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Nude people on a beach

Nudity is the state of wearing no clothing.[1] Nudity may arise in a multitude of situations, in either sexualized or non-sexualized contexts. Besides the need to be nude when washing, some people also sleep in the nude, while others are nude in other situations. The duration that a person is nude also varies depending on the situation, with some people choosing to live a nudist lifestyle, while others do so in a fleeting moment, as in exhibitionism, or occasionally, such as nude swimming. Nudity has been portrayed in a multitude of media, from art, photography, film and on the Internet. It is a factor in adult entertainment of various types. Nudity in the presence of other people may give rise to controversy.

Many people have strong views on nudity, which to them raise issues and standards of modesty, decency and morality.


[edit] Terminology

There are many terms used to describe various states of nudity. These terms may vary between (or within) different cultures and contexts, and may change over time. Sometimes such terms are used as euphemisms, sometimes as poetic terms, or humorously.

Full nudity describes a state of complete nudity, with a person not wearing any clothing or other covering. Partial nudity refers to less than full nudity, with parts of the body covered in some manner. The term partial nudity is sometimes used to refer to exposure of skin beyond what the person using the expression considers to be within the limits of modesty. If the exposure is within the standards of modesty of a given culture and setting (e.g. wearing a bikini at a non-nude beach), terms such as nudity, partial or otherwise, are not normally used. If however, the degree of exposure exceeds the cultural norms of the setting, or if the activity or setting includes nudity as an understood part of its function, such as a nude beach, terminology relating to nudity and degrees thereof are typically used. Toplessness is regarded by most people as partial nudity.

Full frontal nudity describes a state of full nudity with the subject facing forward with the whole front of the body exposed, including the intimate parts – the penis, vagina, and breasts. Partial frontal nudity typically only refers to the exposure of bare breasts. Non-frontal nudity describes nudity where the whole back side of the body, such as the buttocks, is exposed, or a side-viewed from any other direction.

[edit] NIFOC (Naked in Front of Computer)

NIFOC is an abbreviation for Naked In Front Of Computer. It is often used while chatting on the Internet to let others know that you are nude in front of your computer[2]. It is also used in instant messaging, e-mails, blogs, and newsgroup postings[3]. A naturist chatroom with the motto NIFOC is also available[4].

[edit] Community facilities

An individual's personal standards of modesty have an impact on their attitudes to the nudity of others as well as their own. Some people regard any display of bare skin as erotic or offensive, while others are more relaxed about nudity. The attitudes to nudity are strongly dependent on the context in which it takes place, so that what may be considered inappropriate in one context (eg. on a public street) may be acceptable in another context (eg. in the home). These are individual subjective standards. Even personal standards take into account exceptional situations, when standards are waived or qualified, as in the case of medical examinations.

Public facilities generally reflect generally accepted community standards of dress. The same applies to public toilets, changing rooms, etc, where some degree of disrobing must take place. In those situations, gender-specific facilities are usually provided so as to reduce embarrassment of users of these facilities to predictable levels. Some countries allow non-gender specific open space changing rooms with individual cubicles or stalls, and in some cultures communal showering and non-segregated sauna and other bathing facilities are also accepted. In some cultures and for some individuals, nudity, even before people of the same gender, is considered inappropriate and embarrassing.[citation needed]

[edit] Public nudity

Man streaking at a Harvard/Yale game

A society's attitude to public nudity varies depending on the culture, time, location and context of an activity. There are many exceptions and particular circumstances in which nudity is tolerated, accepted or even encouraged in public spaces. Such examples would include nude beaches, within some intentional communities (such as naturist resorts or clubs) and at special events.

In general and across cultures, more restrictions are found for exposure of those parts of the human body that display evidence of sexual arousal. Sex organs and often women's breasts are covered, even when other parts of the body may be freely uncovered. Yet the nudity taboo may have meanings deeper than the immediate possibility of sexual arousal, for example, in the cumulative weight of tradition and habit. Clothing also expresses and symbolizes authority, and more general norms and values besides those of a sexual nature.

Another common distinction is that gratuitous nudity is perceived as more offensive than the same degree of physical exposure in a functional context, where the action could not conveniently be performed dressed, either in reality or in a fictitious scene in art. The intent can also be invoked: whether the nudity is meant to affect observers; e.g. streaking can be considered unacceptably provocative, nude sun tanning viewed mildly as rather inoffensive.

