a "weak MAO inhibitor" although no sources are cited for this. Pharmaceutical preparations of yohimbine do not indicate that the drug, which is approved in the US for treatment of impotence (under such brand names as Yocon,Yohimex, Aphrodyne and Viritab), is an MAO inhibitor. Its main action is as an alpha-adrenergic antagonist, by which yohimbine may increase genital bloodflow and both sexual sensitivity and excitation in some people. Preparations of yohimbe bark are available over-the-counter and should be used with caution. The unrefined yohimbe bark contains several active alkaloids besides yohimbine. Side effects can include rapid pulse, sweating, and anxiety reactions in susceptible people. Pharmaceutical preparations of yohimbine can also produce these side effects at higher doses, but are available in standardized doses which allow the patient to dose in a controlled fashion. Some patients report a cumulative prosexual effect using the drug over time.[9][10]

[edit] Bremelanotide

Some compounds that activate the melanocortin receptors MC3-R and MC4-R in the brain are effective aphrodisiacs. One compound from this class, bremelanotide, formerly known as PT-141, is undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of sexual arousal disorder and erectile dysfunction. It is intended for both men and women. Preliminary results have proven the efficacy of this drug,[11]however development was briefly suspended[12] due to a side effect of increased blood pressure observed in a small number of trial subjects who administered the drug intra-nasally. On August 12, 2009, Palatin, the company developing the drug, announced positive results (none of the previous heightened blood pressure effects were observed) of a phase I clinical study where trial subjects were instead administered the drug subcutaneously.[13] Palatin is concurrently developing a related compound they call PL-6983.

[edit] Melanotan II

Melanotan II, bremelanotide's precursor has been demonstrated to have aphrodisiac properties.[14][15][16]

[edit] PEA

There is some debate in lay circles as to whether a chemical called phenylethylamine present in chocolate is an aphrodisiac. There is some evidence to support the theory that phenethylamine release in the brain may be involved in sexual attraction and arousal[citation needed], but this compound is quickly degraded by the enzyme MAO and so it is unlikely that any significant concentrations would reach the brain when phenethylamine is taken orally.

[edit] Crocin

As per a new study, Crocin has demonstrated the properties of an aphrodisiac in rats.[17][18] This is supported by pilot tests that demonstrate the efficacy of Saffron as an aphrodisiac.[19]

[edit] Alkyl nitrites

Alkyl nitrites, (poppers), have a long history of use as a sexual enhancement aid, going back about fifty years. According to the text "Isobutyl nitrite and Related Compounds", many researchers agree that the alkyl nitrite may be a true aphrodisiac in the sense of promoting and enhancing sexual response.[20][21]

[edit] Other drugs

Stimulants affecting the dopamine system such as cocaine and amphetamines (e.g. methamphetamine, aka crystal meth) are frequently associated with hyperarousal and hypersexuality, though both may impair sexual functioning, particularly with long term use.

Some directly acting dopamine agonists may also cause increased libido, although they can also cause various side effects. Pramipexole is the only dopamine agonist used in medicine as an aphrodisiac, and is sometimes prescribed to counteract the decrease in libido associated with SSRI antidepressant drugs. The older dopamine agonist apomorphine has been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, but is of poor efficacy and has a tendency to cause nausea. Other dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine and cabergoline may also be associated with increased libido, as can the dopamine precursor L-Dopa, but this is often part of a spectrum of side effects which can include mood swings and problem gambling and so these drugs are not prescribed for this purpose.

The libido-enhancing effects of dopamine agonists prescribed for other purposes has led to the development of a number of more selective compounds such as flibanserin, ABT-670 and PF-219,061, which have been developed specifically for the treatment of sexual dysfunction disorders, although none of them have yet passed clinical trials.[22]

[edit] Drugs not considered aphrodisiacs

Some psychoactive substances such as alcohol, cannabis,[23][not in citation given] methaqualone, GHB and MDMA can increase libido and sexual desire. However these drugs are not aphrodisiacs in the strict sense of the definition, as they do not consistently produce aphrodisiac effects as their main action. However, these drugs are sometimes used to increase sexual pleasure and to reduce sexual inhibition.

