Swinging or partner swapping (sometimes referred to as the swinging lifestyle or simply the lifestyle) is a non-monogamous  behavior, in which partners in a committed relationship agree, as a couple, for both partners to engage in sexual activities with other people, sometimes referred to as recreational or social sex. Swinging can take place in a number of contexts, ranging from a spontaneous sexual activity at an informal social gathering of friends to a swingers' club and can involve internet-based introduction services.
The phenomenon of swinging (or at least its wider discussion and practice) is regarded by some as arising from the upsurge in sexual activity during the sexual revolution of the 1960s, made possible by the invention of the contraceptive pill and the prevalence of safer sex practices during the same period.
The term wife swapping is now criticized as being androcentric and not accurately describing the full range of sexual activities in which couples may take part, but the term continues in use, and reflects the origins of the concept whereby husbands were viewed as initiating an informal partner swap.
As a general rule, swinging couples engage in conventional sexual activities, but with other partners. Penetrative sex by a swinging partner is referred to as a full swap; while non-penetrative sex, such as oral sex, is referred to as a soft swap. New swinging couples often choose a soft swap before they are comfortable with a full swap, although many couples stay "soft swap" for personal or safety related reasons. Soft swinging occurs when the couple engage in sexual activities while two or more other couples perform sex acts in the immediate vicinity.
 Reasons for swinging
Couples engage in sexual activities with others for a variety of reasons; and the reasons are not necessarily the same for both partners. Some partners engage in these activities to add variety into their otherwise conventional sex lives or for curiosity. Some regard such activities as social interactions. Others treat such activities as a means of satisfying their hightened sexual desires, or to satisfy a partner's hypersexuality.
 16th century
A formal arrangement was signed by John Dee, his wife Jane, his scryer, Edward Kelley and Kelley's wife Joanna on 22 April 1587, whereby conjugal relations would be shared between the men and their spouses. This arose following seances which apparently resulted in spirits guiding Dee and Kelley towards this course of action.
 18th century
Some such occultists were the Frankists who in the mid-18th century established in Salonika (Thessalonia), Macedonia, Greece (part of the Ottoman empire at that time) the Dönmeh cult : "The Donmeh now converted the Shabbatain Purim into an annual orgy, when members exchanged spouses for a ceremony called 'extinguishing the lights.'" "Once a year [during the Doenmes' annual 'Sheep holiday'] the candles are put out in the course of a dinner which is attended by orgies and the ceremony of the exchange of wives." "The Dönmeh and the Frankists each had sexual-religious rituals, ranging from wife-swapping ..."
 19th century
The sobriquet "communist" has sometimes been applied, especially in Germany during the mid-19th century, to people who advocate spouse-trading. In fact, communist philosophy may be anti-sexual, especially in the case of religious communists like the Shakers.
In The Communist Manifesto (1848), Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels suggest that the allegation of communists practising "community of women" is an example of hypocrisy and psychological projection by "bourgeois" critics of communism, who: "not content with having wives and daughters of their proletarians at their disposal, not to speak of common prostitutes, take the greatest pleasure in seducing each other’s wives.". However, this can be seen as political rhetoric against criticisms from the bourgeois, rather than having an anti-sexual quality.
 Modern swinging
According to Terry Gould's Book The Lifestyle: A Look at the Erotic Rites of Swingers , swinging began among Air Force pilots and their wives during World War II. The mortality rate of pilots was high. Gould reports that a close bond arose between pilots, with the implication that husbands would care for all the wives as their own, emotionally and sexually, if the husbands were away or lost.
This is debatable, however, since it would have been unusual for wives to accompany their husbands on foreign tours. Other sources point to U.S. Air Force test pilots in the California desert as the original participants. Though the beginnings are not agreed upon, it is assumed American swinging began among American military communities in the 1950s. By the time the Korean War ended, swinging had spread from the military to the suburbs. The media dubbed the phenomenon wife-swapping.