[edit] Non-sexual public nudity

Some people enjoy public nudity in a non-sexual context. Common variants of the clothes free movement are nudism and naturism, and are often practiced in reserved places that used to be called "nudist camps" but are now more commonly called naturist resorts, nude beaches, or clubs. Such facilities may be designated topfree, clothing-optional, or fully nude-only. Public nude recreation is most common in rural areas and outdoors, although it is limited to warm weather. Even in countries with inclement weather much of the year and where public nudity is not restricted, such as the United Kingdom, Germany and Denmark, public nude recreation indoors remains rare. One example is Starkers Nightclub in London, a monthly nude-only disco party.

2009 World Naked Bike Ride in Zaragoza.

Others practice public nudity more casually. Topfree sunbathing is considered acceptable by many on the beaches of Finland, France, Spain, Italy and most of the rest of Europe (and even in some outdoor swimming pools); however, exposure of the genitals is restricted to nudist areas in most regions. In the United States, topfree sunbathing and wearing thongs are not common in many areas, but are limited to nude beaches in various locations. It is normally acceptable for men in the United States to be barechested or shirtless when engaged in outdoor recreational activities.

Where the social acceptability of nudity in certain places may be well understood, the legal position is often less clear cut. In England, for example, the law does not actually prohibit simple public nudity, but does forbid indecent exposure[citation needed]. In practice, this means that successful prosecution hangs on whether there is a demonstrable intention to shock others, rather than simply a desire to be naked in a public place. Specifically, using nudity to "harass, alarm or distress" others is an offence against the Public Order Act of 1986. Occasional attempts to prove this point by walking naked around the country therefore often result in periods of arrest, followed by release without charge, and inconsistencies in the approach between different police jurisdictions. Differences in the law between England and Scotland appear to make the position harder for naked ramblers once they reach Scotland.

Photography of installations of massed nude people in public places, as made repeatedly around the world by Spencer Tunick, claim artistic merit.

[edit] Means of attracting attention

Nudity is at times used to draw attention to a cause, with the participants remaining anonymous. Nude events are at times staged as a forum for usually unrelated messages, such as nude bike rides. At times, the cause is merely a personal justification for taking part in a nude event, which are popular in their own right. Many nude calendars are produced each year featuring naked men or women. Some of these are produced to raise money for charities or other causes.

Nudity, like sexuality, is also used to draw attention for a commercial purpose, such as for promotion or advertising.

[edit] Children

[edit] Home

There are differences of opinion as to whether, and if so to what extent, parents should appear naked in front of their children. Gordon and Schroeder[5] report that parental nudity varies considerably from family to family. They say that "there is nothing inherently wrong with bathing with children or otherwise appearing naked in front of them", noting that doing so may provide an opportunity for parents to provide important information. They note that by ages 5 to 6 children begin to develop a sense of modesty, and recommend to parents who wish to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they limit such activities from that age onwards.

Bonner[6] recommends against nudity in the home if children exhibit sexual play of a type that is considered problematic.

A United States study by Alfred Kinsey found that 75% of the participants stated that there was never nudity in the home when they were growing up, 5% of the participants said that there was "seldom" nudity in the home, 3% said "often", and 17% said that it was "usual". The study found that there was no significant difference between what was reported by men and by women with respect to frequency of nudity in the home.[7]

In a 1995 review of the literature, Paul Okami concluded that there was no reliable evidence linking exposure to parental nudity to any negative effect.[8] Three years later, his team finished an 18-year longitudinal study that showed that, if anything, such exposure was associated with slight beneficial effects, particularly for boys.[9]

[edit] Depictions of nudity

Two children bathing in a small metal bathtub

Depictions of child nudity or children with nude adults appear in works of art in various cultures and historical periods. These attitudes have changed over time and have become increasingly frowned upon particularly in recent years,[10] especially in the case of photography. In recent years there have been a few incidents in which snapshots taken by parents of their infant or toddler children bathing or otherwise naked were challenged as child pornography.[11]

In May 2008, police in Sydney, Australia, raided an exhibition by the photographer Bill Henson featuring images of naked children on allegations of child pornography.[12][13] Comparable artworks by Bill Henson had been exhibited without incident since 1975, perhaps indicating that this sensitivity has heightened in recent years.

