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History of slavery

Diagram of a slave ship from the Atlantic slave trade. From an Abstract of Evidence delivered before a select committee of the House of Commons of Great Britain in 1790 and 1791.

The history of slavery covers systems throughout human history in which one human being is legally the property of another, can be bought or sold, is not allowed to escape and must work for the owner without any choice involved. A critical element is that children of a slave mother automatically become slaves.[1] It does not include forced labor by prisoners, labor camps, or other forms of unfree labor in which laborers are not considered property.

Slavery can be traced back to the earliest records, such as the Code of Hammurabi (ca. 1760 BC), which refers to it as an established institution.[2] Slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations as slavery depends on a system of social stratification. Slavery typically also requires a shortage of labor and a surplus of land to be viable.[3]

Contents

[edit] The ancient Mesopotamian and Mediterranean civilizations

Ancient Greek art, showing a slave giving a mother her child.

Slavery in ancient cultures was known to occur in civilizations as old as Sumer, and it was found in every civilization, including Ancient Egypt, the Akkadian Empire, Assyria, Ancient Greece,[4] Rome and parts of its empire. Such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, and the birth of slave children to slaves.[5] In the Roman Empire, probably over 25% of the empire's population,[6] and 30 to 40% of the population of Italy[7] was enslaved. Records of slavery in Ancient Greece go as far back as Mycenaean Greece. It is often said that the Greeks as well as philosophers such as Aristotle accepted the theory of natural slavery i.e. that some men are slaves by nature.[8][9] At the time of Plato and Socrates, slavery was so accepted by the Greeks (including philosophers) that few people indeed protested it as an institution,[10] although there were in fact a few voices of opposition; Aristotle in Politics, Book 1, Chapter 6 noted and then discounted three voices opposed to his view of slavery, a jurist, philosopher and one other:

But that those who take the opposite view have in a certain way right on their side, may be easily seen. For the words slavery and slave are used in two senses. There is a slave or slavery by law as well as by nature. The law of which I speak is a sort of convention- the law by which whatever is taken in war is supposed to belong to the victors. But this right many jurists impeach, as they would an orator who brought forward an unconstitutional measure: they detest the notion that, because one man has the power of doing violence and is superior in brute strength, another shall be his slave and subject. Even among philosophers there is a difference of opinion. The origin of the dispute, and what makes the views invade each other's territory, is as follows: in some sense virtue, when furnished with means, has actually the greatest power of exercising force; and as superior power is only found where there is superior excellence of some kind, power seems to imply virtue, and the dispute to be simply one about justice (for it is due to one party identifying justice with goodwill while the other identifies it with the mere rule of the stronger). If these views are thus set out separately, the other views have no force or plausibility against the view that the superior in virtue ought to rule, or be master. Others, clinging, as they think, simply to a principle of justice (for law and custom are a sort of justice), assume that slavery in accordance with the custom of war is justified by law, but at the same moment they deny this. For what if the cause of the war be unjust? And again, no one would ever say he is a slave who is unworthy to be a slave. Were this the case, men of the highest rank would be slaves and the children of slaves if they or their parents chance to have been taken captive and sold. Wherefore Hellenes do not like to call Hellenes slaves, but confine the term to barbarians. Yet, in using this language, they really mean the natural slave of whom we spoke at first; for it must be admitted that some are slaves everywhere, others nowhere.

During the 8th and the 7th centuries BC, in the course of the two Messenian Wars the Spartans reduced an entire population to a pseudo-slavery called helotry.[11] According to Herodotus (IX, 28â29), helots were seven times as numerous as Spartans. In some Ancient Greek city states about 30% of the population consisted of slaves, but paid and slave labor seem to have been equally important.[12]

Greeks however were among the first Europeans to abolish slavery with the Greek Constitution of 1823, which specifically noted that "in Greek territory no human being can be sold or bought, no matter his or her religion, and if a slave enters Greece, he is automatically considered an absolutely free man or woman and nobody can make claims on him or her."