The first swingers' organization was the Sexual Freedom League, which was formed in the 1960s in Berkeley, California by Robert McGinley, in the sexually liberal San Francisco Bay Area. McGinley later formed an umbrella organization for swinging clubs called the North American Swing Club Association (now NASCA International)  to disseminate information about swinging across North America. Many internet websites that cater for swinging couples now exist, some boasting hundreds of thousands of members.
In February 2010, Christoph Büchel and the Secession contemporary art museum in Vienna, Austria invited a local swingеrs' club to hold orgies and display related paraphernalia in the building where Gustav Klimt's famous Beethoven Frieze had prompted substantial outrage and media attention in 1902.
Research has been conducted in the United States since the late 1960s. One study, based on an Internet questionnaire addressed to visitors of swinger-related sites, found swingers are happier in their relationships than the norm.
60% said that swinging improved their relationship; 1.7% said swinging made their relationship less happy. Approximately 50% of those who rated their relationship "very happy" before becoming swingers maintained their relationship had become happier. 90% of those with less happy relationships said swinging improved them. Almost 70% of swingers claimed no problem with jealousy; approximately 25% admitted "I have difficulty controlling jealousy when swinging" as "somewhat true", while 6% said this was "yes, very much" true. Swingers rate themselves happier ("very happy": 59% of swingers compared to 32% of non-swingers) and their lives more "exciting" (76% of swingers compared to 54% of non-swingers) than non-swingers, by significantly large margins. There was no significant difference between responses of men and women, although more males (70%) than females completed the survey.
This study is of limited use due to self-selected sampling. Self sampling procedures create a potential for bias. For instance, swinging couples who had stronger relationships may have been more motivated to complete the questionnaire. Alternatively, because swinging may cause stress on a marriage, perhaps only those with higher than average commitment are able to remain married. Couples who have jealousy or strife issues caused by swinging might not persist in the activity and could therefore be less likely respondents. Additionally, couples that would be negatively affected by swinging may be less likely to try swinging in the first place.
ABC News reporter John Stossel produced an investigative report into the swinging lifestyle. Stossel reported that at that time, more than four million people were swingers, according to estimates by the Kinsey Institute and other researchers. He also cited Terry Gould's research, which concluded that "couples swing in order to not cheat on their partners." When Stossel asked swinging couples whether they worry their spouse will "find they like someone else better", one male replied, "People in the swinging community swing for a reason. They don't swing to go out and find a new wife;" a woman asserted, "It makes women more confident - that they are the ones in charge." Stossel interviewed 12 marriage counselors. According to Stossel, "not one of them said don't do it", though some said "getting sexual thrills outside of marriage can threaten a marriage". Nevertheless, swingers whom Stossel interviewed claimed "their marriages are stronger because they don't have affairs and they don't lie to each other."
Some couples engage in sexual activities at sex clubs, some of which cater for the swinging lifestyle. Most major cities in North America and western Europe have sex clubs, many in a permanent location, but they often keep a low profile. Over 3,000 swinging clubs are believed to exist worldwide, with slightly over 1,000 having an online presence, but there are believed to be many other small neighborhood clubs, which are known among members of the lifestyle community, without a website. The rules of these clubs vary considerable, and admissions are not necessarily limited to married couples.
In the US, many off-premises swinging clubs follow a bar or nightclub format, sometimes renting an entire existing bar for scheduled swinging events. Consequently, on weekends in suburbia, bars in large industrial parks that attract a mainstream clientèle during weekdays and would otherwise sit empty or closed on weekends (when business offices are closed) are likely locations for a takeover. Memberships must be obtained and rules followed at these off-premise locations.
On-premises clubs usually have a similar format to off-premises clubs. Most on-premises clubs do not serve alcohol because of legal prohibitions on the sale of alcohol where sexual activity takes place. However, some permit guests to bring their own alcohol. Also, the vast majority of swinging clubs in the US do not advertise as such. The largest swinger society in North America is NASCA International. NASCA is an association of clubs, websites, publications, travel agencies, and events catering to the swinging lifestyle community. NASCA was established as an umbrella organization with the intent of encouraging the dissemination of accurate information about swinging lifestyles across North America. It publishes a guide listing clubs and events in 43 of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia, Canada, as well as 25 other nations.