On the 6th of June 2008 it was reported in The Age that police would have no basis to prosecute Bill Henson over his photographs of naked teenagers, after they were declared "mild and justified" and given a PG rating[14] by the Australian Classification Board, suggesting viewing by children under the age of 16 is suitable with parental guidance.[15] Out of protest the Art Monthly Australia magazine published an image of the 6-year-old Olympia Nelson taken by her mother, Polixeni Papapetrou. According to the then-11-year-old Olympia, she did not believe the photograph amounted to abuse and was upset with Prime Minister Kevin Rudd's remark that he hated it. Olympia's father, art critic Professor Robert Nelson, defended it, saying: "It has nothing to do with pedophilia. The connection between artistic pictures and pedophilia cannot be made and there is no evidence for it."[16][17]

[edit] Children seeing nudity

Attitudes toward children seeing nude people, other than their parents, vary substantially, depending on the child's culture, age and the context of the nudity.

Television and radio regulations in many countries require broadcasters to avoid transmitting images or language considered inappropriate for children from 5:30 AM to 9 PM (the so-called "watershed"). In the United Kingdom, the Broadcasting Code states, "Nudity before the watershed must be justified by the context."[18] In the United States, the safe harbor rule forbids depictions of nudity during 6 AM to 10 PM. Violators may be subject to civil legal action and sanctions if the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) determines the broadcaster did not meet its standards of "decency". "Material is indecent if, in context, it depicts or describes sexual or excretory organs or activities in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium."[19]

Attitudes to nudity vary substantially throughout Europe. Male and female nudity in Scandinavia is not uncommon. The region has a very open attitude about nudity, although it strictly prohibits children's access to pornography.[20]

[edit] Communal showering

Another issue has been the nudity of children in front of other children.

Continental Europeans have generally been more insistent that all students shower communally after physical education classes, separated by gender. Fathers taking their young daughters or mothers taking their young sons into the sexually-separated changing rooms is mostly viewed as non-controversial, although some public baths introduced family changing rooms recently. Some private gymnasiums have instituted rules specifically banning family members of opposite genders taking their children into single-sex locker rooms, such as signs stating "Little boys over the age of 3 are not authorized in the ladies' locker room" or "Little girls over the age of 3 are not authorized in the men's locker room".[citation needed]

In the United States and some of the English-speaking majority of Canada, students at public schools have historically been required to shower communally with classmates of the same sex after physical education classes. In the United States, public objections and the threat of lawsuits have resulted in a number of school districts in recent years changing policy to make showers optional. Private boarding schools and military academies in the United States already often have communal showers, since the focus there is on 24-hour-a-day education and rooming, rather than just acting as day schools. Students in these schools need places to clean themselves daily.[21] A court case in the State of Colorado noted that students have a reduced expectation of personal privacy in regards to "communal undress" while showering after physical education classes.[22] According to an interview with a middle school principal, most objections to showering at school that he had heard were actually from the students' parents rather than from the students.[23]

[edit] Children participating in naturism

Naturism (see below) is usually practiced without age limits, so it involves nudity of children and children seeing nudity.

[edit] Visual media

Art is expressed in a number of media, including painting, sculpture and more recently in photography and film. Mainstream art generally reflects — with some exceptions — social standards of aesthetics and morality of a society at various periods of time. Beyond mainstream standards, artistic expression may be merely tolerated, or be considered as fringe. Since prehistoric time, human beings, both male and female, have been depicted in all states of dress, including all states of undress. Nudity in all styles has been and continues to be a major theme in art, with human beings being depicted in all states of undress. Nudity is also a subject of many literary works and in film. All professionally produced works of art use stylised compositions to depict the nude body. This also applies to cinema, where even nude scenes are staged and rehearsed.

A female model posing nude on the street in Budapest, Hungary

The erotic aspect of nudity in the arts has been an important factor in its attraction, and has come to be associated with certain states and emotions, such as innocence, playfulness, vulnerability, etc. Pornography does not necessarily involve a naked person, but it involves sexualized scenes, and usually it does not claim to have any artistic merit.

The visual arts were at times the only means available to the general public to view a nude body. Today, the opportunities available for the viewing of the nude body are very wide, and these include magazines, motion pictures, and the Internet.

[edit] Personal privacy issues

Unlike arts in general, which traditionally relied on composed works and professional artists, the invention of photography and then the video camera has opened the art of capturing images of people and of scenes at a relatively low cost to the true amateur. Furthermore, each person could now capture images in both public and private situations. A feature of most of these private photographs and videos is that they are not intended for viewing outside of a very limited range of people, and seldom if ever by the general public.