[edit] Europe

[edit] Rome

Romans inherited the institution of slavery from the Greeks and the Phoenicians.[13] As the Roman Republic expanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply to work in Rome's farms and households. The people subjected to Roman slavery came from all over Europe and the Mediterranean. Such oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts; the Third Servile War led by Spartacus was the most famous and severe. Greeks, Berbers, Germans, Britons, Thracians, Gauls (or Celts), Jews, Arabs, and many more were slaves used not only for labor, but also for amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves). If a slave ran away, he was liable to be crucified. By the late Republican era, slavery had become a vital economic pillar in the wealth of Rome.[14]

[edit] Celtic Tribes

Celtic tribes of Europe are recorded by various Roman sources as owning slaves. The extent of slavery in prehistorical Europe is not well known however.[15]

[edit] The Vikings and Scandinavia

In the Viking era starting c. 793, the Norse raiders often captured and enslaved militarily weaker peoples they encountered. In the Nordic countries the slaves were called thralls (Old Norse: žræll).[16] The thralls were mostly from Western Europe, among them many Franks, Anglo-Saxons, and Celts. Many Irish slaves participated in the colonization of Iceland.[17] There is evidence of German, Baltic, Slavic and Latin slaves as well. The slave trade was one of the pillars of Norse commerce during the 6th through 11th centuries.[18] The Persian traveller Ibn Rustah described how Swedish Vikings, the Varangians or Rus, terrorized and enslaved the Slavs. The slave raids came to an end when Christianity became dominant throughout Scandinavia. The bishops held that a Christian could not morally own another Christian. The thrall system was finally abolished in the mid-14th century in Scandinavia.[19]

[edit] Middle Ages

Chaos and invasion made the taking of slaves habitual throughout Europe in the early Middle Ages. St. Patrick, himself captured and sold as a slave, protested against an attack that enslaved newly baptized Christians in his Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus.

Slavery during the Early Middle Ages had several distinct sources. The Vikings raided across Europe, though their slave raids were the most destructive in the British Isles and Eastern Europe. While the Vikings kept some slaves for themselves as servants, known as thralls, most people captured by the Vikings would be sold on the Byzantine or Islamic markets. In the West the targets of Viking slavery were primarily English, Irish, and Scottish, while in the East they were mainly Slavs. The Viking slave trade slowly ended in the 11th century, as the Vikings settled in the European territories they once raided, Christianized serfdom, and merged with the local populace. The Normans made slaves of the English gentry after invasion in 1066 and deported them to Spain. They continued taking Welsh Slaves during the Medieval period who were traded in London.

The Islamic World was also a main factor in Medieval European slavery. Although slavery had different implications for slaves: (i) If they converted to Islam their master had the obligation to free them. (ii) Slaves could rise socially by marriage and attain high office. (iii) The principal requirement was for military service. The conquest by Tariq took place in 711 AD to liberate the population from Visigoth persecution. Raiding often involved taking slaves and involved Viking assistance. In the 16th and 17th centuries during the Protestant Catholic Wars, the North Africans intensified the white slave trade with European collaboration, although slavery was practised in Christian states as well until the end of Serfdom (a practice that could be more brutal than slavery). The Muslim powers of Iberia both raided for slaves and purchased slaves from European merchants, often the Jewish Radhanites, one of the few groups that could easily move between the Christian and Islamic worlds. As the Muslims failed to conquer Europe in the 8th century, they made an alliance with the Vikings who raided the shores of Spain, southern Portugal and France, and Italy, that would last roughly from the 9th century until the 12th century, when the Italian city-states of Genoa, Venice, and Pisa, along with the Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castile, as well as the Sicilian Normans, began to dominate the Mediterranean trade. The Middle Ages from 1100 to 1500 saw a continuation of the European slave trade, though with a shift from the Western Mediterranean Islamic nations to the Eastern, as Venice and Genoa, in firm control of the Eastern Mediterranean from the 12th century and the Black Sea from the 13th century sold both Slavic and Baltic slaves, as well as Georgians, Turks, and other ethnic groups of the Black Sea and Caucasus, to the Muslim nations of the Middle East. The sale of European slaves by Europeans slowly ended as the Slavic and Baltic ethnic groups Christianized by the Late Middle Ages. European slaves in the Islamic World would, however, continue into the Modern time period as Muslim pirates, primarily Algerians, with the support of the Ottoman Empire, raided European coasts and shipping from the 16th to the 19th centuries, ending their attacks with the naval decline of the Ottoman Empire in the late 16th and 17th centuries, as well as the European conquest of North Africa throughout the 19th century.

