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"Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution": Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields.[1]

Eugenics is "the study of, or belief in, the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics)."[2] Eugenics was widely popular in the early decades of the 20th century, but has fallen into disfavor after having become associated with Nazi Germany. Since the postwar period, both the public and the scientific communities have associated eugenics with Nazi abuses, such as enforced racial hygiene, human experimentation, and the extermination of "undesired" population groups. However, developments in genetic, genomic, and reproductive technologies at the end of the 20th century have raised many new questions and concerns about the meaning of eugenics and its ethical and moral status in the modern era.


[edit] Overview

As a social movement, eugenics reached its height of popularity in the early decades of the 20th century. By the end of World War II eugenics had been largely abandoned.[3] Although current trends in genetics have raised questions amongst critical academics concerning parallels between pre-war attitudes about eugenics and current "utilitarian" and social theories allegedly related to Darwinism,[4] they are, in fact, only superficially related and somewhat contradictory to one another.[5] At its pre-war height, the movement often pursued pseudoscientific notions of racial supremacy and purity.[6]

Eugenics was practiced around the world and was promoted by governments, and influential individuals and institutions. Its advocates regarded it as a social philosophy for the improvement of human hereditary traits through the promotion of higher reproduction of certain people and traits, and the reduction of reproduction of certain people and traits.[7]

Today it is widely regarded as a brutal movement which inflicted massive human rights violations on millions of people.[8] The "interventions" advocated and practiced by eugenicists involved prominently the identification and classification of individuals and their families, including the poor, mentally ill, blind, promiscuous women, homosexuals and entire racial groups——such as the Roma and Jews——as "degenerate" or "unfit"; the segregation or institutionalisation of such individuals and groups, their sterilization, euthanasia, and in the extreme case of Nazi Germany, their mass extermination.[9]

The practices engaged in by eugenicists involving violations of privacy, attacks on reputation, violations of the right to life, to found a family, to freedom from discrimination are all today classified as violations of human rights. The practice of negative racial aspects of eugenics, after World War II, fell within the definition of the new international crime of genocide, set out in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.[10]

The modern field and term were first formulated by Sir Francis Galton in 1883,[11] drawing on the recent work of his half-cousin Charles Darwin.[12][13] At its peak of popularity eugenics was supported by prominent people, including Margaret Sanger,[14][15] Marie Stopes, H. G. Wells, Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, Emile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, John Maynard Keynes, John Harvey Kellogg, Linus Pauling[16] and Sidney Webb.[17][18][19] Its most infamous proponent and practitioner was, however, Adolf Hitler who praised and incorporated eugenic ideas in Mein Kampf and emulated Eugenic legislation for the sterilization of "defectives" that had been pioneered in the United States.[20]

G. K. Chesterton was an early critic of the philosophy of eugenics, expressing this opinion in his book, Eugenics and Other Evils. Eugenics became an academic discipline at many colleges and universities, and received funding from many sources.[21] Three International Eugenics Conferences presented a global venue for eugenicists with meetings in 1912 in London, and in 1921 and 1932 in New York. Eugenic policies were first implemented in the early 1900s in the United States.[22] Later, in the 1920s and 30s, the eugenic policy of sterilizing certain mental patients was implemented in a variety of other countries, including Belgium,[23] Brazil,[24] Canada,[25] and Sweden,[26] among others. The scientific reputation of eugenics started to decline in the 1930s, a time when Ernst Rüdin used eugenics as a justification for the racial policies of Nazi Germany, and when proponents of eugenics among scientists and thinkers prompted a backlash in the public. Nevertheless, the second largest known eugenics program, created by social democrats in Sweden, continued until 1975.[26]

Since the postwar period, both the public and the scientific communities have associated eugenics with Nazi abuses, such as enforced racial hygiene, human experimentation, and the extermination of "undesired" population groups. However, developments in genetic, genomic, and reproductive technologies at the end of the 20th century have raised many new questions and concerns about what exactly constitutes the meaning of eugenics and what its ethical and moral status is in the modern era.

[edit] Meanings and types

The word eugenics derives from the Greek word eu (good or well) and the suffix -genä“s (born), and was coined by Sir Francis Galton in 1883, who defined it as "the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations".[27] Eugenics has, from the very beginning, meant many different things to many different people. Historically, the term has referred to everything from prenatal care for mothers to forced sterilization and euthanasia. Much debate has taken place in the past, as it does today, as to what exactly counts as eugenics.[28] Some types of eugenics deal only with perceived beneficial and/or detrimental genetic traits. These are sometimes called “pseudo-eugenics’ by proponents of strict eugenics.

The term eugenics is often used to refer to movements and social policies influential during the early twentieth century. In a historical and broader sense, eugenics can also be a study of "improving human genetic qualities." It is sometimes broadly applied to describe any human action whose goal is to improve the gene pool. Some forms of infanticide in ancient societies, present-day reprogenetics, preemptive abortions and designer babies have been (sometimes controversially) referred to as eugenic. Because of its normative goals and historical association with scientific racism, as well as the development of the science of genetics, the western scientific community has mostly disassociated itself from the term "eugenics", although one can find advocates of what is now known as liberal eugenics. Despite its ongoing criticism in the United States, several regions globally practice different forms of eugenics.

Eugenicists advocate specific policies that (if successful) they believe will lead to a perceived improvement of the human gene pool. Since defining what improvements are desired or beneficial is perceived by many as a cultural choice rather than a matter that can be determined objectively (e.g., by empirical, scientific inquiry), eugenics has often been deemed a pseudoscience.[29] The most disputed aspect of eugenics has been the definition of "improvement" of the human gene pool, such as what is a beneficial characteristic and what is a defect. This aspect of eugenics has historically been tainted with scientific racism.

Early eugenicists were mostly concerned with perceived intelligence factors that often correlated strongly with social class. Many eugenicists took inspiration from the selective breeding of animals (where purebreds are often strived for) as their analogy for improving human society. The mixing of races (or miscegenation) was usually considered as something to be avoided in the name of racial purity. At the time this concept appeared to have some scientific support, and it remained a contentious issue until the advanced development of genetics led to a scientific consensus that the division of the human species into unequal races is unjustifiable.

Eugenics has also been concerned with the elimination of hereditary diseases such as hemophilia and Huntington's disease. However, there are several problems with labeling certain factors as genetic defects. In many cases there is no scientific consensus on what a genetic defect is. It is often argued that this is more a matter of social or individual choice. What appears to be a genetic defect in one context or environment may not be so in another. This can be the case for genes with a heterozygote advantage, such as sickle-cell disease or Tay-Sachs disease, which in their heterozygote form may offer an advantage against, respectively, malaria and tuberculosis. Although some birth defects are uniformly lethal, disabled persons can succeed in life. Many of the conditions early eugenicists identified as inheritable (pellagra is one such example) are currently considered to be at least partially, if not wholly, attributed to environmental conditions. Similar concerns have been raised when a prenatal diagnosis of a congenital disorder leads to abortion (see also preimplantation genetic diagnosis).

Eugenic policies have been conceptually divided into two categories. Positive eugenics is aimed at encouraging reproduction among the genetically advantaged. Possible approaches include financial and political stimuli, targeted demographic analyses, in vitro fertilization, egg transplants, and cloning.[30] Negative eugenics is aimed at lowering fertility among the genetically disadvantaged. This includes abortions, sterilization, and other methods of family planning.[30] Both positive and negative eugenics can be coercive. Abortion by "fit" women was illegal in Nazi Germany and in the Soviet Union during Stalin's reign.[citation needed]

During the 20th century, many countries enacted various eugenics policies and programs, including: genetic screening, birth control, promoting differential birth rates, marriage restrictions, segregation (both racial segregation as well as segregation of the mentally ill from the rest of the population), compulsory sterilization, forced abortions or forced pregnancies and genocide. Most of these policies were later regarded as coercive and/or restrictive, and now few jurisdictions implement policies that are explicitly labeled as eugenic or unequivocally eugenic in substance. However, some private organizations assist people in genetic counseling, and reprogenetics may be considered as a form of non-state-enforced liberal eugenics.

[edit] Implementation methods

There are three main ways by which the methods of eugenics can be applied.[citation needed] One is mandatory eugenics or authoritarian eugenics, in which the government mandates a eugenics program. Policies and/or legislation are often seen as being coercive and restrictive. Another is promotional voluntary eugenics, in which eugenics is voluntarily practiced and promoted to the general population, but not officially mandated. This is a form of non-state enforced eugenics, using a liberal or democratic approach, which can mostly be seen in the 1900s.[31] The third is private eugenics, which is practiced voluntarily by individuals and groups, but not promoted to the general population.