Amateur photography, which included nude photography and which previously has been produced for personal enjoyment, is increasingly being more widely disseminated by the medium of the Internet, at times without the knowledge and consent of the subject of the photograph, and to their subsequent embarrassment. Also, the use of secret photography to capture images of an unsuspecting person (undressed or not, and whether for personal use, or intended for posting on the Internet) creates additional personal privacy issues.

[edit] Western culture

[edit] Functional nudity

A topfree woman

Functional nudity for a short time, such as when changing clothes on a beach, is sometimes acceptable, while staying nude on the beach is not. However, even this is often avoided or minimized by a towel.[citation needed] On nude beaches (clothing-optional) it is acceptable to be nude.

In some locations, most particularly within western societies, a woman breastfeeding in public can generate controversy. In June 2007, Brooke Ryan was dining in a booth at the rear of an Applebees restaurant when she found it necessary to breastfeed her 7-month-old son. While she said she attempted to be discreet, another patron complained to the manager about indecent exposure. Both a waitress and the manager asked her to cover up. She handed him a copy of the Kentucky law that permitted public breastfeeding, but he would not relent. She ended up feeding her son in her car and later organized "nurse-out" protests in front of the restaurant and other public locations.[24] Most U.S. states (40 as of January 2009) have laws clarifying a woman's right to breastfeed in public.[25]

[edit] Topfree

In many western countries and in appropriate settings, such as while suntanning, the exposure of women's breasts is not, of itself, normally regarded as indecent exposure. In the United States of America however, exposure of female nipples is a criminal offense in many states and not usually allowed in public (see Public indecency), while in the United Kingdom, nudity may not be used to "harass, alarm or distress" according to the Public Order Act of 1986.[26]

Prosecutions of cases has given raise to a movement advocating "topfree equality," promoting equal rights for women to have no clothing above the waist, on the same basis that would apply to men in the same circumstances. The term "topfree" rather than "topless" is advocated to avoid the latter term's perceived sexual connotations.

[edit] Naturism and nudism

Vintage image (1943) of skinny dippers near Darwin.

Naturism (or nudism) is a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending nudity in private and in public. It is also a lifestyle based on personal, family and/or social nudity.[27][28]

Naturists reject contemporary standards of modesty which discourage personal, family and social nudity, and seek to create a social environment where people feel comfortable in the company of nude people, and being seen nude, either just by other nudists, or also by the general public.[27][28]

[edit] Nude bathing

The trend in some European countries (for instance Germany, Finland and the Netherlands) is to allow both genders to bathe together naked. Most German spas allow mixed nude bathing. For example the Friedrichsbad in Baden-Baden has designated times when mixed nude bathing is permitted. There may be some older German bathhouses, such as Bad Burg, which remain segregated by gender, but this is the exception rather than the rule. Most German (not to mention French, Spanish and Greek) beaches and swimming pools offer FKK (clothing optional) areas. In general, continental Europeans have a more relaxed attitude about nudity than is seen in the British-influenced world. Some have attributed this difference to the influence of Queen Victoria's husband Albert, who was raised in a very restricting religious sect (see Victorian morality).

The sauna, originating from Finland, is attended nude in its source country as well as in most Scandinavian and in the German speaking countries of Europe.[29] This is true even when a swimsuit must be worn in the swimming pool area of the same complex[29] Saunas are quite common in modern Finland, where there is one sauna for every three people[30] and became very popular in Europe over the last few decades. Gender segregation is more the exception than the rule in modern European sauna facilities.

[edit] Sexuality

Nudity in front of a sexual partner is widely accepted, but not in all cases. For example, some partners insist on nudity only at the time and place of sex, or with subdued lighting; during bathing with the partner or afterward; covered by a sheet or blanket, or while sleeping.

[edit] Non-Western attitudes

Attitudes in Western cultures are not all the same as explained above, and likewise attitudes in non-western cultures are many and variant. In almost all cultures, acceptability of nudity depends on the situation.

Cultural and/or religious traditions usually dictate what is proper and what is not socially acceptable. Many non-western cultures allow women to breastfeed in public, while some have very strict laws about showing any bare skin.

[edit] Africa

A woman wearing traditional clothing in Southern Ethiopia, where toplessness among women is normal.