The Mongol invasions and conquests in the 13th century made the situation worse.[20] The Mongols enslaved skilled individuals, women and children and marched them to Karakorum or Sarai, whence they were sold throughout Eurasia. Many of these slaves were shipped to the slave market in Novgorod.[21][22][23]

Slave commerce during the Late Middle Ages was mainly in the hands of Venetian and Genoese merchants and cartels, who were involved in the slave trade with the Golden Horde. In 1382 the Golden Horde under Khan Tokhtamysh sacked Moscow, burning the city and carrying off thousands of inhabitants as slaves. Between 1414 and 1423, some 10,000 eastern European slaves were sold in Venice.[24] Genoese merchants organized the slave trade from the Crimea to Mamluk Egypt. For years the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan routinely made raids on Russian principalities for slaves and to plunder towns. Russian chronicles record about 40 raids of Kazan Khans on the Russian territories in the first half of the 16th century.[25] In 1521, the combined forces of Crimean Khan Mehmed Giray and his Kazan allies attacked Moscow and captured thousands of slaves.[26]

In 1441, Haci I Giray declared independence from the Golden Horde and established the Crimean Khanate. For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. In a process called the "harvesting of the steppe", they enslaved many Slavic peasants. About 30 major Tatar raids were recorded into Muscovite territories between 1558â1596.[27] In 1571, the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin and taking thousands of captives as slaves.[28] In Crimea, about 75% of the population consisted of slaves.[29]

Medieval Spain and Portugal were the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Iberian Christian kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. In a raid against Lisbon, Portugal in 1189, for example, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves, Portugal in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves.[30]

The Byzantine-Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe brought large numbers of Christian slaves into the Islamic world too.[31] After the battle of Lepanto approximately 12,000 Christian galley slaves were freed from the Ottoman Turks.[32] Christians were also selling Muslim slaves captured in war. The Knights of Malta attacked pirates and Muslim shipping, and their base became a centre for slave trading, selling captured North Africans and Turks. Malta remained a slave market until well into the late 18th century. It required a thousand slaves to equip merely the galleys (ships) of the Order.[33][34]

Slavery in Poland was forbidden in the 15th century; in Lithuania, slavery was formally abolished in 1588; they were replaced by the second enserfment. Slavery remained a minor institution in Russia until the 1723, when the Peter the Great converted the household slaves into house serfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679.[35] The runaway Polish and Russian serfs and kholops known as Cossacks (âoutlawsâ) formed autonomous communities in the southern steppes.[36]

[edit] Portugal

The 15th century Portuguese exploration of the African coast is commonly regarded as the harbinger of European colonialism. In 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas, granting Afonso V of Portugal the right to reduce any "Saracens, pagans and any other unbelievers" to hereditary slavery which legitimized slave trade under Catholic beliefs of that time. This approval of slavery was reaffirmed and extended in his Romanus Pontifex bull of 1455. These papal bulls came to serve as a justification for the subsequent era of slave trade and European colonialism. Although for a short period as in 1462, Pius II declared slavery to be "a great crime".[37] The followers of the church of England and Protestants did not use the papal bull as a justification. The position of the church was to condemn the slavery of Christians, but slavery was regarded as an old established and necessary institution which supplied Europe with the necessary workforce. In the 16th century African slaves had substituted almost all other ethnicities and religious enslaved groups in Europe.[38] Within the Portuguese territory of Brazil, and even beyond its original borders, the enslavement of native Americans was carried out by the Bandeirantes.