[edit] Notable proponents

Charles Davenport, a scientist from the United States stands out as history's leading eugenicist. He took eugenics from a scientific idea to a worldwide movement implemented in many countries.[32] Davenport obtained funding to establish the Biological Experiment Station at Cold Spring Harbor in 1904[33] and the Eugenics Records Office in 1910, which provided the scientific basis for later Eugenic policies.[34] He became the first President of the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations (IFEO) in 1925, an organization he was instrumental in building.[35] However, Davenport's racist views were not supported by all geneticists at Cold Spring Harbor.[36]

In 1932 Davenport welcomed Ernst Rüdin, a prominent Swiss eugenicist and race scientist, as his successor in the position of President of the IFEO.[37] Rüdin worked closely with Alfred Ploetz, his brother-in-law and co-founder with him of the German Society for the Racial Hygiene.[38] Other prominent figures in the Eugenics included Harry Laughlin (United States), Havelock Ellis (United Kingdom), Irving Fischer (United States), Eugen Fischer (Germany), Madison Grant (United States), Lucien Howe (United States), and Margaret Sanger (United States, founder of Planned Parenthood).[39]

[edit] History

[edit] Pre-Galtonian philosophies

Tribes such as the Fans, aboriginal tribes and ancient Prussian tribes all carried out policies reminiscent of eugenics.[40] A form of eugenics is even advocated in the Tanakh and Catholic Bible. Taking a wife from outside one's kinsmen was considered tantamount to sin. Despite all the prohibitions concerning sex in Leviticus, marriage with one's first cousin is still permitted.[41]

The philosophy was most famously expounded by Plato, who believed human reproduction should be monitored and controlled by the state. However, Plato understood this form of government control would not be readily accepted, and proposed the truth be concealed from the public via a fixed lottery. Mates, in Plato’s Republic, would be chosen by a “marriage number” in which the quality of the individual would be quantitatively analyzed, and persons of high numbers would be allowed to procreate with other persons of high numbers. In theory, this would lead to predictable results and the improvement of the human race. However, Plato acknowledged the failure of the “marriage number” since “gold soul” persons could still produce “bronze soul” children.[citation needed]

Plato's ideas may have been one of the earliest attempts to mathematically analyze genetic inheritance, which was not perfected until the development of Mendelian genetics and the mapping of the human genome. Other ancient civilizations, such as Rome, Athens[42] and Sparta, practiced infanticide through exposure as a form of phenotypic selection. In Sparta, newborns were inspected by the city's elders, who decided the fate of the infant. If the child was deemed incapable of living, it was usually exposed[43] in the Apothetae near the Taygetus mountain. It was more common for boys than girls to be killed this way in Sparta.[44] Trials for babies included bathing them in wine and exposing them to the elements. To Sparta, this would ensure only the strongest survived and procreated.[45] Adolf Hitler considered Sparta to be the first "Völkisch State," and much like Ernst Haeckel before him, praised Sparta due to its primitive form of eugenics practice of selective infanticide policy which was applied on deformed children though the Nazis believed the children were killed outright and not exposed.[46][47][48]

The Twelve Tables of Roman Law, established early in the formation of the Roman Republic, stated in the fourth table that deformed children must be put to death. In addition, patriarchs in Roman society were given the right to "discard" infants at their discretion. This was often done by drowning undesired newborns in the Tiber River. The practice of open infanticide in the Roman Empire did not subside until its Christianization.

[edit] Galton's theory

Sir Francis Galton initially developed the ideas of eugenics using social statistics.

Sir Francis Galton systematized these ideas and practices according to new knowledge about the evolution of man and animals provided by the theory of his cousin Charles Darwin during the 1860s and 1870s. After reading Darwin's Origin of Species, Galton built upon Darwin's ideas whereby the mechanisms of natural selection were potentially thwarted by human civilization. He reasoned that, since many human societies sought to protect the underprivileged and weak, those societies were at odds with the natural selection responsible for extinction of the weakest; and only by changing these social policies could society be saved from a "reversion towards mediocrity," a phrase he first coined in statistics and which later changed to the now common "regression towards the mean".[49]

Galton first sketched out his theory in the 1865 article "Hereditary Talent and Character," then elaborated further in his 1869 book Hereditary Genius.[50] He began by studying the way in which human intellectual, moral, and personality traits tended to run in families. Galton's basic argument was "genius" and "talent" were hereditary traits in humans (although neither he nor Darwin yet had a working model of this type of heredity). He concluded since one could use artificial selection to exaggerate traits in other animals, one could expect similar results when applying such models to humans. As he wrote in the introduction to Hereditary Genius:

I propose to show in this book that a man's natural abilities are derived by inheritance, under exactly the same limitations as are the form and physical features of the whole organic world. Consequently, as it is easy, notwithstanding those limitations, to obtain by careful selection a permanent breed of dogs or horses gifted with peculiar powers of running, or of doing anything else, so it would be quite practicable to produce a highly-gifted race of men by judicious marriages during several consecutive generations.[51]

Galton claimed that the less intelligent were more fertile than the more intelligent of his time. Galton did not propose any selection methods; rather, he hoped a solution would be found if social mores changed in a way that encouraged people to see the importance of breeding. He first used the word eugenic in his 1883 Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development,[52] a book in which he meant "to touch on various topics more or less connected with that of the cultivation of race, or, as we might call it, with 'eugenic' questions." He included a footnote to the word "eugenic" which read:

That is, with questions bearing on what is termed in Greek, eugenes namely, good in stock, hereditary endowed with noble qualities. This, and the allied words, eugeneia, etc., are equally applicable to men, brutes, and plants. We greatly want a brief word to express the science of improving stock, which is by no means confined to questions of judicious mating, but which, especially in the case of man, takes cognizance of all influences that tend in however remote a degree to give to the more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable than they otherwise would have had. The word eugenics would sufficiently express the idea; it is at least a neater word and a more generalized one than viticulture which I once ventured to use.[53]

In 1904 he clarified his definition of eugenics as "the science which deals with all influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race; also with those that develop them to the utmost advantage."[54]

Galton's formulation of eugenics was based on a strong statistical approach, influenced heavily by Adolphe Quetelet's "social physics". Unlike Quetelet, however, Galton did not exalt the "average man" but decried him as mediocre. Galton and his statistical heir Karl Pearson developed what was called the biometrical approach to eugenics, which developed new and complex statistical models (later exported to wholly different fields) to describe the heredity of traits. However, with the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's hereditary laws, two separate camps of eugenics advocates emerged. One was made up of statisticians, the other of biologists. Statisticians thought the biologists had exceptionally crude mathematical models, while biologists thought the statisticians knew little about biology.[55]

Eugenics eventually referred to human selective reproduction with an intent to create children with desirable traits, generally through the approach of influencing differential birth rates. These policies were mostly divided into two categories: positive eugenics, the increased reproduction of those seen to have advantageous hereditary traits; and negative eugenics, the discouragement of reproduction by those with hereditary traits perceived as poor. Negative eugenic policies in the past have ranged from attempts at segregation to sterilization and even genocide. Positive eugenic policies have typically taken the form of awards or bonuses for "fit" parents who have another child. Relatively innocuous practices like marriage counseling had early links with eugenic ideology. Eugenics is superficially related to what would later be known as Social Darwinism. While both claimed intelligence was hereditary, eugenics asserted new policies were needed to actively change the status quo towards a more "eugenic" state, while the Social Darwinists argued society itself would naturally "check" the problem of "dysgenics" if no welfare policies were in place (for example, the poor might reproduce more but would have higher mortality rates).[5]

[edit] Britain

Galton's view of the British class structure was the basis and emphasis of the eugenics movement in Britain.

In Britain, eugenics never received significant state funding, but it was supported by many prominent figures of different political persuasions before World War I, including: Liberal economists William Beveridge and John Maynard Keynes; Fabian socialists such as Irish author George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells and Sidney Webb; the future Prime Minister Winston Churchill; and Conservatives such as Arthur Balfour.[19]

Furthermore, its emphasis was more upon social class, rather than race.[56] Indeed, Galton expressed these views during a lecture in 1901 in which he placed the British society into groups. These groupings are shown in the figure and indicate the proportion of society falling into each group and their perceived genetic worth. Galton suggested that negative eugenics (i.e. an attempt to prevent them from bearing offspring) should be applied only to those in the lowest social group (the "Undesirables"), while positive eugenics applied to the higher classes. However, he appreciated the worth of the higher working classes to society and industry.

Sterilisation programmes were never legalised, although some were carried out in private upon the mentally ill by clinicians who were in favour of a more widespread eugenics plan.[56] Indeed, those in support of eugenics shifted their lobbying of Parliament from enforced to voluntary sterilization, in the hope of achieving more legal recognition.[56] But leave for the Labour Party Member of Parliament Major A. G. Church, to propose a Private Member's Bill in 1931, which would legalise the operation for voluntary sterilization, was rejected by 167 votes to 89.[57] The limited popularity of eugenics in Britain was reflected by the fact that only two universities established courses in this field (University College London and Liverpool University). The Galton Institute, affiliated to UCL, was headed by Galton's protégé, Karl Pearson.

[edit] United States

One of the earliest modern advocates of eugenics (before it was labeled as such) was Alexander Graham Bell. In 1881 Bell investigated the rate of deafness on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. From this he concluded that deafness was hereditary in nature and, through noting that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children, tentatively suggested that couples where both were deaf should not marry, in his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on 13 November 1883.[58] However, it was his hobby of livestock breeding which led to his appointment to biologist David Starr Jordan's Committee on Eugenics, under the auspices of the American Breeders Association. The committee unequivocally extended the principle to man.[59]

During the 20th century, researchers interested in familial mental disorders conducted a number of studies to document the heritability of such illnesses as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Their findings were used by the eugenics movement as proof for its cause. State laws were written in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to prohibit marriage and force sterilization of the mentally ill in order to prevent the "passing on" of mental illness to the next generation. These laws were upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1927 and were not abolished until the mid-20th century. All in all, 60,000 Americans were sterilized.[60]

In 1907 Indiana became the first of more than thirty states to adopt legislation aimed at compulsory sterilization of certain individuals.[61] Although the law was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court in 1921,[62] the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of a Virginia law allowing for the compulsory sterilization of patients of state mental institutions in 1927.[63]

Beginning with Connecticut in 1896, many states enacted marriage laws with eugenic criteria, prohibiting anyone who was "epileptic, imbecile or feeble-minded" from marrying. In 1898 Charles B. Davenport, a prominent American biologist, began as director of a biological research station based in Cold Spring Harbor where he experimented with evolution in plants and animals. In 1904 Davenport received funds from the Carnegie Institution to found the Station for Experimental Evolution. The Eugenics Record Office (ERO) opened in 1910 while Davenport and Harry H. Laughlin began to promote eugenics.[64]