Different traditions exist among, for example, sub-Saharan Africans, partly persisting in the post-colonial era. Whereas it is the norm among some ethnic and family groups including some Burkinabese and Nilo-Saharan (e.g. Nuba and Surma people) in daily life or on particular occasions not to wear any clothes or without any covering below the waist – for example, at massively attended stick fighting tournaments well-exposed young men use the occasion to catch the eye of a prospective bride.

Amongst Bantu peoples, on the other hand, there is often a complete aversion to public nudity. Thus, in Botswana when a newspaper printed a photograph of a thief suffering lashes on the bared buttocks imposed by a traditional chief's court, there was national consternation, not about the flogging but about the 'peeping tom'.

The Ugandan Kavirondo tribes, a mix of Bantu and Nilotic immigrants, traditionally went practically naked, but the men eventually adopted western dress.

[edit] Liberia

In modern Liberia, soldiers under General "Butt Naked" Joshua Blahyi fought naked in order to terrorize their opponents.[31]

Nude except for lace-up leather shoes and a gun, the general led his fierce Butt Naked Battalion into battle on behalf of the warlord Roosevelt Johnson, who hired the unclothed warriors for their fearlessness and fighting skills.

[edit] Asia

In Japan, public baths are very common. Bathing nude with family members or friends of the same (or sometimes opposite) gender in public bath houses, saunas, or natural hot springs (Onsen) is popular. In Korea, public baths (Jjimjilbang) are also widespread and communal nude bathing is normal, although nudity is not permitted in unisex areas. In the south Asian region, public nudity is totally restricted.

In many Muslim countries public nudity is illegal.

[edit] Historical overview

The Biblical figures of Adam and Eve are most commonly shown totally or mostly nude.

Anthropologists logically presume that humans originally lived naked, without clothing, as their natural state. They postulate the adaptation of animal skins and vegetation into coverings to protect the wearer from cold, heat and rain, especially as humans migrated to new climates; alternatively, covering may have been invented first for other purposes, such as magic, decoration, cult, or prestige, and later found to be practical as well. For men and women, public nudity was at least permissible in ancient Sparta, and customary at festivals.

In some hunter-gatherer cultures in warm climates, near-complete nudity has been, until the introduction of Western culture, or still is, standard practice for both men and women. In some African and Melanesian cultures, men going completely naked except for a string tied about the waist are considered properly dressed for hunting and other traditional group activities. In a number of tribes in the South Pacific island of New Guinea, the men use hard gourdlike pods as penis sheaths. While obscuring and covering the actual penis, these at a longer distance give the impression of a large, erect penis. Yet a man without this "covering" could be considered to be in an embarrassing state of nakedness. Among the Chumash Native Americans of southern California, men were usually naked, and women were often topless. Native Americans of the Amazon Basin usually went nude or nearly nude; in many native tribes, the only clothing worn was some device worn by men to clamp the foreskin shut. However, other similar cultures have had different standards. For example, other native North Americans avoided total nudity, and the Native Americans of the mountains and west of South America, such as the Quechua, kept quite covered.

“In 1498, at Trinity Island {Trinidad}, Christopher Columbus found the women entirely naked, whereas the men wore a light girdle called guayaco. At the same epoch, on the Para Coast {of Brazil}, the girls were distinguished from the married women by their absolute nudity. The same absence of costume was observed among the Chaymas {of Cumaná, Venezuela}, and Du Chaillu noticed the same among the Achiras on the West Coast of Africa {in Gabon}.”[32][citation needed]

[edit] Punishment

Prisoner abuse at the Abu Ghraib prison facility in Iraq, including forced nudity and humiliation, was widely condemned.

During the witch-hunts the alleged witches were stripped to discover the so-called witches' marks. The discovery of witches' marks was then used as evidence in trials.[33]

Nakedness (full or partial) can be part of a corporal punishment or as an imposed humiliation, especially when administered in public. In fact, torture manuals may distinguish between the male and female psychological aversion to self-exposure versus being disrobed.

Nazis used forced nudity to attempt to humiliate inmates in concentration camps. This was depicted in the film Schindler's List.[34]

In 2003, Abu Ghraib prison gained international notoriety for accounts of torture and abuses by members of the United States Army Reserve during the post-invasion period. Photographic images were circulated that exposed the posing of prisoners naked, sometimes bound, and being intimidated.