Among many other European slave markets, Genoa, Venice and Verdun-sur-Meuse were some well known markets, their importance and demand growing after the great plague of the 14th century which decimated much of the European work force.[39] The maritime town of Lagos, Portugal, was the first slave market created in Portugal for the sale of imported African slaves â the Mercado de Escravos, opened in 1444.[40][41] In 1441, the first slaves were brought to Portugal from northern Mauritania.[41] Prince Henry the Navigator, major sponsor of the Portuguese African expeditions, as of any other merchandise, taxed one fifth of the selling price of the slaves imported to Portugal.[41] By the year 1552 black African slaves made up 10 percent of the population of Lisbon.[42][43] In the second half of the 16th century, the Crown gave up the monopoly on slave trade and the focus of European trade in African slaves shifted from import to Europe to slave transports directly to tropical colonies in the Americas â in the case of Portugal, especially Brazil.[41] In the 15th century one third of the slaves were resold to the African market in exchange of gold.[38]

[edit] Spain

Spain had to fight against relatively powerful civilizations of the New World. However, the Spanish conquest of the indigenous peoples in the Americas was also facilitated by the spread of diseases (e.g. smallpox) due to lack of biological immunity.[44] (like the Europeans that had lack of biological immunity to African diseases) The Spaniards were the first Europeans to use African slaves in the New World on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola, where the native population starved themselves rather than work for the Spanish. Although the natives were used as forced labor (the Spanish employed the pre-Columbian draft system called the mita),[45] the spread of disease caused a shortage of labor, and so the Spanish colonists gradually became involved in the Atlantic slave trade. The first African slaves arrived in Hispaniola in 1501;[46] by 1517, the natives had been "virtually annihilated" by the settlers.[47]

[edit] Netherlands

Although only minor part of the wealth of the Dutch came directly through the slave trade, it is nevertheless closely associated with the Dutch Golden Age.[48] In 1619 The Netherlands began the slave trade between Africa and America (Virginia),[48] by 1650 becoming the pre-eminent slave trading country in Europe, a position overtaken by Britain around 1700. The port city of Amsterdam was the European capital of slavery, helping to manage the slave trade also of neighbouring nations and with up to 10,000 slaving vessels associated with the port.[49]

[edit] Great Britain and Ireland

Slavery was practised by the Romans, but when they left in the 5th century they took their slaves with them. Anglo-Saxon Germanic settlers brought in slaves, and reduced many native Celts to slavery by 600 AD. Capture in war, voluntary servitude and debt slavery became common, and slaves were routinely bought and sold, but running away was common and slavery was never a major economic factor. Ireland and Denmark were markets for captured Anglo Saxon and Celtic slaves. Pope Gregory I reputedly made the pun, Non Angli, sed Angeli ("Not Angles, but Angels"), after a response to his query regarding the identity of a group of fair-haired Angles slave children whom he had observed in the marketplace. After 1100 slavery faded away as uneconomical.[50] The Normans revived the trade in Wales, and Ireland.

Some 50,000 British convicts were sent to colonial America, representing perhaps one-quarter of all British emigrants during the 18th century.[51]

From the 16th to 19th century, Barbary Corsairs raided the coasts of Europe and attacked lone ships at sea. From 1609 to 1616, England lost 466 merchant ships to Barbary pirates. 160 English ships were captured by Algerians between 1677 and 1680.[52] Many of the captured sailors were made into slaves. The corsairs were no strangers to the South West of England where raids were known in a number of coastal communities. Around 1645 Barbary Pirates under command of the Dutch renegade Jan Janszoon operating from the Moroccan port of Salé occupied the island of Lundy. During this time there were reports of captured slaves being sent to Algiers.[53][54]

Ireland, despite its northern position, was not immune from attacks by the corsairs. In June 1631 Murat Reis, with pirates from Algiers and armed troops of the Ottoman Empire, stormed ashore at the little harbor village of Baltimore, County Cork. They captured almost all the villagers and took them away to a life of slavery in North Africa.[55] The prisoners were destined for a variety of fates â some lived out their days chained to the oars as galley slaves, while others would spend long years in the scented seclusion of the harem or within the walls of the sultan's palace. Only two of them ever saw Ireland again.