The Immigration Restriction League (founded in 1894) was the first American entity associated officially with eugenics. The League sought to bar what it considered dysgenic members of certain races from entering America and diluting what it saw as the superior American racial stock through procreation. They lobbied for a literacy test for immigrants, based on the belief that literacy rates were low among "inferior races". Literacy test bills were vetoed by Presidents in 1897, 1913 and 1915; eventually, President Wilson's second veto was overruled by Congress in 1917. Membership in the League included: A. Lawrence Lowell, president of Harvard, William DeWitt Hyde, president of Bowdoin College, James T. Young, director of Wharton School and David Starr Jordan, president of Stanford University. The League allied themselves with the American Breeder’s Association to gain influence and further its goals and in 1909 established a eugenics committee chaired by David Starr Jordan with members Charles Davenport, Alexander Graham Bell, Vernon Kellogg, Luther Burbank, William Earnest Castle, Adolf Meyer, H. J. Webber and Friedrich Woods.[65] The ABA's immigration legislation committee, formed in 1911 and headed by League’s founder Prescott F. Hall, formalized the committee’s already strong relationship with the Immigration Restriction League.[65]

In years to come, the ERO collected a mass of family pedigrees and concluded that those who were unfit came from economically and socially poor backgrounds. Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard and the conservationist Madison Grant (all well respected in their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the "unfit". (Davenport favored immigration restriction and sterilization as primary methods; Goddard favored segregation in his The Kallikak Family; Grant favored all of the above and more, even entertaining the idea of extermination.)[66] Though their methodology and research methods are now understood as highly flawed, at the time this was seen as legitimate scientific research.[67] It did, however, have scientific detractors (notably, Thomas Hunt Morgan, one of the few Mendelians to explicitly criticize eugenics), though most of these focused more on what they considered the crude methodology of eugenicists, and the characterization of almost every human characteristic as being hereditary, rather than the idea of eugenics itself.[68]

Some states sterilized "imbeciles" for much of the 20th century. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the 1927 Buck v. Bell case that the state of Virginia could sterilize those it thought unfit. The most significant era of eugenic sterilization was between 1907 and 1963, when over 64,000 individuals were forcibly sterilized under eugenic legislation in the United States.[69] A favorable report on the results of sterilization in California, the state with the most sterilizations by far, was published in book form by the biologist Paul Popenoe and was widely cited by the Nazi government as evidence that wide-reaching sterilization programs were feasible and humane.

Public acceptance in the U.S. was the reason eugenic legislation was passed. Over 19 million people attended the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco, open for 10 months from February 20 to December 4, 1915.[70] The PPIE was a fair devoted to extolling the virtues of a rapidly progressing nation, featuring new developments in science, agriculture, manufacturing and technology. A subject that received a large amount of time and space was that of the developments concerning health and disease, particularly the areas of tropical medicine and race betterment (tropical medicine being the combined study of bacteriology, parasitology and entomology while racial betterment being the promotion of eugenic studies). Having these areas so closely intertwined, it seemed that they were both categorized in the main theme of the fair, the advancement of civilization. Thus in the public eye, the seemingly contradictory areas of study were both represented under progressive banners of improvement and were made to seem like plausible courses of action to better American society.[71]

The state of California was at the vanguard of the American eugenics movement, performing about 20,000 sterilizations or one third of the 60,000 nationwide from 1909 up until the 1960s.[70] By 1910, there was a large and dynamic network of scientists, reformers and professionals engaged in national eugenics projects and actively promoting eugenic legislation. The American Breeder’s Association was the first eugenic body in the U.S., established in 1906 under the direction of biologist Charles B. Davenport. The ABA was formed specifically to “investigate and report on heredity in the human race, and emphasize the value of superior blood and the menace to society of inferior blood.” Membership included Alexander Graham Bell, Stanford president David Starr Jordan and Luther Burbank.[72]

When Nazi administrators went on trial for war crimes in Nuremberg after World War II, they justified the mass sterilizations (over 450,000 in less than a decade) by citing the United States as their inspiration.[60] The Nazis had claimed American eugenicists inspired and supported Hitler's racial purification laws, and failed to understand the connection between those policies and the eventual genocide of the Holocaust.[73]

A pedigree chart from The Kallikak Family meant to show how one illicit tryst could lead to an entire generation of imbeciles.

The idea of "genius" and "talent" is also considered by William Graham Sumner, a founder of the American Sociological Society (now called the American Sociological Association). He maintained that if the government did not meddle with the social policy of laissez-faire, a class of genius would rise to the top of the system of social stratification, followed by a class of talent. Most of the rest of society would fit into the class of mediocrity. Those who were considered to be defective (mentally retarded, handicapped, etc.) had a negative effect on social progress by draining off necessary resources. They should be left on their own to sink or swim. But those in the class of delinquent (criminals, deviants, etc.) should be eliminated from society ("Folkways", 1907). (Compare to ideals in Plato's Republic.)

However, methods of eugenics were applied to reformulate more restrictive definitions of white racial purity in existing state laws banning interracial marriage: the so-called anti-miscegenation laws. The most famous example of the influence of eugenics and its emphasis on strict racial segregation on such "anti-miscegenation" legislation was Virginia's Racial Integrity Act of 1924. The U.S. Supreme Court overturned this law in 1967 in Loving v. Virginia, and declared anti-miscegenation laws unconstitutional.

With the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, eugenicists for the first time played an important role in the Congressional debate as expert advisers on the threat of "inferior stock" from eastern and southern Europe.[74] This reduced the number of immigrants from abroad to 15 percent from previous years, to control the number of "unfit"[citation needed] individuals entering the country. While eugenicists did support the act, the most important backers were union leaders like Samuel Gompers[75] The new act, inspired by the eugenic belief in the racial superiority of "old stock" white Americans as members of the "Nordic race" (a form of white supremacy), strengthened the position of existing laws prohibiting race-mixing.[76] Eugenic considerations also lay behind the adoption of incest laws in much of the U.S. and were used to justify many anti-miscegenation laws.[77]

Anthropometry demonstrated in an exhibit from a 1921 eugenics conference.

Stephen Jay Gould asserted that restrictions on immigration passed in the United States during the 1920s (and overhauled in 1965 with the Immigration and Nationality Act) were motivated by the goals of eugenics. During the early 20th century, the United States and Canada began to receive far higher numbers of Southern and Eastern European immigrants. Influential eugenicists like Lothrop Stoddard and Harry Laughlin (who was appointed as an expert witness for the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization in 1920) presented arguments they would pollute the national gene pool if their numbers went unrestricted.[citation needed] It has been argued that this stirred both Canada and the United States into passing laws creating a hierarchy of nationalities, rating them from the most desirable Anglo-Saxon and Nordic peoples to the Chinese and Japanese immigrants, who were almost completely banned from entering the country.[78]

However, several people, in particular Franz Samelson, Mark Snyderman and Richard Herrnstein, have argued, based on their examination of the records of the congressional debates over immigration policy, Congress gave virtually no consideration to these factors. According to these authors, the restrictions were motivated primarily by a desire to maintain the country's cultural integrity against the heavy influx of foreigners.[79]

In the USA, eugenic supporters included Theodore Roosevelt,[80] the National Academy of Sciences,[81] and the National Research Council.[82] Research was funded by distinguished philanthropies and carried out at prestigious universities.[83] It was taught in college and high school classrooms.[84] Margaret Sanger founded Planned Parenthood of America to urge the legalization of contraception for poor, immigrant women.[85] In its time eugenics was touted by some as scientific and progressive,[86] the natural application of knowledge about breeding to the arena of human life. Before the realization of death camps in World War II, the idea that eugenics would lead to genocide was not taken seriously by the average American.

The Negro Project conspiracy theory is an alleged eugenics program. The project, according to proponents of the theory, was originated by Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger and supposedly aims to reduce or eliminate the black population through use of abortion.[87] Although the U.S. state of Oregon did not repeal its forced sterilization law until 1983, the last known forced sterilization there was performed in 1978.[88]

[edit] Australia

The policy of removing mixed race Aboriginal children from their parents emerged from an opinion based on Eugenics theory in late nineteenth and early twentieth-century Australia that the 'full-blood' tribal Aborigine would be unable to sustain itself, and was doomed to inevitable extinction, as at the time huge numbers of aborigines were in fact dying out, from diseases caught from European settlers.[89] An ideology at the time held that mankind could be divided into a civilizational hierarchy. This notion supposed that Northern Europeans were superior in civilization and that Aborigines were inferior. According to this view, the increasing numbers of mixed-descent children in Australia, labeled as 'half-castes' (or alternatively 'crossbreeds', 'quadroons' and 'octoroons') should develop within their respective communities, white or aboriginal, according to their dominant parentage.[90]

In the first half of the twentieth century, this led to policies and legislation that resulted in the removal of children from their tribe.[91] The stated aim was to culturally assimilate mixed-descent people into contemporary Australian society. In all states and territories legislation was passed in the early years of the twentieth century which gave Aboriginal protectors guardianship rights over Aborigines up to the age of sixteen or twenty-one. Policemen or other agents of the state (such as Aboriginal Protection Officers), were given the power to locate and transfer babies and children of mixed descent, from their communities into institutions. In these Australian states and territories, half-caste institutions (both government or missionary) were established in the early decades of the twentieth-century for the reception of these separated children.[92][93] The 2002 movie Rabbit-Proof Fence portrays this system and the harrowing consequences of attempting to overcome it.

In 1922 A.O. Neville was appointed the second Western Australia State Chief Protector of Aborigines. During the next quarter-century, he presided over the now notorious 'Assimilation' policy of removing mixed-race Aboriginal children from their parents. This policy in turn created the Stolen Generations and set in motion a grieving process that has become known as the[who?] concept of trans-generational grief,[citation needed] and would affect many generations to come. Albert Namatjira, Ernie Dingo, Lionel Rose, Cathy Freeman, Nova Peris-Kneebone, Michael Long, Gavin Wanganeen, and many other successful Australian Aboriginals, were all products of the "Stolen Generation".[citation needed] In 1936 Neville became the Commissioner for Native Affairs, a post he held until his retirement in 1940.