 Bisexuality and same-sex activity
Attitudes to same-sex activity and bisexuality vary by culture and locale, and by gender.
As a rule, female bisexuality and bicuriosity are common in both the "selective" (see below) and traditional swinging scenes and tend to be the norm amongst participants; by contrast, male same-sex activity has a wider variation in its handling, and may be welcomed, accepted, frowned upon, or forbidden. One source, covering "Chicago's first and only all bisexual [club]" stated that in the founders' view "The lifestyle is pretty homophobic" and "male bisexuality was erased", although an "underground market" existed. Swing clubs and other facilities exist for gay and bisexual interests for both genders, but differ – for example bathhouses and the like for gay males, sometimes described as being "controversial" even in the gay community due to safer sex concerns, whereas women's clubs are "comparatively rare" and tend to be organized as private events, or niche clubs with high popularity for their events.
 Selective swinging
Traditionally swingers' clubs do not discriminate in regards to physical appearance or age, the average age of a swinger is 39, while the ages when people first enter the swinging lifestyle average 31 for women and 34 for men.
Younger swingers seeking peer group options find this is not always possible at conventional swingers' clubs. Similarly, those seeking to exclude the physically unappealing from their sexual ambit are often frustrated at conventional swingers' clubs because guests are not screened. Beginning in 1998 with Fever Parties  in London, this gave rise to exclusive parties and clubs that selected by looks and/or imposed an upper age limit. Within the USA the phenomenon translated first to Los Angeles, then Miami and eventually to New York City.
'Selective swinging' events include mostly childless, unmarried young graduates whose average ages are as low as the late 20s, whereas traditional swingers events have average ages in the 40s. Selective parties are sometimes referred to as "exclusive" or "elitist" amongst older swingers.
The acceptance of singles varies by area and event. Some clubs, parties, and private events allow only couples and single females, but some allow single men on selected nights. Single females are often admitted at reduced price. Because of the high proportion of female same sex activity (and interest), interested single females are called "unicorns" in the context of their existence being a fantasy, rather than a reality.
Reasons against single males vary. Most but not all of the people in swinger events are male-female couples more interested in couples or single women than single men. Thus, swinger events strive to achieve a balance between male and female participants or have a slightly larger number of females.
A complaint is that single men change the tone of an event. While hostility towards single men is rare an abundance of single males is not often looked upon favorably. When single males are permitted, their numbers are usually limited by higher fees or strict requirements.
 Controversy and debate
Swinging is illegal in some countries. In May 2010, Ma Yaohai, a 53-year-old Chinese computer science professor, was jailed for three and a half years after being found guilty of arranging swingers parties.
 Health risks
Some swingers engage in unprotected sex, a practice known as barebacking. Some couples reduce the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) by exchanging STD test results and serosorting. The majority of swingers engage in safe sex practices and will not engage with others who do not also practice safe sex. Proponents for swinging point to the fact that safe sex is accepted within the community and the risk of sexual disease is the same for them as for the general population—and that some populations of sexually non-monogamous people have clearly lower rates of STDs than the general population. Opponents are concerned about the risk of pregnancy and STDs such as HIV, arguing that even protected sex is risky given that some STDs may be spread regardless of the use of condoms, such as Herpes and HPV. A study done in the Netherlands that compared the medical records of self reported swingers to that of the general population found that swingers had a significantly higher risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STI).
 Emotional complications
Some who object assert that sexual relations, by their nature, have an emotional component. Since many swingers are in a committed relationship with one partner (see History above), sexual relations with a person outside the relationship could emotionally damage the committed couple. Intimacy might be diminished by sex with others and this may lead to the end of the relationship.