Britain played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade which began around the mid-15th century when Portuguese interests in Africa moved away from the fabled deposits of gold to a much more readily available commodity; slaves. Slavery was a legal institution in all of the 13 American colonies, and the profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution.[56] The Somersett's case in 1772 was generally taken at the time to have decided that the condition of slavery did not exist under English law in England. The judgment emancipated the 10,000â14,000 slaves or possible slaves in England,[57] who were mostly domestic servants. It also laid down the principle that slavery contracted in other jurisdictions (such as the North American colonies) could not be enforced in England.[58] In 1807, following many years of lobbying by the Abolitionist movement, the British Parliament voted to make the slave trade illegal anywhere in the Empire with the Slave Trade Act 1807. Thereafter Britain took a prominent role in combating the trade, and slavery itself was abolished in the British Empire with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. Between 1808 and 1860, the West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard.[59] Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against "the usurping King of Lagos", deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.[60]

In 1811, Arthur William Hodge was the first slave owner executed for the murder of a slave in the British West Indies.[61] He was not, however, as some have claimed, the first white person to have been lawfully executed for the killing of a slave.[62][63]

[edit] Pre-industrial Europe

It became the custom among the Mediterranean powers to sentence condemned criminals to row in the war-galleys of the state (initially only in time of war).[64] The French Huguenots filled the galleys after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 and Camisard rebellion.[65] Galley-slaves lived in unsavoury conditions, so even though some sentences prescribed a restricted number of years, most rowers would eventually die, even if they survived shipwreck and slaughter or torture at the hands of enemies or of pirates.[66] Naval forces often turned 'infidel' prisoners-of-war into galley-slaves. Several well-known historical figures served time as galley slaves after being captured by the enemyâthe Ottoman corsair and admiral Turgut Reis and the Knights Hospitaller Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette among them.[67]

The so-called second serfdom took place in Eastern Europe during this period (particularly in Austria-Hungary, Prussia, Russia and Poland). During the 17th and 18th centuries, Ukraine was controlled by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. During this period, it is estimated that hundreds of thousands of Ukrainians were sold into slavery to the Turks.[68] Only in 1768 was a law passed in Poland that discontinued the nobility's right of life or death over serfs. Serfdom remained the practice in most of Russia until 19 February 1861. Some of the Roma people were enslaved over five centuries in Romania until abolition in 1864 (see Slavery in Romania).[69]

Denmark-Norway was the first European country to ban the slave trade. This happened with a decree issued by the king in 1792, to become fully effective by 1803. Slavery itself was not banned until 1848.[70]

Slavery in the French Republic was abolished on 4 February 1794 however it was re-established by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804. Slavery would be permanently abolished in France after his first exile to Elba in 1814. The Haitian Revolution established Haiti as a free republic ruled by blacks, the first of its kind.[71] At the time of the revolution, Haiti was known as Saint-Domingue and was a colony of France.[72]

[edit] Modern Europe

During The Holocaust, the Germans used Jewish slave labor to support their war effort.[73]

[edit] Modern Eastern Europe

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, the impoverished former Eastern bloc countries such as Albania, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine have been identified as major trafficking source countries for women and children.[74] Young women and girls are often lured to wealthier countries by the promises of money and work and then reduced to sexual slavery.[75] It is estimated that 2/3 of women trafficked for prostitution worldwide annually come from Eastern Europe, three-quarters have never worked as prostitutes before.[76][77] The major destinations are Western Europe (Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, UK, Greece), the Middle East (Turkey, Israel, the United Arab Emirates), Asia, Russia and the United States.[78][79]

It is estimated that half million Ukrainian women were trafficked abroad since 1991 (80% of all unemployed in Ukraine are women).[80][81] Russia is a major source of women trafficked globally for the purpose of sexual exploitation, Russian women are in prostitution in over 50 countries.[82][83][84] In poverty-stricken Moldova, where the unemployment rate for women ranges as high as 68% and one-third of the workforce live and work abroad, experts estimate that since the collapse of the Soviet Union between 200,000 and 400,000 women have been sold into prostitution abroad â perhaps up to 10% of the female population.[85][86]