Neville believed that biological absorption was the key to 'uplifting the Native race.' Speaking before the Moseley Royal Commission, which investigated the administration of Aboriginals in 1934, he defended the policies of forced settlement, removing children from parents, surveillance, discipline and punishment, arguing that "they have to be protected against themselves whether they like it or not. They cannot remain as they are. The sore spot requires the application of the surgeon's knife for the good of the patient, and probably against the patients will." In his twilight years Neville continued to actively promote his policy. Towards the end of his career, Neville published Australia's Coloured Minority, a text outlining his plan for the biological absorption of aboriginal people into white Australia.[94][95]

[edit] Canada

In Canada, the eugenics movement gained support early in the 20th century as prominent physicians drew a direct link between heredity and public health.[96] Eugenics was enforced by law in two Canadian provinces. In Alberta, the Sexual Sterilization Act was enacted in 1928, focusing the movement on the sterilization of mentally deficient individuals, as determined by the Alberta Eugenics Board.[97] The campaign to enforce this action was backed by groups such as the United Farm Women's Group, including key member Emily Murphy.[98]

Individuals were assessed using IQ tests like the Stanford-Binet. This posed a problem to new immigrants arriving in Canada, as many had not mastered the English language, and often their scores denoted them as having impaired intellectual functioning. As a result, many of those sterilized under the Sexual Sterilization Act were immigrants who were unfairly categorized.[99] The province of British Columbia enacted its own Sexual Sterilization Act in 1933. As in Alberta, the British Columbia Eugenics Board could recommend the sterilization of those it considered to be suffering from "mental disease or mental deficiency."[100]

The popularity of the eugenics movement peaked during the Depression when sterilization was widely seen as a way of relieving society of the financial burdens imposed by defective individuals.[101] Although the eugenics excesses of Nazi Germany diminished the popularity of the eugenics movement, the Sexual Sterilization Acts of Alberta and British Columbia were not repealed until 1972.[102]

[edit] Germany

Nazi propaganda for their compulsory "euthanasia" program: "This person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community 60,000 Reichsmark during his lifetime. Fellow German, that is your money, too."
"We do not stand alone": Nazi poster from 1936 with flags of other countries with, or considering introducing, compulsory sterilization legislation.

Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler was well known for eugenics programs which attempted to maintain a "pure" German race through a series of programs that ran under the banner of racial hygiene. Among other activities, the Nazis performed extensive experimentation on live human beings to test their genetic theories, ranging from simple measurement of physical characteristics to the experiments carried out by Josef Mengele for Otmar von Verschuer on twins in the concentration camps. During the 1930s and 1940s, the Nazi regime forcibly sterilized hundreds of thousands of people whom they viewed as mentally and physically unfit, an estimated 400,000 between 1934 and 1937. The scale of the Nazi program prompted one American eugenics advocate to seek an expansion of their program, with one complaining that "the Germans are beating us at our own game".[103]

The Nazis went further, however, killing tens of thousands of the institutionalized disabled through compulsory "euthanasia" programs such as Aktion T4.[104] The methods of murder developed in the euthanasia policy led directly to their widespread use in concentration camps and extermination camps, especially the use of carbon monoxide followed by hydrogen cyanide in Zyklon B.

They also implemented a number of positive eugenics policies, giving awards to Aryan women who had large numbers of children and encouraged a service in which "racially pure" single women could deliver illegitimate children. Allegations that such women were also impregnated by SS officers in the Lebensborn were not proven at the Nuremberg trials, but new evidence (and the testimony of Lebensborn children) has established more details about Lebensborn practices.[105] Also, "racially valuable" children from occupied countries were forcibly removed from their parents and adopted by German people. Many of their concerns for eugenics and racial hygiene were also explicitly present in their systematic killing of millions of "undesirable" people, especially Jews and Gypsies, in the Holocaust.[106] The scope and coercion involved in the German eugenics programs along with a strong use of the rhetoric of eugenics and so-called "racial science" throughout the regime created an indelible cultural association between eugenics and the Third Reich in the post-war years.[107]

Two scholars, John Glad and Seymour W. Itzkoff of Smith College, have questioned the relation between eugenics and the Holocaust. They argue that, contrary to popular beliefs Hitler did not regard the Jews as intellectually inferior and did not send them to the concentration camps on these grounds. They argue that Hitler had different reasons for his genocidal policies toward the Jews.[108] Seymour W. Itzkoff writes that the Holocaust was "a vast dysgenic program to rid Europe of highly intelligent challengers to the existing Christian domination by a numerically and politically minuscule minority". Therefore, according to Itzkoff, "the Holocaust was the very antithesis of eugenic practice."[109]

[edit] Japan

In the early part of the Shōwa era, Japanese governments executed a eugenic policy to limit the birth of children with "inferior" traits, as well as aiming to protect the life and health of mothers.[110] The Race Eugenic Protection Law was submitted from 1934 to 1938 to the Diet. After four amendments, this draft was promulgated as the National Eugenic Law in 1940 by the Konoe government.[111] According to the Eugenic Protection Law (1948), sterilization could be enforced on criminals "with genetic predisposition to commit crime", patients with genetic diseases such as total color-blindness, hemophilia, albinism and ichthyosis, and mental affections such as schizophrenia, manic-depressiveness and epilepsy.[112] Mental illnesses were added in 1952.

The Leprosy Prevention laws of 1907, 1931 and 1953, the last one only repealed in 1996, permitted the segregation of patients in sanitariums where forced abortions and sterilization were common, even if the laws did not refer to it, and authorized punishment of patients "disturbing peace," as most Japanese leprologists believed that vulnerability to the disease was inheritable.[113] There were a few Japanese leprologists such as Noburo Ogasawara who argued against the "isolation-sterilization policy" but he was denounced as a traitor to the nation at the 15th conference of the Japanese Association of Leprology in 1941.[114]

Center staff also attempted to discourage marriage between Japanese women and Korean men who had been recruited from the peninsula as laborers following its annexation by Japan in 1910. In 1942, a survey report argued that "the Korean laborers brought to Japan, where they have established permanent residency, are of the lower classes and therefore of inferior constitution...By fathering children with Japanese women, these men could lower the caliber of the Yamato minzoku."[115]

One of the last eugenic measures of the Shōwa regime was taken by the Higashikuni government. On 19 August 1945, the Home Ministry ordered local government offices to establish a prostitution service for allied soldiers to preserve the "purity" of the "Japanese race". The official declaration stated that : "Through the sacrifice of thousands of "Okichis" of the Shōwa era, we shall construct a dike to hold back the mad frenzy of the occupation troops and cultivate and preserve the purity of our race long into the future..."[116]

[edit] China

Eugenics was one of many ideas and programs debated in the 1920s and 1930s in Republican China, as a means of improving society and raising China's stature in the world. The principal Chinese proponent of eugenics was the prominent sociologist Pan Guangdan, and a significant number of intellectuals entered into the debate, including Gao Xisheng, biologist Zhou Jianren, sociologist Chen Da, and Chen Jianshan, and many others.[117][118] Chen Da is notable for the link he provides to the family planning policy and One Child Policy enacted in China after the establishment of the People's Republic of China.

[edit] Sweden

In Sweden, the Sterilization Act of 1934 provided for the voluntary sterilization of some mental patients.[citation needed] The law was passed while the Swedish Social Democratic Party was in power, though it was also supported by all other political parties in Parliament at the time, as well as the Lutheran Church and much of the medical profession.[119] From about 1934 to until 1975, Sweden sterilized more than 62,000 people, with Herman Lundborg in the lead of the project.[120] Sweden sterilized more people than any other European state except Nazi Germany. However, it is more reasonable to compare numbers per caipita. If so, Finland has sterilised the most and the Nordic countries and the state of California sterilised about the same percentage.[121] More people were sterilized in 1948 than any other year.

Sweden's large-scale eugenics program targeted the deviant and the mentally ill. Most sterilizations were voluntary[citation needed] (though voluntary does not necessarily mean free from persuasion or exhortation). The Swedish government inquiry found that about 30.000 of the 62.000 were sterilised under some form of pressure or coercion. As was the case in other programs, ethnicity and race were believed to be connected to mental and physical health. The Swedish government inquiry denied that the Swedish sterilisation program targeted ethnic minorities but did not provide any evidence for this and the governmentâ´s claims are contradicted by the experiences recounted by Swedish gypsies and travellers.[122]

There is proof that the program targeted women. The goal of the program was to decrease deviant offspring. If one member of a family was considered deviant the whole family became the target of an investigation. It was perceived to be easier to persuade a woman to be sterilized than it was to persuade a man. For this reason women were more often sterilized than men, despite the fact that the medical procedure involved in the sterilization was simpler to carry out on a man.[123]

Even as far as 1996, social democrats rejected paying compensation to those who had been sterilized. No one in Sweden raised the issue of compensation to the victims until there was international attention to Swedish eugenics following a 1997 series of articles in by the Polish-born journalist Maciej Zaremba, in Swedenâ´s largest daily, Dagens Nyheter. In 1999 the Swedish government began paying compensation to the sterilized and their families an equivalent to 21,000 USD to those who had "not consented" and who applied for the compensation.[26]

[edit] Other countries

Other countries that adopted some form of eugenics program include Norway, France, Finland, Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, and Switzerland with programs to sterilize people the government declared to be mentally deficient. Singapore practiced a limited form of eugenics that involved discouraging marriage between university graduates and the rest through segregation in matchmaking agencies, in the hope that the former would produce better children, although this point is contestable.[124] Most notably its government introduced the "Graduate Mother Scheme" in the early 1980s to entice graduate women with incentives to get married, which was eventually scrapped due to public criticism and the implications it had on meritocracy.[125]

[edit] Marginalization after World War II

In the decades after World War II, eugenics became increasingly unpopular within academic science. Many organizations and journals that had their origins in the eugenics movement began to distance themselves from the philosophy, as when Eugenics Quarterly became Social Biology in 1969.