[edit] Religion

[edit] Christianity

The early Christian Church reflected contemporary attitudes towards nudity, where it was considered acceptable in some contexts such as working outdoors. For example, the Gospel of John (21:7) describes that Simon Peter is naked (puts on his "outer" garment) while fishing from a boat, but then gets dressed in order to meet Christ. The first recorded liturgy of baptism, written down by Saint Hippolytus of Rome in his 'Apostolic Tradition' insists on complete nudity for both men and women, including the removal of all jewellery and hair fastenings (chapter 21). Nudity is also reflected in early Christian art depicting baptism.

[edit] Hinduism

Naga mystics, at the Hindu bathing ceremony of Ardha Kumbh Mela, at Allahabad.

[edit] Islam

In Islam, the area of the body not meant to be exposed in public is called the awrah, and while referred to in the Qur'an, is addressed in more detail in hadith.

  • For men, the awrah is from the navel to knees, which means that in public, Muslim men have to cover themselves at least from the navel down to the knees.
  • For women, there are different classifications of awrah. In public, Muslim women wear the hijab and long dresses which covers most of their head and body, with only specific body parts such as hands, and feet allowed to show. But in front of direct family (parents, children, siblings), the awrah is relaxed further, allowing them to uncover their faces.
  • Sharia law in some Islamic countries requires women to observe purdah, covering their entire bodies, including the face (see niqab and burqa), However, the degrees of covering vary according to local custom and/or interpretation of Sharia Law.
  • A dead body's awrah shall remain covered and not seen.

[edit] Judaism

A ritual bath in Judaism is called a mikvah. A person is required to remove all clothing, jewelry and even bandages before immersion in a mikvah.

At the same time, Orthodox Jews do not expose any body part usually covered in that society under the rules of Tzniut (modesty). In addition, women must cover everything between the elbows and the knees (including collarbones), and married women generally cover their hair. When answering the call of nature some may be strict to uncover as little as possible,[35].

In earlier times, it was more common to change before and after sleep under the covers because of common living quarters.[36] This view is preserved famously in the abbreviated Jewish legal work Kitzur Shulchan Aruch[37] and is often not understood by the text's readers. It is less followed today due to the fact modern architecture tends to divide homes into private quarters. In earlier times, hallways were uncommon and private quarters could consequently not exist. Hence, the custom to dress beneath the covers existed.

Full nudity is permitted, and according to many, encouraged, during sexual intercourse. There are opinions that it must be done in the dark, at night, and in private, but most of these issues revolve around partners' respective feelings of embarrassment or insecurity, and possible concern that partners may sometimes not fairly judge their partners' respective physical attractiveness. Practices currently vary among Orthodox Jews.

Conservative and Reform Judaism generally do not follow the Jewish law. Attitudes toward modesty and sexual intercourse vary widely, though both movements emphasize strong partnerships and intimacy while discouraging promiscuity[38], as the Orthodox.