[edit] Slavery in the Muslim World

13th century slave market in Yemen
Capt. William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey of Algiers. Gradually in the 18th century slave raids became less frequent, but the Barbary pirates continued to enslave captured crews. Payments in ransom and tribute to the Barbary states amounted to 20% of United States government annual revenues in 1800.[87]

The Arab slave trade lasted more than a millennium.[88][89] Slaves in the Arab World came from many different regions, including Sub-Saharan Africa (mainly Zanj), the Caucasus (mainly Circassians),[90] Central Asia (mainly Tartars), and Central and Eastern Europe (mainly Saqaliba).[91]

The medieval scholar and traveller Ibn Battuta states several times that he was given or purchased slaves.[92] The Arab or Middle Eastern slave trade is thought to have originated with trans-Saharan slavery.[93][94] Arab, Indian, and Oriental traders were involved in the capture and transport of slaves northward across the Sahara desert and the Indian Ocean region into Arabia and the Middle East, Persia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.[95][96] The slave trade from East Africa to Arabia was dominated by Arab and African traders in the coastal cities of Zanzibar, Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa.[96][97] Tens of thousands of black Zanj slaves were imported to lower Iraq, where they may have, according to Richard Hellie, constituted at least a half of the total population there in the 9th and 10th centuries. At the same time, many tens of thousands of slaves in the region were also imported from Central Asia and the Caucasus.[98]

Male slaves were employed as servants, soldiers, or laborers, while female slaves were traded to Middle Eastern countries and kingdoms by Arab, Indian, or Oriental traders, some as domestic servants and others in harems.[99][100][101] Some historians estimate that between 11 and 17 million slaves crossed the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert from 650 to 1900 AD.[102][103] The Moors, starting in the 8th century, raided coastal areas around the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean, and became known as the Barbary pirates. It is estimated that they captured 1.25 million slaves from Western Europe and North America between the 16th and 19th centuries.[104][105]

In 1400 Tamerlane invaded Armenia and Georgia. More than 60,000 people from the Caucasus were captured as slaves, and many districts of Armenia were depopulated.[106] From 1569 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth suffered a series of Tatar invasions, the goal of which was to loot, pillage and capture slaves into jasyr. The borderland area to the south-east was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century. Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people, predominantly Ukrainians but also Circassians, Russians, Belarusians, Poles and Jews were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate.[91][107] Russian conquest of the Crimea led to the abolition of slavery by the 1780s.[108]

Slavery was an important part of Ottoman society. In Constantinople (today Istanbul), about 1/5 of the population consisted of slaves.[29] As late as 1908 women slaves were still sold in the Ottoman Empire.[109] In the middle of the 14th century, Murad I built his own personal slave army called the Kapäkulu. The new force was based on the sultan's right to a fifth of the war booty, which he interpreted to include captives taken in battle. The captive slaves were converted to Islam and trained in the sultan's personal service. In the devÅirme (Turkish for 'gathering'), young Christian boys from the Balkans were taken away from their homes and families, converted to Islam and enlisted into special soldier classes of the Ottoman army or the civil service. These soldier classes were named Janissaries, the most famous branch of the Kapäkulu. The Janissaries eventually became a decisive factor in the Ottoman invasions of Europe.[110] Most of the military commanders of the Ottoman forces, imperial administrators and de facto rulers of the Ottoman Empire, such as Pargalä äbrahim Pasha and Sokollu Mehmet PaÅa, were recruited in this way.[111][112] By 1609 the Sultan's Kapäkulu forces increased to about 100,000.[113] By this time however, the expeditions for young Christian boys were rare. The increased numbers of janissaries came from Muslim peasants who were now allowed into service as a result of increased military demands of 17th century warfare.