Another argument states that one partner may be more enthusiastic than the other, the less willing feeling pushed into taking part, leading to the break-up of the relationship or to psychological problems.
Proponents advocate that it is not swinging that caused the demise of the relationship but relationship issues brought to the surface by swinging. Therefore proponents argue couples considering swinging need to work through relationship issues and share an equal enthusiasm.
 Religious and moral objections
Objections pertaining to the basic principles of swinging on a moral or philosophical basis may exhort the view that sexual relations should only occur within a committed relationship. Some argue that if sex becomes the main reason for swinging, sex may become mechanistic and less satisfying than the intimacy experienced by monogamous couples.
 Common responses to objections
 Responses to practical objections
Many couples enter swinging while in secure relationships, providing added motivation to avoid excessive health risks. While sexual affairs outside relationships may be in the heat of the moment without regard to consequences, swingers maintain that sex among swingers is a more thought-out and practical affair.
Many swinging clubs in the US and UK do not have alcohol licenses and have a "bring your own beverage" (BYOB) policy. Also, it is not uncommon for experienced swingers to remain sober; these individuals may state that they take a safer approach to sexual health than comparable non-monogamous singles (who ostensibly have impaired judgment from becoming inebriated).
Condoms are often required at many swinging clubs and parties. In addition, a minority of swingers rely on STD testing to ensure their safety. A small portion focus on massage and other activities unlikely to transmit STDs; however, most participants acknowledge they are accepting the risks that any sexually promiscuous member of society does.
Although there is a risk of pregnancy, there are ways t pagla minimize the risk to almost zero. Solutions include a tubal ligation (female sterilization), vasectomy (male sterilization), or having a group entirely made of menopausal women. Other solutions include using condoms with another form of non-surgical birth control such as using the pill. Proper use of a condom with an effective birth control method will minimize the risk of pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted disease.
Some believe sexual attraction is part of human nature and should be openly enjoyed by a committed or married couple. Some swingers cite divorce data in the US, claiming the lack of quality of sex and spousal infidelity are significant factors in divorce. One study showed 37% of husbands and 29% of wives admit at least one extramarital affair (Reinisch, 1990), and divorce rates for first marriages approached 60%.
As one study asserted:
According to King (1996) sexual habituation leads to changes in interaction with partners. At three to seven years into a marriage, it takes increased stimulation to produce the sexual excitation previously obtained by a glance or simple touch. A couple receptive to new and different sexual experiences will begin to explore different avenues of shared sexual fulfillment to continue to grow together. At this stressful point infidelity increases and the divorce rate peaks. Couples who find a way to reconnect physically and emotionally are more likely to make it through this period. Swinging may be one solution – it provides sexual variety, adventure, and the opportunity to live out fantasies as a couple without secrecy and deceit. Many swingers report that their relationships are strengthened through swinging, and say their sex lives are more intimate and satisfying. Jealousy can occur, but proponents of swinging assert that jealousy is mainly couples whose relationships were already unstable. The effect on unstable relationships has yet to be determined.
 Ethnology of "swinging"
Temporary spouse-trading is practiced as an element of ritual initiation into the Lemba secret society in the French Congo through "wife exchange" : "you shall lay with the priestess-wife of your Lemba Father, and he shall lay with your wife too."
In the Warramunga tribe, "Two Thapungarti men, brought their wives, after darkness had fallen, to the festival place, ... and each of the men performed coitus with the wife of the other."
 New Guinea
Among the Orya of northern Irian Jaya, the agama toŋkat (Indonesian for 'walking-stick') cult "encouraged men to trade wives, i.e., to have sexual relations with each other’s wives. This trading of sexual favours ... was only between pairs of families, ... adherents are now very secretive concerning cult activities and teachings." In this 'walking-stick' cult "the walking stick ... dute is the term men use to refer to the husband of the woman who becomes his sexual partner." Furthermore, "There have been other similar movements ... near Jayapura. These are popularly called Towel Religion (agama handuk) and The Simpson Religion (agama simpson)."