After the experience of Nazi Germany, many ideas about "racial hygiene" and "unfit" members of society were publicly renounced by politicians and members of the scientific community. The Nuremberg Trials against former Nazi leaders revealed to the world many of the regime's genocidal practices and resulted in formalized policies of medical ethics and the 1950 UNESCO statement on race. Many scientific societies released their own similar "race statements" over the years, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, developed in response to abuses during the Second World War, was adopted by the United Nations in 1948 and affirmed, "Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family."[126] In continuation, the 1978 UNESCO declaration on race and racial prejudice states that the fundamental equality of all human beings is the ideal toward which ethics and science should converge.[127]

In reaction to Nazi abuses, eugenics became almost universally reviled in many of the nations where it had once been popular (however, some eugenics programs, including sterilization, continued quietly for decades). Many pre-war eugenicists engaged in what they later labeled "crypto-eugenics", purposefully taking their eugenic beliefs "underground" and becoming respected anthropologists, biologists and geneticists in the postwar world (including Robert Yerkes in the U.S. and Otmar von Verschuer in Germany). Californian eugenicist Paul Popenoe founded marriage counseling during the 1950s, a career change which grew from his eugenic interests in promoting "healthy marriages" between "fit" couples.[128]

The American Life League, an opponent of abortion, charges that eugenics was merely "re-packaged" after the war, and promoted anew in the guise of the population-control and environmentalism movements. They claim, for example, that Planned Parenthood was funded and cultivated by the Eugenics Society for these reasons. Julian Huxley, the first Director-General of UNESCO and a founder of the World Wildlife Fund was also a Eugenics Society president and a strong supporter of eugenics[129]

[E]ven though it is quite true that any radical eugenic policy will be for many years politically and psychologically impossible, it will be important for UNESCO to see that the eugenic problem is examined with the greatest care, and that the public mind is informed of the issues at stake so that much that now is unthinkable may at least become thinkable. --Julian Huxley[130]

High school and college textbooks from the 1920s through the '40s often had chapters touting the scientific progress to be had from applying eugenic principles to the population. Many early scientific journals devoted to heredity in general were run by eugenicists and featured eugenics articles alongside studies of heredity in nonhuman organisms. After eugenics fell out of scientific favor, most references to eugenics were removed from textbooks and subsequent editions of relevant journals. Even the names of some journals changed to reflect new attitudes. For example, Eugenics Quarterly became Social Biology in 1969 (the journal still exists today, though it looks little like its predecessor). Notable members of the American Eugenics Society (1922–94) during the second half of the 20th century included Joseph Fletcher, originator of Situational ethics; Dr. Clarence Gamble of the Procter & Gamble fortune; and Garrett Hardin, a population control advocate and author of the essay The Tragedy of the Commons.

In the United States, the eugenics movement had largely lost most popular and political support by the end of the 1930s while forced sterilizations mostly ended in the 1960s with the last performed in 1981.[131] Many US states continued to prohibit biracial marriages with "anti-miscegenation laws" such as Virginia's The Racial Integrity Act of 1924, until they were over-ruled by the Supreme Court in 1967 in Loving v. Virginia.[132] The Immigration Restriction Act of 1924, which was designed to limit the immigration of "dysgenic" Italians, and eastern European Jews, was repealed and replaced by the Immigration and Nationality Act in 1965.[133]

However, some prominent academics continued to support eugenics after the war. In 1963 the Ciba Foundation convened a conference in London under the title “Man and His Future,” at which three distinguished biologists and Nobel laureates (Hermann Muller, Joshua Lederberg, and Francis Crick) all spoke strongly in favor of eugenics.[134] A few nations, notably Sweden and the Canadian province of Alberta, maintained large-scale eugenics programs, including forced sterilization of mentally handicapped individuals, as well as other practices, until the 1970s.[135]

[edit] Modern eugenics, genetic engineering, and ethical re-evaluation

Beginning in the 1980s, the history and concept of eugenics were widely discussed as knowledge about genetics advanced significantly. Endeavors such as the Human Genome Project made the effective modification of the human species seem possible again (as did Darwin's initial theory of evolution in the 1860s, along with the rediscovery of Mendel's laws in the early 20th century). The difference at the beginning of the 21st century was the guarded attitude towards eugenics, which had become a watchword to be feared rather than embraced.[citation needed]

A few scientific researchers such as psychologist Richard Lynn, psychologist Raymond Cattell, and scientist Gregory Stock have openly called for eugenic policies using modern technology, but they represent a minority opinion in current scientific and cultural circles.[136] One attempted implementation of a form of eugenics was a "genius sperm bank" (1980–99) created by Robert Klark Graham, from which nearly 230 children were conceived (the best-known donors were Nobel Prize winners William Shockley and J.D.Watson). In the U.S. and Europe, though, these attempts have frequently been criticized as in the same spirit of classist and racist forms of eugenics of the 1930s. Because of its association with compulsory sterilization and the racial ideals of the Nazi Party, the word eugenics is rarely used by the advocates of such programs.

Eugenicists have argued that immigration from countries with low national IQ is undesirable. According to Raymond Cattell "when a country is opening its doors to immigration from diverse countries, it is like a farmer who buys his seeds from different sources by the sack, with sacks of different average quality of contents."[137]

[edit] Cyprus

A similar screening policy (including prenatal screening and abortion) intended to reduce the incidence of thalassemia exists in both jurisdictions on the island of Cyprus. Since the program's implementation in the 1970s, it has reduced the ratio of children born with the hereditary blood disease from 1 out of every 158 births to almost zero. Tests for the gene are compulsory for both partners, prior to church wedding.[138][139]

[edit] United States

There are some states that require a blood test prior to marriage.[140] While these tests are typically restricted to the detection of the sexually transmitted disease syphilis (which was the most common STD at the time these laws were enacted), some partners will voluntarily test for other diseases and genetic incompatibilities. Harris polls in 1986 and 1992 recorded majority public support for limited forms of germ-line intervention, especially to prevent "children inheriting usually fatal genetic disease".[141]

[edit] Israel

Dor Yeshorim, a program which seeks to reduce the incidence of Tay-Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis, Canavan disease, Fanconi anemia, familial dysautonomia, glycogen storage disease, Bloom's Syndrome, Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, and mucolipidosis IV among certain Jewish communities, is another screening program which has drawn comparisons with liberal eugenics.[142] In Israel, at the expense of the state, the general public is advised to carry out genetic tests to diagnose these diseases early in the pregnancy. If a fetus is diagnosed with one of these diseases, among which Tay-Sachs is the most commonly known, the pregnancy may be terminated, subject to consent.

Most other Ashkenazi Jewish communities also run screening programs because of the higher incidence of genetic diseases. In some Jewish communities, the ancient custom of matchmaking (shidduch) is still practiced, and some matchmakers require blood tests so that they can avoid making matches between individuals who share the same recessive disease traits. In order to attempt to prevent the tragedy of infant death which always results from being homozygous for Tay-Sachs, associations such as the strongly observant Dor Yeshorim (which was founded by Rabbi Joseph Ekstein, who lost four children to the disease) with the purpose of preventing others from suffering the same tragedy test young couples to check whether they carry a risk of passing on fatal conditions.

If both the young man and woman are Tay-Sachs carriers, it is common for the match to be broken off. Judaism, like numerous other religions, discourages abortion unless there is a risk to the woman, in which case her needs take precedence. The effort is not aimed at eradicating the hereditary traits, but rather at the occurrence of homozygosity. The actual impact of this program on allele frequencies is unknown, but little impact would be expected because the program does not impose genetic selection. Instead, it encourages disassortative mating.

[edit] Ethical re-assessment

Modern inquiries into the potential use of genetic engineering have led to an increased invocation of the history of eugenics in discussions of bioethics, most often as a cautionary tale. Some ethicists suggest that even non-coercive eugenics programs would be inherently unethical[citation needed]. This view has been challenged by such thinkers as Nicholas Agar.[143]

In modern bioethics literature, the history of eugenics presents many moral and ethical questions. Commentators have suggested the new eugenics will come from reproductive technologies that will allow parents to create "designer babies" (which biologist Lee M. Silver prominently called "reprogenetics"). This will be predominantly motivated by individual competitiveness and the desire to create the best opportunities for children, rather than an urge to improve the species as a whole, which characterized the early 20th-century forms of eugenics. Because of its less-obviously coercive nature, lack of involvement by the state and a difference in goals, some commentators have questioned whether such activities are eugenics or something else altogether. Supporters of eugenics programs note that Francis Galton did not advocate coercion when he defined the principles of eugenics.[144] Eugenics is, according to Galton, the proper label for bioengineering of better human beings, whether coercive or not. Critics[who?] counter that conformity and other social and legal pressures make eugenics programs inherently coercive.

An example of such individual motivations includes parents attempting to prevent homosexuality in their children,[145] despite lack of evidence of a single genetic cause of homosexuality. The scientific consensus in America, which stems from the 1956 research of Dr. Evelyn Hooker, is that homosexuality in any case is not a disorder. Therefore, it cannot be treated as a defective trait that is justifiably screened for as part of legitimate medical practice.[146]

Daniel Kevles argues that eugenics and the conservation of natural resources are similar propositions. Both can be practiced foolishly so as to abuse individual rights, but both can be practiced wisely. James D. Watson, the first director of the Human Genome Project, initiated the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications Program (ELSI) which has funded a number of studies into the implications of human genetic engineering (along with a prominent website on the history of eugenics), because:

In putting ethics so soon into the genome agenda, I was responding to my own personal fear that all too soon critics of the Genome Project would point out that I was a representative of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory that once housed the controversial Eugenics Record Office. My not forming a genome ethics program quickly might be falsely used as evidence that I was a closet eugenicist, having as my real long-term purpose the unambiguous identification of genes that lead to social and occupational stratification as well as genes justifying racial discrimination.[147]

Distinguished geneticists including Nobel Prize-winners John Sulston ("I don't think one ought to bring a clearly disabled child into the world")[148] and Watson ("Once you have a way in which you can improve our children, no one can stop it")[149] support genetic screening. Which ideas should be described as "eugenic" are still controversial in both public and scholarly spheres. Some observers such as Philip Kitcher have described the use of genetic screening by parents as making possible a form of "voluntary" eugenics.[150]

[edit] Criticism

[edit] Diseases vs. traits

While the science of genetics has increasingly provided means by which certain characteristics and conditions can be identified and understood, given the complexity of human genetics, culture, and psychology there is at this point no agreed objective means of determining which traits might be ultimately desirable or undesirable. Eugenic manipulations that reduce the propensity for criminality and violence, for example, might result in the population being enslaved by an outside aggressor it can no longer defend itself against. Some diseases such as sickle-cell disease and cystic fibrosis respectively confer immunity to malaria and resistance to cholera when a single copy of the recessive allele is contained within the genotype of the individual. Reducing the instance of sickle-cell disease in Africa where malaria is a common and deadly disease could indeed be a net negative effect. On the other hand, genetic diseases like haemochromatosis can increase susceptibility to illness, cause physical deformities, and other dysfunctions.