The Mamluks were slave soldiers who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. The first mamluks served the Abbasid caliphs in 9th century Baghdad. Over time they became a powerful military caste, and on more than one occasion they seized power for themselves, for example, ruling Egypt in the years 1250â1517. From 1250 Egypt had been ruled by the Bahri dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin. White slaves from the Caucasus served in the army and formed an elite corps of troops eventually revolting in Egypt to form the Burgi dynasty. Mamluks were mainly responsible for the expulsion of the Crusaders from Palestine and preventing the Mongol Ilkhanate of Persia and Iraq from entering Egypt.[114]

The Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Bloodthirsty" (1672â1727) raised a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard, who coerced the country into submission.[115]

Nautical traders from the United States became targets, and frequent victims, of the Barbary pirates, as soon as that nation began trading with Europe and refused to pay the required tribute to the North African states.[116][117]

[edit] Modern times

Child Slavery: Trafficked children are forced to work up to 18 hours a day as camel jockeys in some Middle Eastern states.

The Arab or Middle Eastern slave trade continued into the early 20th century.[118] Slavery in Morocco was outlawed in the 1930s.[119] As recently as the 1950s, Saudi Arabia had an estimated 450,000 slaves, 20% of the population.[120][121] It is estimated that as many as 200,000 black south Sudanese children and women (mostly from the Dinka tribe sold by the Sudanese Arabs of the north) have been taken into slavery in Sudan during the Second Sudanese Civil War.[122][123] In Mauritania it is estimated that up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are currently enslaved, many of them used as bonded labor.[124] Slavery in Mauritania was criminalized in August 2007.[125]

The Arab trade in slaves continued till the early 20th century. A noticeable amount of Iraqi women fleeing the Iraq War are trafficked abroad to countries like Syria, Jordan, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, and Iran.[126]

[edit] Africa

Two slightly differing Okpoho manillas as used to purchase slaves

In most African societies, there was very little difference between the free peasants and the feudal vassal peasants. Vassals of the Songhay Muslim Empire were used primarily in agriculture; they paid tribute to their masters in crop and service but they were slightly restricted in custom and convenience. These people were more an occupational caste, as their bondage was relative. In the Kanem Bornu Empire, vassals were three classes beneath the nobles. Marriage between captor and captive was far from rare, blurring the anticipated roles.[96]

French historian Fernand Braudel noted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure of everyday life. "Slavery came in different disguises in different societies: there were court slaves, slaves incorporated into princely armies, domestic and household slaves, slaves working on the land, in industry, as couriers and intermediaries, even as traders" (Braudel 1984 p. 435). During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic, with its slave traffic from Africa to the Americas. The Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa. In 1807 the United Kingdom, which held extensive, although mainly coastal colonial territories on the African continent (including southern Africa), made the international slave trade illegal throughout its empire. The end of the slave trade and the decline of slavery was imposed upon Africa by its European conquerors.

The nature of the slave societies differed greatly across the continent. There were large plantations worked by slaves in Egypt, the Sudan and Zanzibar, but this was not a typical use of slaves in Africa as a whole. In most African slave societies, slaves were protected and incorporated into the slave-owning family.[citation needed]

13th century Africa â Map of the main trade routes and states, kingdoms and empires

In Senegambia, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved. In early Islamic states of the western Sudan, including Ghana (750â1076), Mali (1235â1645), Segou (1712â1861), and Songhai (1275â1591), about a third of the population were slaves. In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, and the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola. Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves. The population of the Kanem was about a third-slave. It was perhaps 40% in Bornu (1396â1893). Between 1750 and 1900 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves. The population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in the northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-slave in the 19th century. It is estimated that up to 90% of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibar was enslaved. Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved.[127][128][129][130][131][132][133]

The Anti-Slavery Society estimated that there were 2,000,000 slaves in the early 1930s Ethiopia, out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million.[134] Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the brief Second Italo-Abyssinian War in October 1935, when it was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces.[135] In response to pressure by Western Allies of World War II Ethiopia officially abolished slavery and serfdom after regaining its independence in 1942. On 26 August 1942 Haile Selassie issued a proclamation outlawing slavery.[136][137]

When British rule was first imposed on the Sokoto Caliphate and the surrounding areas in northern Nigeria at the turn of the 20th century, approximately 2 million to 2.5 million people there were slaves.[138] Slavery in northern Nigeria was finally outlawed in 1936.[139]