Among the Mimika of southern Irian Jaya, temporary spouse-trading is said to have been originated by a woman who had returned from the world of the dead : "The wife says to her husband, '... tonight I will sleep in the house of the headman ..., and ... his wife, will sleep in your house. Because I have been dead ..., tonight I am going to do for the first time what people have been looking forward to (for so long). I am going to institute the papisj, wife exchange.'"
In Luzon, "The Gaddang recognize spouse exchange".
 Inuit & Aleut
"Inuit wife trading has often been reported and commented on ..."
Temporary "wife-lending ... was apparently more common among the Aleuts than Eskimos". Several motivations for temporary spouse-trading are practiced among the Eskimo:
- at the instigation of an aŋekok (shaman), as a magical rite to achieve better weather for hunting-expeditions;
- as a regular feature of the annual "Bladder Festival";
- for a man visiting without being accompanied his wife, under the promise that he will in the future make his own wife sexually available to his host whenever the host will himself come visiting his erstwhile guest.
Among the Inuit, a very specialized and socially-proscribed form of wife-sharing was practiced. When hunters were away, they would often stumble into the tribal lands of other tribes, and be subject to death for the offense. But, when they could show a "relationship" by virtue of a man, father or grandfather who had sex with their wife, mother or other female relatives, the wandering hunter was then regarded as family. The Inuit had specific terminology and language describing the complex relationships that emerged from this practice of wife sharing. A man called another man "aipak" if the man had sex with his wife. Aipak means, "other me." So, in their conception, this other man sleeping with one's wife was just "another me."
 South American Indians
Among the Araweté (Asurini) in the state of Pará, Brazil, "spouse-swapping" is practiced.
Among the Bari tribe of Venezuela, when a woman becomes pregnant, the women often take other male lovers. These additional lovers then take on the role of secondary or tertiary fathers to the child. If the primary father should die, the other men then have a social obligation to support these children. Research has shown that children with such "extra" fathers have improved life outcomes, in this economically and resource-poor area of the jungle.
 Swinging in popular culture
- The Blood Oranges (1997), two western couples, one with children, come together in the fictional Mediterranean village of Ilyria. The film was adapted from the novel by John Hawkes.
- Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice (1969) is the American comedy classic that captures the sexual revolution of the late 1960s in the United States. It was nominated for four Academy Awards; Best Actor in a Supporting Role, Best Actress in a Supporting Role, Best Cinematography, and Best Original Screenplay.
- Brüno involves the protagonist being involved in a swinger's meeting.
- Eating Raoul (1982) is a comic send-up of swinging stereotypes.
- The Fourth Protocol (1987) shows a brief clip of four American women and an American airman naked in a room. The swinger overtones were very implicit.
- The Ice Storm (1997) by director Ang Lee features a cheating husband, played by Kevin Kline, and his long suffering wife, played by Joan Allen, who attend a "key party" during a nasty ice storm.
- The Rapture (1992). Mimi Rogers' character Sharon pursues an active swinging lifestyle with her 'partner', played by Rustam Branaman.
- The Sex Monster (1999) is a comedy about a couple who begin a ménage à trois with another woman.
- Swingers (2002) is a Dutch film that tells the story of a thirty-something couple and their first experiments with the swinging lifestyle.
- Swingstock has been featured on HBO's Real Sex and Playboy Channel Sexcetera.
- Zebra Lounge (2001) talks about swinging and its effects on the lives of a married couple with kids who seek some sexual adventures.
- In a 1971 episode of All in the Family, Edith befriends a couple, inviting them over for coffee, not realizing that the other couple is into swinging and are under the impression that they are to swap spouses with her and Archie for the night.
- In an episode of American crime drama CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, "Swap Meet", a woman is found dead in the fountain of a gated community after visiting a neighborhood swingers party.
- In The Hard Times of RJ Berger, RJ's parents are apparently swingers.