[edit] Studies

[edit] See also

[edit] Gallery

[edit] References

  1. ^ "nudity – Definitions from Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/nudity. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  2. ^ Naked In Front Of Computer – NIFOC
  3. ^ NIFOC – NetLingo The Internet Dictionary: Online Dictionary of Computer and Internet Terms, Acronyms, Text Messaging, Smileys ;-)
  4. ^ Naturist chatroom
  5. ^ Betty N. Gordon and Carolyn S. Schroeder (1995). Sexuality: A Developmental Approach to Problems. Springer. p. 16. ISBN 0306450402. 
  6. ^ Barbara L. Bonner (1999). "When does sexual play suggest a problem?". in Howard Dubowitz and Diane Depanfilis. Handbook for Child Protection Practice [1]. Sage Publications. p. 211. ISBN 0761913718. 
  7. ^ John Bancroft (2003). Sexual Development in Childhood. Indiana University Press. pp. 146–147. ISBN 0253342430. 
  8. ^ Okami. P. (1995) ." Childhood exposure to parental nudity‚ parent-child co-sleeping‚ and 'primal scenes': A review of clinical opinion and empirical evidence," Journal of Sex Research, 32: 51–64.
  9. ^ Okami, P., Olmstead, R., Abramson, P. & Pendleton, L. (1998). “Early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality (‘primal scenes’): An 18-year longitudinal study of outcome,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 27(4), 361–384.
  10. ^ Higonnet, Anne (1998). Pictures of Innocence – The History and Crissi of Ideal Childhood. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28048-7. 
  11. ^ Kincaid, James R.. "Is this child pornography?". http://archive.salon.com/mwt/feature/2000/01/31/kincaid/index.html. Retrieved 28 April 2007. 
  12. ^ Paul Bibby (May 23, 2008). "Henson exhibition shut down". theage.com.au. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/henson-exhibition-shut-down/2008/05/22/1211183043937.html. Retrieved 2 September 2008. 
  13. ^ See also Jock Sturges and Julia Somerville.
  14. ^ http://au.news.yahoo.com/080606/21/1761j.html No charges for Henson
  15. ^ 'No charges for Henson Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
  16. ^ AAP (July 7, 2008). "Photo girl defends naked cover shot". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/national/photo-girl-defends-naked-cover-shot-20080707-32w9.html. 
  17. ^ Photograph of Olympia Nelson depicting Lewis Carroll's Beatrice Hatch before White Cliffs, 2003 from Polixeni Papapetrou's website.
  18. ^ "The Ofcom Broadcasting Code". Ofcom (Office of Communications, UK). 25 July 2005. http://www.ofcom.org.uk/tv/ifi/codes/bcode/protectingu18/. Retrieved 1 January 2008. 
  19. ^ "Frequently asked questions about Obscenity, Indecency and Profanity". Federal Communications Commission. http://www.fcc.gov/eb/oip/FAQ.html#TheLaw. Retrieved 2010-03-25. 
  20. ^ Mapes, Terri. "Sexuality in Scandinavia: How Scandinavia Looks at Sexuality". http://goscandinavia.about.com/od/specialinterestadult/qt/sexualityinscan.htm. Retrieved 17 October 2007. 
  21. ^ ACLU of Washington. "ACLU-WA's Work for Student Rights". http://www.aclu-wa.org/detail.cfm?id=180. Retrieved 28 April 2007. 
  22. ^ "TRINIDAD SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1 v. CARLOS R. LOPEZ". http://lw.bna.com/lw/19980721/97sc124.htm. Retrieved 28 April 2007. 
  23. ^ "Interview with John Pleacher 2/16/87". http://www.unlv.edu/projects/ohpsp/p/133pleacher.html. Retrieved 28 April 2007. 
  24. ^ "Breastfeeding Protest Targets Restaurant Chain". Khpo.com. September 10, 2007. http://www.kpho.com/news/14076268/detail.html. Retrieved July 13, 2010. 
  25. ^ "50 State Summary of Breastfeeding Laws". National Conference of State Legislatures. November 2008. http://www.ncsl.org/programs/health/breast50.htm. Retrieved 7 January 2009. 
  26. ^ "What is the Law Covering Nudity in the UK? Is Nudity Lawful on Unofficial Nude Beaches?". Gouk.about.com. 8 October 2009. http://gouk.about.com/od/uknudebeaches/f/nudity_law_uk.htm. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  27. ^ a b See 2002–2003 World Naturist Handbook, pub International Naturist Federation INF-FNI, Sint Hubertusstraat, B-2600 Berchem(Antwerpen) ISBN 9055838330 The Agde definition. The INF is made up of representative of the Naturist Organisations in 32 countries, with 7 more having correspondent status. The current edition is * Naturisme, The INF World Handbook (2006) [2] ISBN 90-5062-080-9
  28. ^ a b http://www.inf-fni.org/index_e.htm| INF web page
  29. ^ a b Nakedness and the Finnish Sauna
  30. ^ thisisFINLAND – Seeking the real Finnish Sauna
  31. ^ How to Fight, How to Kill: Child Soldiers in Liberia: Roles and Responsibilities of Child Soldiers
  32. ^ Dr. Jacobus X : Untrodden Fields of Anthropology. Falstaff Press, NY, 1937. vol. 2, p. 183 (Accessible online: here)
  33. ^ Devil's Mark
  34. ^ Substantive and Procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law: The Experience of International and National Courts; by Gabrielle Kirk McDonald, Olivia Swaak-Goldman; Published by Brill, 2000; pp. 280–283
  35. ^ Shulchan Aruch OC 3
  36. ^ Shulchan Aruch OC 2
  37. ^ Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 3:4
  38. ^ http://urj.org//about/union/leadership/yoffie//?syspage=article&item_id=6076

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