Anti-erectile dysfunction drugs, such as Viagra and Levitra, are not considered aphrodisiacs because they do not have any direct effect on the libido, although increased ability to attain an erection may be interpreted as increased sexual arousal by users of these drugs.

[edit] Aphrodisiac foods and herbs

Some natural items purported to be aphrodisiacs when ingested or applied to the body.

Some newly introduced exotic foods often acquire such a reputation, at least until they become more familiar; for example:

[edit] See also

[edit] External links and references

[edit] Sources

  1. ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (6th ed.), Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2 
  2. ^ Definition at thefreedictionary.com
  3. ^ Article on aphrodisiacs at the US Food and Drugs Administration website.
  4. ^ R. Shabsigh (1997). "The effects of testosterone on the cavernous tissue and erectile function". World J. Urol 15 (1): 21. doi:10.1007/BF01275152. PMID 9066090. 
  5. ^ Goldstat, Rebecca; Esther Briganti, Jane Tran, Rory Wolfe, Susan R. Davis (September 2003). "Transdermal testosterone therapy improves well-being, mood, and sexual function in premenopausal women.". Menopause 10 (5): 390–8. doi:10.1097/01.GME.0000060256.03945.20. PMID 14501599. 
  6. ^ Gray, P.B.; A.B. Singh, L.J. Woodhouse, T.W. Storer, R. Casaburi, J. Dzekov, C. Dzekov, I. Sinha-Hikim, S. Bhasin (2005). "Dose-dependent effects of testosterone on sexual function, mood, and visuospatial cognition in older men". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 90 (7): 3838–46. doi:10.1210/jc.2005-0247. PMID 15827094. 
  7. ^ Brown, G.A.; Vukovich MD, Martini ER, Kohut ML, Franke WD, Jackson DA, King DS. (2001). "Effects of androstenedione-herbal supplementation on serum sex hormone concentrations in 30- to 59-year-old men". Int J Vitam Nutr Res 71 (5): 293–301. doi:10.1024/0300-9831.71.5.293. PMID 11725694. 
  8. ^ Brown, G.A.; Vukovich MD, Reifenrath TA, Uhl NL, Parsons KA, Sharp RL, King DS. (2000). "Effects of anabolic precursors on serum testosterone concentrations and adaptations to resistance training in young men.". Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 10 (3): 340–59. PMID 10997957. 
  9. ^ Adeniyi, A.A.; Brindley GS, Pryor JP, Ralph DJ. (2007). "Yohimbine in the treatment of orgasmic dysfunction". Asian J Androl 9 (3): 403. doi:10.1111/J.1745-7262.2007.00276.x. PMID 17486282. 
  10. ^ Kovalev, V.A.; Koroleva SV, Kamalov AA. (2000). "Pharmacotherapy of erectile dysfunction.". Urologiia (1): 33–8. PMID 16856460. 
  11. ^ King, S.H.; Mayorov AV, Balse-Srinivasan P, Hruby VJ, Vanderah TW, Wessells H. (2007). "Melanocortin receptors, melanotropic peptides and penile erection.". Curr Top Med Chem. 7 (11): 1098–1106. PMID 17584130. 
  12. ^ "Palatin Technologies Announces New Strategic Objectives". http://palatin.com/news/news.asp?ID=201. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  14. ^ Hadley ME (Oct 2005). "Discovery that a melanocortin regulates sexual functions in male and female humans". Peptides 26 (10): 1687–9. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.01.023. PMID 15996790. 
  15. ^ "Tanning drug may find new life as Viagra alternative". CNN. 1999. http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/men/9906/17/viagra.alternative/. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  16. ^ Jaroff, Leon (1999-06-20). "Tanning Bonus". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101990628-27167,00.html. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  17. ^ http://www.aphrodisiology.com/saffron-aphrodisiac-update
  18. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17962007
  19. ^ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7GVW-4W80C78-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=3e4e364feabc968403f8ac94332ef4f5
  20. ^ "ISOBUTYL NITRITE and Related Compounds". http://www.virusmythpoppersmyth.org/isobutyl_nitrite_and_rela/. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  21. ^ "ALL ABOUT POPPERS". http://www.allaboutpoppers.com/. Retrieved 2006-07-15. 