- InJourneyman, the eighth episode "Winterland" shows Dan Vasser traveling back to 1973 along with Livia and finding themselves in a swinging party.
- The short-lived 2003 series Keen Eddie featured a character Monty Pippin who, along with a female friend, pretended to be married in order to gain access to a swingers' club for recreational sex.
- An episode of the BBC television programme Life on Mars featured the main characters infiltrating a swingers' club.
- In an episode of his Louis Theroux's Weird Weekends series, the BBC2 interviewer and documentary maker Louis Theroux investigated an American Swingers group.
- In an episode on the first season of the Fox series The OC, Sandy and Kirsten Cohen are tricked into attending a swingers' party on New Year's Eve.
- In the second series of Sugar Rush (TV series) Stella and Nathan both experiment in the swinger lifestyle, ending in a visit to a club in Brighton.
- 2008 CBS series Swingtown is a period piece which deals with social and sexual changes of the 1970s, including swinging.
- In the Fox sitcom That '70s Show, the episode "The Good Son" featured Red and Kitty inadvertently attending a swingers' party.
- Touch And Go, a 1998 BBC Two drama, focused on a young couple, played by Martin Clunes and Zara Turner visiting a swinging club in order to reinvigorate their marriage.
- A 2000 episode of the series Yes, Dear ("The Good Couple") featured two of the main characters, Greg and Kim, inadvertently becoming social with a swinging couple.
 See also
- ^ Are you open to an alternative lifestyle?
- ^ a b Bergstrand, Curtis; Blevins Williams, Jennifer (2000-10-10). "Today's Alternative Marriage Styles: The Case of Swingers". Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality 3. http://www.ejhs.org/volume3/swing/body.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
- ^ - Gentle Nibbles swinger blog article "Full Swap vs. Soft Swap" published January 2008
- ^ The Queen's Conjuror; The life and magic of John Dee by Benjamin Woolley, Harper Collins, 2001, ISBN 978-0805065107 , p292
- ^ Jerry Rabow : 50 Jewish Messias. Gefen Publishing, Jerusalem, 1974. p. 121 http://www.rense.com/general64/zzzio.htm
- ^ http://mvdg.wordpress.com/2007/06/27/the-donme-a-secret-jewish-sect-part-ii/
- ^ http://www.zeek.net/706jay/
- ^ Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels, 1848, Manifesto of the Communist Party, Chapter 2. (access date: December 11, 2009.)
- ^ Terry Gould, The Lifestyle: A Look at the Erotic Rites of Swingers (Paperback), (Vintage Canada, November 23, 1999) (ISBN 1-55209-482-0)
- ^ The History and Definitions of Swinging which is couples only, Liberated Christians, Inc.; History of Wife Swapping, homerf.org
- ^ NASCA International
- ^ Official Swingers Online
- ^ Sex in an art gallery? Klimt would approve in The Guardian online, 2010-02-24
- ^ Telegraph 24 February 2010: Vienna museum hosts swingers club to expose sexual inhibitions
- ^ Austrian Times, 24-2-2010: Swingers' club at Vienna's Secession causes controversy
- ^ Kasidie, the Swinger's Lifestyle Magazine maintains a database of all know swinger clubs' websites from around the world
- ^ from a Frequently Asked Questions section of an off-premise club, Playful Encounters in CA
- ^ Kasidie Magazine's July, 2008 article on the legalities regarding swinger clubs in the USA
- ^ "In a study on female bisexuality within the swing community in 1984 by Dr Joan Dixon, she noted that the prevalence of sexual activity between females in the swing community was high. She also found that 'the generally positive reactions of these subjects to their first sexual experience with other females after a lifetime of strict heterosexuality progressed through repeated experience to an overwhelming general rating of excellent'.", Behind closed doors: The swinging Noughties The Independent, (21 January 2007).