Eugenic measures against many of these diseases are already being undertaken in societies around the world May 2010, while measures against traits that affect more subtle, poorly understood traits, such as criminality, are relegated to the realm of speculation and science fiction. The effects of diseases are essentially wholly negative, and societies everywhere seek to reduce their impact by various means, some of which are eugenic in all but name. The other traits that are discussed have positive as well as negative effects and are not generally targeted at present anywhere.[citation needed]

[edit] Ethics

A common criticism of eugenics is that it inevitably leads to measures that are unethical (Lynn 2001). A hypothetical scenario posits that if one racial minority group is on average less intelligent than the racial majority group, then it is more likely that the racial minority group will be submitted to a eugenics program rather than the least intelligent members of the whole population. H. L. Kaye wrote of "the obvious truth that eugenics has been discredited by Hitler's crimes," (Kaye 1989). R. L. Hayman argued "the eugenics movement is an anachronism, its political implications exposed by the Holocaust," (Hayman 1990).

Steven Pinker has stated that it is "a conventional wisdom among left-leaning academics that genes imply genocide." He has responded to this "conventional wisdom" by comparing the history of Marxism, which had the opposite position on genes to that of Nazism:

But the 20th century suffered "two" ideologies that led to genocides. The other one, Marxism, had no use for race, didn't believe in genes and denied that human nature was a meaningful concept. Clearly, it's not an emphasis on genes or evolution that is dangerous. It's the desire to remake humanity by coercive means (eugenics or social engineering) and the belief that humanity advances through a struggle in which superior groups (race or classes) triumph over inferior ones.[151]

[edit] Genetic diversity

Eugenic policies could also lead to loss of genetic diversity, in which case a culturally accepted improvement of the gene pool could very likely, as evidenced in numerous instances in isolated island populations (e.g. the Dodo, Raphus cucullatus, of Mauritius) result in extinction due to increased vulnerability to disease, reduced ability to adapt to environmental change and other factors both known and unknown. A long-term species-wide eugenics plan might lead to a scenario similar to this because the elimination of traits deemed undesirable would reduce genetic diversity by definition. (Galton 2001, 48[citation needed]).

Proponents of eugenics argue that in any one generation any realistic program would make only minor changes in a fraction of the gene pool, giving plenty of time to reverse direction if unintended consequences emerge, reducing the likelihood of the elimination of desirable genes. Proponents of eugenics argue that any appreciable reduction in diversity is so far in the future that little concern is needed for now.[152] The possible elimination of the autism genotype is a significant political issue in the autism rights movement, which claims autism is a form of neurodiversity. Many advocates of Down syndrome rights also consider Down syndrome (Trisomy-21) a form of neurodiversity.[citation needed]

[edit] Heterozygous recessive traits

In some instances efforts to eradicate certain single-gene mutations would be nearly impossible. In the event the condition in question was a heterozygous recessive trait, the problem is that by eliminating the visible unwanted trait, there are still many carriers for the genes without, or with fewer, phenotypic effects due to that gene. With genetic testing it may be possible to detect all of the heterozygous recessive traits, but only at great cost with the current technology. Under normal circumstances it is only possible to eliminate a dominant allele from the gene pool. Recessive traits can be severely reduced, but never eliminated unless the complete genetic makeup of all members of the pool was known, as aforementioned. As only very few undesirable traits, such as Huntington's disease, are dominant, the practical value for "eliminating" traits is quite low.

However, there are examples of eugenic acts that managed to lower the prevalence of recessive diseases, although not influencing the prevalence of heterozygote carriers of those diseases. The elevated prevalence of certain genetically transmitted diseases among the Ashkenazi Jewish population (Tay-Sachs, cystic fibrosis, Canavan's disease and Gaucher's disease), has been decreased in current populations by the application of genetic screening.[153]

[edit] See also



Genetic factors:

[edit] References

  1. ^ Currell, Susan; Christina Cogdell (2006). Popular Eugenics: National Efficiency and American Mass Culture in The 1930s. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press. p. 203. ISBN 082141691X. 
  2. ^ "eugenics." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. 21 Mar. 2009. <Dictionary.com>.
  3. ^ See Black, cited below
  4. ^ Duster, Troy "Backdoor to Eugenics". Routledge, 1990
  5. ^ a b Donald MacKenzie, "Eugenics in Britain," Social Studies of Science 6(3) (1975): 503.
  6. ^ See generally Edwin Black, War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race. In addition to being practiced in a number of countries it was internationally organized through the International Federation of Eugenic Organizations. (Black, p 240) Its scientific aspects were carried on through research bodies such as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics (Black, p 286), the Cold Spring Harbour Carnegie Institution for Experimental Evolution (Black, p 40) and the Eugenics Record Office (Black, p 45). Its political aspects involved successful advocacy for changes of law to pursue eugenic objectives, for instance sterilization laws (e.g. U.S. sterilization laws, (Black, see Chapter 6 The United States of Sterilization)). Its moral aspects included rejection of the doctrine that all human beings are born equal and redefining morality purely in terms of genetic fitness(Black, p 237). Its racist elements included pursuit of a pure "Nordic race" or "Aryan" genetic pool and the eventual elimination of less fit races (see Black, Chapter 5 Legitimizing Raceology and Chapter 9 Mongrelization).
  7. ^ The exact definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined. In the definition of it as a "social philosophy"——that is, a philosophy with implications for social order——is not meant to be definitive, and is taken from "Development of a Eugenic Philosophy" by Frederick Osborn in American Sociological Review, Vol. 2, No. 3 (Jun., 1937) , pp. 389–397.
  8. ^ See for example EMBO Reports, European Molecular Biology Organization "In the name of science – the role of biologists in Nazi atrocities: lessons for today's scientists" EMBO Reports Vol 2 No 10 2001, pp 871 et seq which discusses eugenics and its culmination in Nazi atrocities. It concludes "It was scientists who interpreted racial differences as the justification to murder ... It is the responsibility of today's scientists to prevent this from happening again."
  9. ^ See for example, Edwin Black, War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race
  10. ^ Article 2 of the Convention defines genocide as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such:
    (a) Killing members of the group;
    (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
    (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
    (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
    (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
    See Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
  11. ^ Galton, Francis (1883). Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. London: Macmillan. p. 199. 
  12. ^ http://galton.org/letters/darwin/correspondence.htm
  13. ^ http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/correspondence-volume-17
  14. ^ Margaret Sanger, quoted in Katz, Esther; Engelman, Peter (2002). The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. p. 319. ISBN 9780252027376. "Our...campaign for Birth Control is not merely of eugenic value, but is practically identical in ideal with the final aims of Eugenics" 
  15. ^ Franks, Angela (2005). Margaret Sanger's eugenic legacy. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-7864-2011-7. "...her commitment to eugenics was constant...until her death" 
  16. ^ Everett Mendelsohn, Ph.D. Pauling's Eugenics, The Eugenic Temptation, Harvard Magazine, March–April 2000
  17. ^ Gordon, Linda (2002). The Moral Property of Women: A History of Birth Control Politics in America. University of Illinois Press. p. 196. ISBN 0252027647. 
  18. ^ Keynes, John Maynard (1946). "Opening remarks: The Galton Lecture, 1946. The Eugenics Review, vol 38, no. 1, pp. 39–40". The Eugenics Review 38 (1): 39–40. 
  19. ^ a b Okuefuna, David. "Racism: a history". British Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/documentaries/features/racism-history.shtml. Retrieved 2007-12-12. 
  20. ^ Black, pp 274–295
  21. ^ Allen, Garland E., Was Nazi eugenics created in the US?, Embo Reports, 2004
  22. ^ Deborah Barrett and Charles Kurzman. Oct., 2004. Globalizing Social Movement Theory: The Case of Eugenics. Theory and Society, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 505
  23. ^ Science, New Series, Vol. 57, No. 1463 (Jan. 12, 1923), p. 46
  24. ^ Sales Augusto dos Santos and Laurence Hallewell. Jan., 2002. Historical Roots of the "Whitening" of Brazil. Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 1, Brazil: The Hegemonic Process in Political and Cultural Formation, pp. 81
  25. ^ McLaren, Angus. 1990. Our Own Master Race: Eugenics in Canada, 1885–1945. McClelland and Steward Inc. Toronto.
  26. ^ a b c Social Democrats implemented measures to forcibly sterilise 62,000 people. World Socialist Web Site. http://www.wsws.org/articles/1999/mar1999/euge-19m.shtml 
  27. ^ cited in Black, p 18.
  28. ^ A discussion of the shifting meanings of the term can be found in Diane Paul, Controlling human heredity: 1865 to the present (New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1995). ISBN 1-57392-343-5.
  29. ^ Black, Edwin (2004). War Against the Weak. Thunder's Mouth Press. p. 370. ISBN 1568583214, 9781568583211. 
  30. ^ a b Glad, 2008
  31. ^ Rose, Nikolas (2007). The Politics of Life Itself: Biomedicine, Power, and Subjectivity in the Twenty-First Century. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 372. ISBN 0691121915. 
  32. ^ Black, p 34, describes Davenport as eugenics crusader-in-chief
  33. ^ Black, p 40
  34. ^ Black, p 47
  35. ^ Black, p 240
  36. ^ http://www.estherlederberg.com/Eugenics.html
  37. ^ Black, p 286
  38. ^ Black, p 285. Richard Weikart From Darwin to Hitler – Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany, describes this as the world's first Eugenic organization. (Weikart, p 15)
  39. ^ See generally Black and index entries
  40. ^ Allen G. Roper, Ancient Eugenics (Oxford: Cliveden Press, 1913), text at [1]
  41. ^ Leviticus, The Catholic Bible New York: Oxford University Press.
  42. ^ From Myth to Reason by Richard Buxton, ISBN 0-7534-5110-7,1999, page 201, "But the exposure of deformed babies seems to have been a more widespread practice. For Athens, the most conclusive allusion is in Plato's Theaetetus"
  43. ^ Making Patriots by Walter Berns, 2001, page 12, "and whose infants, if they chanced to be puny or ill-formed, were exposed in a chasm (the Apothetae) and left to die;"
  44. ^ Channel 4 – History – The Spartans
  45. ^ Allen G. Roper, Ancient Eugenics (Oxford: Cliveden Press, 1913), text at Euvolution.com
  46. ^ Haeckel, Ernst (1876). "The History of Creation, vol. I". New York: D. Appleton. p. 170. http://www.worldfuturefund.org/wffmaster/Reading/Germany/Radical%20Ecology.htm#EUGENICS%20JUSTIFIED%20BY%20NATURE. "Among the Spartans all newly born children were subject to a careful examination or selection. All those that were weak, sickly, or affected with any bodily infirmity, were killed. Only the perfectly healthy and strong children were allowed to live, and they alone afterwards propagated the race." 
  47. ^ Hitler, Adolf (1961). Hitler's Secret Book. New York: Grove Press. pp. 8–9, 17–18. ISBN 0394620038. OCLC 9830111. "At one time the Spartans were capable of such a wise measure, but not our present, mendaciously sentimental, bourgeois patriotic nonsense. The rule of six thousand Spartans over three hundred and fifty thousand Helots was only thinkable in consequence of the high racial value of the Spartans. But this was the result of a systematic race preservation; thus Sparta must be regarded as the first Völkisch State. The exposure of the sick, weak, deformed children, in short, their destruction, was more decent and in truth a thousand times more humane than the wretched insanity of our day which preserves the most pathological subject, and indeed at any price, and yet takes the life of a hundred thousand healthy children in consequence of birth control or through abortions, in order subsequently to breed a race of degenerates burdened with illnesses." 
  48. ^ Hawkins, Mike (1997). Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860–1945: nature as model and nature as threat. Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 052157434X. OCLC 34705047. http://books.google.com/?id=SszNCxSKmgkC&pg=PA276&dq=Hitler%27s+Secret+Book+sparta. 
  49. ^ See Chapter 3 in Donald A. MacKenzie, Statistics in Britain, 1865–1930: The social construction of scientific knowledge (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1981).
  50. ^ Francis Galton, "Hereditary talent and character", Macmillan's Magazine 12 (1865): 157–166 and 318–327; Francis Galton, Hereditary genius: an inquiry into its laws and consequences (London: Macmillan, 1869).
  51. ^ Galton, Hereditary Genius: 1.
  52. ^ Larson 2004, p. 179 "Galton coined the word "eugenics" in his 1883 book, Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development.
  53. ^ Francis Galton, Inquiries into human faculty and its development (London, Macmillan, 1883): 17, fn1.
  54. ^ Francis Galton, "Eugenics: Its definition, scope, and aims," The American Journal of Sociology 10:1 (July 1904).
  55. ^ See Chapters 2 and 6 in MacKenzie, Statistics in Britain.
  56. ^ a b c Porter, Dorothy (1999). "Eugenics and the sterilization debate in Sweden and Britain before World War II". Scandinavian Journal of History 24: 145–62. doi:10.1080/03468759950115773. ISSN 03468755. 
  57. ^ King and Hansen, 1999. B.J.Pol.S. 29, 77–107
  58. ^ Bell, Alexander Graham (1883). "Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race". Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED033502&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED033502. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  59. ^ Bruce, Robert V (1990). Bell: Alexander Graham Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Cornell University Press. pp. 410; 417. ISBN 0801496918. 
  60. ^ a b The connections between U.S. and Nazi eugenicists is discussed in Edwin Black, "Eugenics and the Nazis – the California connection", San Francisco Chronicle (9 November 2003), as well as Black's War Against the Weak (New York: Four Wars Eight Windows, 2003). Stefan Kühl's work, The Nazi connection: Eugenics, American racism, and German National Socialism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), is considered the standard scholarly work on the subject.
  61. ^ Indiana Supreme Court Legal History Lecture Series, "Three Generations of Imbeciles are Enough:"Reflections on 100 Years of Eugenics in Indiana, at In.gov
  62. ^ Williams v. Smith, 131 NE 2 (Ind.), 1921, text at
  63. ^ Larson 2004, p. 194-195 Citing Buck v. Bell 274 U.S. 200, 205 (1927)
  64. ^ The history of eugenics in the United States is discussed at length in Mark Haller, Eugenics: Hereditarian attitudes in American thought (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1963) and Daniel Kevles, In the name of eugenics: Genetics and the uses of human heredity (New York: Knopf, 1985), the latter being the standard survey work on the subject.
  65. ^ a b Racism and Sexual Oppresion in Anglo-America, Ladelle McWhorter, Indiana University Press, 2009, pg 204–205
  66. ^ See Kevles, In the name of eugenics.
  67. ^ See Pg. 23 " 'Human Progress’ through Eugenics" from Psychology of Mental Fossils, toward an Archeo-psychology by Douglas Keith Candland at Douglascandland.com
  68. ^ Hamilton Cravens, The triumph of evolution: American scientists and the heredity-environment controversy, 1900–1941 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1978): 179.
  69. ^ Paul Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization Laws," essay in the Eugenics Archive, available online at Eugenicsarchive.org.
  70. ^ a b Eugenic Nation: Faults and Frontiers of Better Breeding in Modern America, Alexandra Minna Stern, University of California Press, 2005
  71. ^ Eugenic Nation: Faults and Frontiers of Better Breeding in Modern America, Alexandra Minna Stern, University of California Press, 2005, pg 27–31
  72. ^ Eugenic Nation: Faults and Frontiers of Better Breeding in Modern America, Alexandra Minna Stern, University of California Press, 2005, pg 82–91