  22. ^ Brioni JD, Moreland RB. Dopamine D4 receptors and the regulation of penile erection. Drug Discovery Today: Therapeutic Strategies. 2006;3(4):599-604. doi:10.1016/j.ddstr.2006.10.006
  23. ^ "Cannabis Puts Females in the Mood for Love". Mark Henderson, The Times. 2001-01-29. http://cannabisnews.com/news/8/thread8414.shtml. Retrieved 23 August 2007. 
  24. ^ Sandroni P. Aphrodisiacs past and present: a historical review. Clinical Autonomic Research. 2001 Oct;11(5):303-7. PMID 11758796
  25. ^ Harding, Andrew (September 23, 2006). "Beijing's penis emporium". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/5371500.stm. Retrieved June 23, 2010. 
  26. ^ Bonnard, Marc (1999). The Viagra Alternative: The Complete Guide to Overcoming Erectile Dysfunction Naturally. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. pp. 24 & 125. ISBN 0892817895. 
  27. ^ "Epimedium grandiflorum". www.ibiblio.org. http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Epimedium+grandiflorum. Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  28. ^ Ang, H.H.; M.K. Sim (1997). "Eurycoma longifolia Jack enhances libido in sexually experienced male rats.". Exp Anim. 46 (4): 287–90. doi:10.1538/expanim.46.287. PMID 9353636. 
  29. ^ Ang, H.H.; Lee KL, Kiyoshi M. (2004). "Sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats after oral administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.". J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 15 (3-4): 303–9. PMID 15803965. 
  30. ^ McKay, D. (2004). "Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence.". Altern Med Rev. 9 (1): 4–16. PMID 15005641. 
  31. ^ Cohen, A.J.; Bartlik B. (1998). "Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction.". J Sex Marital Ther. 24 (2): 139–43. doi:10.1080/00926239808404927. PMID 9611693. 
  32. ^ Sandroni, P. (October 2001). "Aphrodisiacs past and present: a historical review.". Clin Auton Res. 11 (5): 303–7.. doi:10.1007/BF02332975. PMID 11758796. 
  33. ^ Murphy, L.L.; Lee TJ. (2002). "Ginseng, sex behavior, and nitric oxide.". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 962: 372–7. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb04081.x. PMID 12076988. 
  34. ^ "Single Plant Activity Query". www.ars-grin.gov. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/plant_act.pl?GET+694+Aphrodisiac+PL. Retrieved 2008-03-17. 
  35. ^ Gonzales, G.F.; Córdova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Góñez C. (2003). "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.". J Endocrinol. 176 (1): 163–8. doi:10.1677/joe.0.1760163. PMID 12525260. 
  36. ^ Gonzales, G.F.; Córdova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Góñez C, Castillo S. (2002). "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men.". Andrologia. 34 (6): 367–72. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0272.2002.00519.x. PMID 12472620. 
  37. ^ Amin KMY, Khan MN, Zillur-Rehman S, et al. (1996) "Sexual function improving effect of Mucuna pruriens in sexually normal male rats". Fitoterapia, jrg.67 (nr.1): pp. 53-58. Quote: The seeds of M. pruriens are widely used for treating male sexual dysfunction in Tibb-e-Unani (Unani Medicine)
  38. ^ Karras, D.J.; Farrell SE, Harrigan RA, Henretig FM, Gealt L. (1996). "Poisoning from "Spanish fly" (cantharidin).". Am J Emerg Med. 14 (5): 478–83. doi:10.1016/S0735-6757(96)90158-8. PMID 8765116. 
  39. ^ Gauthaman, K.; A.P. Ganesan, R.N. Prasad. (2003). "Sexual effects of puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an evaluation using a rat model.". J Altern Complement Med. 9 (2): 257. doi:10.1089/10755530360623374. PMID 12804079. 
  40. ^ Gauthaman, K.; P.G. Adaikan, R.N. Prasad. (2002). "Aphrodisiac properties of Tribulus Terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal and castrated rats.". Life Sci. 71 (12): 1385–96. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(02)01858-1. PMID 12127159. 
  41. ^ Neychev, V.K.; V.I. Mitev (2005). "The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris does not influence androgen production in young men.". J Ethnopharmacol. 101 (1-3): 319–23. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.017. PMID 15994038. 

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