- ^ "It's also worth noting that swinging is largely a phenomenon amongst male-female couples who enjoy socializing with other couples, and that as it stands female bisexual behavior is widely accepted but male bisexual behavior generally is not." A New Look at Sex, Society for Human Sexuality, (September 27, 2007) an organization based in Washington, USA
- ^ a b White, Rachel. "Feature article: Exploring Chicago's All-Bi Swingers Club". 2010-06-14. gapers Block. http://gapersblock.com/ac/2010/06/14/exploring-chicagos-all-bi-swingers-club/. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- ^ "[Bathhouses and Sex Clubs] are controversial even within the gay community, and there remain concerns about the degree to which they serve as a vector for STD transmission (at least when safer sex is not being practiced)... [Women-only] are comparatively rare, and are typically either private events or events associated with the women's BDSM community. In Seattle the few times men's bathhouses have been rented out to fund-raising organizations which sponsored women-only events of this nature the response has been incredible...", A New Look at Sex, Society for Human Sexuality, (September 27, 2007)
- ^ "[Some clubs] meanwhile, encourage single women to attend on their own and the clubs are, in fact, aimed at women who want to experiment with their bisexuality.", Behind closed doors: The swinging Noughties The Independent, (21 January 2007).
- ^ from a study by the Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality
- ^ "Confessions of a Single Male Swinger" from Kasidie Magazine, May 2008 issue, successfully accessed 7/16/2008
- ^ "Jailed professor says orgies disturbed no one". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE64K46820100521.
- ^ "Superior Court Quashes CAL-OSHA'S Attempt to Subpoena Confidential AIM Medical Records". AIM Medical. 2009-10-20. http://www.aim-med.org/news/2009/10/20/1256052533/. Retrieved 2009-10-21.
- ^ http://sti.bmj.com/content/early/2010/06/07/sti.2009.041954.abstract
- ^ Janzen 1982, p. 142
- ^ Janzen & McGaffey 1974, p. 100b (.7.10)
- ^ Janzen & McGaffey 1974, p. 116 (81)
- ^ B. Schidloff : "The Sexual Life of South Sea Natives", pp. 208-209. In : R. Burton (ed.) : Venus Oceanica. Oceanica Research Press, New York, 1935. pp. 33-318
- ^ Fields 1998, p. 40.
- ^ Fields 1998, p. 39.
- ^ Fields 1998, p. 39, fn. 10.
- ^ Gerard Zegwaard (transl. from the Dutch by Peter Mason & Ton van Santvoord): Amoko. Crawford House, Belair (SA), 2002. p. 203
- ^ ETHNOLOGY 8(1969):183-8 Ben J. Wallace : "Pagan Gadang Spouse Exchange"
- ^ Hennigh, Lawrence (PDF). Functions and Limitations of Alaskan Eskimo Wife Trading. http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic23-1-24.pdf.
- ^ "Do Eskimo men lend their wives to strangers?". The Straight Dope. 2003-01-21. http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/2066/do-eskimo-men-lend-their-wives-to-strangers. Retrieved 2009-10-24.
- ^ a b Ley, David (2009). Insatiable Wives: Women Who Stray and The Men Who Love Them. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 1442200308. OCLC 373474387.
- ^ Eduardo Batalha Viveiros de Castro (transl. from the Portuguese by Catherine V. Howard) : From the Enemy's Point of View. University of Chicago Press, 1992. p. 127
- Phil Fields : "Of Paradise Lost : Orya myth". In :- INTERNATIONAL MUSEUM OF CULTURES, Publication 33 = Marilyn Gregerson & Joyce Sterner (eds.) : Symbolism and Ritual in Irian Jaya. Cenderawasih University (Jayapura), 1998. pp. 29–47
- CRITICAL STUDIES ON BLACK LIFE AND CULTURE, Vol. 11 = John M. Janzen : Lemba, 1650-1930. Garland Publishing, New York, 1982.
- "Initiation into Lemba". In :- UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, No. 5 = John M. Janzen & Wyatt MacGaffey (eds.) : An Anthology of Kongo Religion : Primary Texts from Lower Zaïre. Lawrence (KS), 1974. section 30
 External links