  73. ^ Kühl, Stefan (2002). The Nazi Connection. Oxford University Press. p. 192. ISBN 0195149785, 9780195149784. 
  74. ^ Watson, James D.; Andrew Berry (2003). DNA: The Secret of Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 29–31. ISBN 0375415467. http://www.scribd.com/doc/959616/Watson-James-The-Secret-of-Life. 
  75. ^ Steve Sailer, "Free To Choose? Insemination, Immigration, And Eugenics", Vdare.com
  76. ^ Paul Lombardo, "Eugenics Laws Restricting Immigration," essay in the Eugenics Archive, available online at Eugenicsarchive.org.
  77. ^ Paul Lombardo, "Eugenic Laws Against Race-Mixing," essay in the Eugenics Archive, available online at Eugenicsarchive.org.
  78. ^ See Lombardo, "Eugenics Laws Restricting Immigration"; and Stephen Jay Gould, The mismeasure of man (New York: Norton, 1981).
  79. ^ Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve (Free Press, 1994): 5; and Mark Syderman Richard Herrnstein, "Intelligence tests and the Immigration Act of 1924," American Psychologist 38 (1983): 986–995.
  80. ^ "Society has no business to permit degenerates to reproduce." http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ht/36.3/br_7.html
  81. ^ http://www.eugenics-watch.com/roots/chap10.html
  82. ^ "In 1992, for example, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council issued a 400 page report titled 'Understanding and Preventing Violence.' Funded in part by the Centers for Disease Control, the U.S. Justice Department, and the National Science Foundation, the report called for more attention to 'biological and genetic factors in violent crime.'" http://www.sntp.net/eugenics/genetics_1.htm
  83. ^ http://jhered.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pdf_extract/5/4/186
  84. ^ http://www.justicematters.org/jmi_sec/jmi_dwnlds/forgotten_history.pdf
  85. ^ http://www.plannedparenthood.org/about-us/who-we-are/history-and-successes.htm#Sanger
  86. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2698847
  87. ^ "Minority Anti-Abortion Movement Gains Steam". NPR. September 24, 2007. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14650805. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  88. ^ People1.org
  89. ^ Russell McGregor, Imagined Destinies. Aboriginal Australians and the Doomed Race Theory, 1880–1939, Melbourne: MUP, 1997
  90. ^ McGregor (1997: 151)
  91. ^ Aborigines Act of 1904
  92. ^ Stolen Generation by Tim Richardson
  93. ^ Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission – Bringing them Home – The Report
  94. ^ Jacobs, Pat (1990). Mister Neville, A Biography. Fremantle Arts Centre Press. ISBN 0-949206-72-5. 
  95. ^ Kinnane, Stephen (2003). Shadow Lines. Fremantle Arts Centre Press. ISBN 1-86368-237-6. 
  96. ^ McLaren, Angus. (1990) Our Own Master Race: Eugenics in Canada, 1885–1945. Toronto: Oxford University Press, p.28.
  97. ^ McLaren, p.100.
  98. ^ Sterlization Act has Much Backing, Edmonton Journal (9 March 1928) 7.
  99. ^ The Sterilization of Leilani Muir (film). Produced by the North West Center, National Film Board of Canada, 1996. Montreal, Canada.
  100. ^ McLaren, p.105.
  101. ^ McLaren, pp.117–118.
  102. ^ McLaren, p.169.
  103. ^ Quoted in Selgelid, Michael J. 2000. Neugenics? Monash Bioethics Review 19 (4):9–33
  104. ^ The Nazi eugenics policies are discussed in a number of sources. A few of the more definitive ones are Robert Proctor, Racial hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988) and Dieter Kuntz, ed., Deadly medicine: creating the master race (Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2004) (online exhibit). On the development of the racial hygiene movement before National Socialism, see Paul Weindling, Health, race and German politics between national unification and Nazism, 1870–1945 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
  105. ^ 'Himmler was my godfather'
  106. ^ "Holocaust," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009: "the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women, and children and millions of others by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II ... The Nazis also singled out the Roma (Gypsies). They were the only other group that the Nazis systematically killed in gas chambers alongside the Jews."
  107. ^ See Proctor, Racial hygiene, and Kuntz, ed., Deadly medicine.
  108. ^ TOQ-Richard Lynn-Black BR-Vol 4 No 1
  109. ^ Future Human Evolution: Eugenics in the Twenty-First Century. Hermitage Publishers. 2006. ISBN 1557791546. "I would like to add a comment to Dr. Glad’s clear and decisive puncturing of the balloon of myths surrounding the Nazi perversion of eugenics. (For that matter, they also claimed to be a party of socialism!) If we define eugenics as encompassing programs of human betterment, physical as well as mental, practices that benefit community in the local sense as well as the species in general, we can say that the Holocaust was the antithesis of eugenic practice." 
  110. ^ "The National Eugenic Law" The 107th law that Japanese Government promulgated in 1940 (ś½Æ°‘Å„ªç”ŸÆ³•) 第一Ɲ¡ã€€Æœ¬Æ³•ãƒÆ‚ªÈ³ªãƒŠãƒ«Éºä¼Æ€§ç–¾Æ‚£ãƒŽç´ È³ªãƒ²Æœ‰ã‚¹ãƒ«È€…ノŢ—ÅŠ ãƒ²É˜²Éã‚¹ãƒ«ãƒˆÅ…±ãƒ‹Å¥Å…¨ãƒŠãƒ«ç´ È³ªãƒ²Æœ‰ã‚¹ãƒ«È€…ノŢ—ÅŠ ãƒ²Å›³ãƒªä»¥ãƒ†Å›½Æ°‘素ȳªãƒŽÅ‘上ヲƜŸã‚¹ãƒ«ã‚³ãƒˆãƒ²ç›®çš„トス, Kimura, Jurisprudence in Genetics, Bioethics.jp
  111. ^ "The Eugenic Protection Law" (ś½Æ°‘Å„ªç”ŸÆ³•)The 107th law that Japanese Government promulgated in 1940 (ś½Æ°‘Å„ªç”ŸÆ³•) 第二Ɲ¡ã€€Æœ¬Æ³•ãƒ‹Æ–¼ãƒ†Å„ªç”ŸÆ‰‹È¡“ト称スルハ生Ʈ–ヲ不ȃ½ãƒŠãƒ©ã‚·ãƒ ãƒ«Æ‰‹È¡“ŏˆãƒÅ‡¦ç½®ãƒ‹ã‚·ãƒ†Å‘½ä»¤ãƒ²ä»¥ãƒ†Å®šãƒ ãƒ«ãƒ¢ãƒŽãƒ²È¬‚フ, Otemon.ac.jp (Japanese)
  112. ^ SOSHIREN / ȳ‡Æ–™ãƒ»Æ³•Å¾‹âˆ’Å„ªç”Ÿä¿È­·Æ³•
  113. ^ Michio Miyasaka, A Historical and Ethical Analysis of Leprosy Control Policy in Japan, clg.niigata-u.ac.jp
  114. ^ Michio Miyasaka
  115. ^ Jennifer Robertson, Blood Talks
  116. ^ Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the making of modern Japan, 2001, p. 538, citing Kinkabara Samon and Takemae Eiji, Showashi : kokumin non naka no haran to gekido no hanseiki-zohoban, 1989, p.244.
  117. ^ Dikotter, Frank (1998). Imperfect Conceptions: Medical Knowledge, Birth Defects, and Eugenics in China. New York: Columbia University Press. 
  118. ^ Dikotter, Frank (1992). The Disourse of race in modern China. London: C. Hurst, Stanford University Press, Hong Kong University Press. 
  119. ^ Lena Lennerhed, Lena. Sterilisation on Eugenic Grounds in Europe in the 1930s: News in 1997 but Why? Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 5, No. 10, The International Women's Health Movement (Nov., 1997), pp. 156
  120. ^ Rastänkandet i Sverige
  121. ^ Even in Sweden By Allan Richard Pred
  122. ^ Steriliseringsfrågan i Sverige 1935 – 1975, SOU 2000:20, in Swedish with an English summary.
  123. ^ Broberg, Gunnar; Tydén, Mattias (2005). "Who became 'The Other'? Gender in the implementation of the sterilization laws". in Roll-Hansen, Nils. Eugenics and the welfare state. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. pp. 119–124. ISBN 0870137581. 
  124. ^ There are a number of works discussing eugenics in various countries around the world. For the history of eugenics in Scandinavia, see Gunnar Broberg and Nils Roll-Hansen, eds., Eugenics And the Welfare State: Sterilization Policy in Demark, Sweden, Norway, and Findland (Michigan State University Press, 2005). Another international approach is Mark B. Adams, ed., The Wellborn Science: Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).
  125. ^ See Diane K. Mauzy, Robert Stephen Milne, Singapore politics under the People's Action Party (Routledge, 2002).
  126. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". http://www.unhchr.ch/udhr/lang/eng.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-26. 
  127. ^ "Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice". http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/d_prejud.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-26. 
  128. ^ A discussion of the general changes in views towards genetics and race after World War II is: Elazar Barkan, The retreat of scientific racism: changing concepts of race in Britain and the United States between the world wars (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
  129. ^ American Bioethics Advisory Commission, "Eugenics," ABAC website
  130. ^ UNESCO: Its Purpose and its Philosophy (Washington D.C. 1947), cited in Liagin, Excessive Force: Power Politics and Population Control, at 85 (Washington, D.C.: Information Project for Africa 1996)
  131. ^ See Broberg and Nil-Hansen, ed., Eugenics And the Welfare State and Alexandra Stern, Eugenic nation: faults and frontiers of better breeding in modern America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005)
  132. ^ Essay 7: Marriage Laws
  133. ^ Essay 9: Immigration Restriction
  134. ^ John Glad: "Future Human Evolution: Eugenics in the Twenty-First Century", Hermitage Publishers
  135. ^ Jackson, Emily (October 2001). Regulating Reproduction. Oxford, England: Hart. p. 45. ISBN 1841130540. 
  136. ^ See, i.e., Richard Lynn, Eugenics: A Reassessment (Human Evolution, Behavior, and Intelligence) (Praeger Publishers, 2001).
  137. ^ Cattell, R. B. (1987). Beyondism: Religion from science. New York: Praeger, p. 187
  138. ^ Ioannou, Panayiotis (1999). Chadwick , Ruth F. ed. The ethics of genetic screening. Den Haag, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic. pp. 61–67. ISBN 978-0-7923-5614-1. 
  139. ^ Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (2008). Heredity and Hope. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 208–216. ISBN 978-0-674-02424-3. 
  140. ^ Marriage Laws in the US – Blood Tests
  141. ^ The Eugenic Temptation (March–April 2000)
  142. ^ Shidduchim.info
  143. ^ For example, Nicholas Agar, Liberal Eugenics: In Defence of Human Enhancement (Blackwell, 2004).
  144. ^ Buchanan, Allen; Dan W. Brock, Norman Daniels, Daniel Wikler (2001). "Violations of reproductive freedoms". From Chance to Choice. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66977-4. 
  145. ^ Drexler, Peggy (2009-07-07). "When Gay Comes Home". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peggy-drexler/when-gay-comes-home_b_227347.html. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  146. ^ Answers to Your Questions For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation & Homosexuality APA.org, 2008, American Psychological Association. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
  147. ^ James D. Watson, A passion for DNA: Genes, genomes, and society (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2000): 202.
  148. ^ Quoted in Brendan Bourne, "Scientist warns disabled over having children" The Sunday Times (Britain) (13 October 2004). Available online at Times online
  149. ^ Quoted in Mark Henderson, "Let's cure stupidity, says DNA pioneer", The Times (28 February 2003). Available online at Times online.
  150. ^ Philip Kitcher, The Lives to Come (Penguin, 1997). Review available online at Wellcome.ac.uk
  151. ^ "United Press International: Q&A: Steven Pinker of 'Blank Slate". http://pinker.wjh.harvard.edu/books/tbs/media_articles/2002_10_30_upi.html. Retrieved 2006-08-26. 
  152. ^ Edward M. Miller: "Eugenics: Economics for the Long Run", 1997
  153. ^ Title: Fatal Gift: Jewish Intelligence and Western Civilization

[edit] Sources

Histories of eugenics (academic accounts)
  • Elof Axel Carlson, The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea (Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 2001). ISBN 0-87969-587-0
  • Daniel Kevles, In the name of eugenics: Genetics and the uses of human heredity (New York: Knopf, 1985).
  • Dieter Kuntz, ed., Deadly medicine: creating the master race (Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2004). online exhibit
  • Ruth C. Engs, The Eugenics Movement: An Encyclopedia. (Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005). ISBN 0-313-32791-2.
  • John Glad, Future Human Evolution: Eugenics in the Twenty-First Century. (Hermitage Publishers, 2008). ISBN 1-55779-154-6.Whatwemaybe.org
Histories of hereditarian thought
  • Elazar Barkan, The retreat of scientific racism: changing concepts of race in Britain and the United States between the world wars (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
  • Stephen Jay Gould, The mismeasure of man (New York: Norton, 1981).
  • Ewen & Ewen, Typecasting: On the Arts and Sciences of Human Inequality (New York, Seven Stories Press, 2006).
Criticisms of eugenics, historical and modern

[edit] External links

[edit] Historical resources

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