Elikia Mâbokolo, April 1998, Le Monde diplomatique. Quote: "The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth)." He continues: "Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean"[140]

[edit] North Africa

[edit] Barbary pirates

According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries.[141] The coastal villages and towns of Italy, Portugal, Spain and Mediterranean islands were frequently attacked by them and long stretches of the Italian, Portuguese and Spanish coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants; after 1600 Barbary pirates occasionally entered the Atlantic and struck as far north as Iceland.[142]

In 1544, Hayreddin Barbarossa captured Ischia, taking 4,000 prisoners in the process, and deported to slavery some 9,000 inhabitants of Lipari, almost the entire population.[143] In 1551, Turgut Reis (known as Dragut in the West) enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Libya. When pirates sacked Vieste in southern Italy in 1554 they took 7,000 slaves. In 1555, Turgut Reis sailed to Corsica and ransacked Bastia, taking 6,000 prisoners. In 1558 Barbary corsairs captured the town of Ciutadella (Minorca), destroyed it, slaughtered the inhabitants and carried off 3,000 survivors to Istanbul as slaves.[144] In 1563 Turgut Reis landed at the shores of the province of Granada, Spain, and captured the coastal settlements in the area like Almuñécar, along with 4,000 prisoners. Barbary pirates frequently attacked the Balearic islands, resulting in many coastal watchtowers and fortified churches being erected. The threat was so severe that the island of Formentera became uninhabited.[145][146][147]

In Portugal for instance, the coastal city of Nazaré was raided several times during until the 16th century when the local fortress was built (according to Pedro Penteado and his book based in the historical ecclesiastic diaries of Nazaré). The city of Lisbon built the Torre de Belém to defend the capital against these pirates.

Between 1609 and 1616 England alone had a staggering 466 merchant ships lost to Barbary pirates. 160 English ships were captured by Algerians between 1677 and 1680.[148] Slave-taking persisted into the 19th century when Barbary pirates would capture ships and enslave the crew.[149] Even the United States was not immune. In 1783 the United States made peace with, and gained recognition from, the British monarchy, and in 1784 the first American ship was seized by pirates from Morocco. Payments in ransom and tribute to the Barbary states amounted to 20% of United States government annual revenues in 1800.[87] It was not until 1815 that naval victories in the Barbary Wars ended tribute payments by the U.S., although some European nations continued annual payments until the 1830s.[116]

Among the most important slave markets where Pirates operated in Mediterranean Europe were the ports of Majorca, Toulon, Marseille, Genoa, Pisa, Livorno and Malta. In Africa, the most important were the ports of Morocco, Tripoli, Algiers and Tunis.[150]

[edit] Sub-Saharan Africa

Slaves being transported in Africa, 19th century engraving.

David Livingstone wrote of the slave trades:

"To overdraw its evils is a simple impossibility.... We passed a slave woman shot or stabbed through the body and lying on the path. [Onlookers] said an Arab who passed early that morning had done it in anger at losing the price he had given for her, because she was unable to walk any longer. We passed a woman tied by the neck to a tree and dead.... We came upon a man dead from starvation.... The strangest disease I have seen in this country seems really to be broken heartedness, and it attacks free men who have been captured and made slaves."

Livingstone estimated that 80,000 Africans died each year before ever reaching the slave markets of Zanzibar.[151][152][153][154] Zanzibar was once East Africa's main slave-trading port, and under Omani Arabs in the 19th century as many as 50,000 slaves were passing through the city each year.[155]

Prior to the 16th century, the bulk of slaves exported from Africa were shipped from East Africa to the Arabian peninsula. Zanzibar became a leading port in this trade. Arab slave traders differed from European ones in that they would often conduct raiding expeditions themselves, sometimes penetrating deep into the continent. They also differed in that their market greatly preferred the purchase of female slaves over male ones.

The increased presence of European rivals along the East coast led Arab traders to concentrate on the overland slave caravan routes across the Sahara from the Sahel to North Africa. The German explorer Gustav Nachtigal reported seeing slave caravans departing from Kukawa in Bornu bound for Tripoli and Egypt in 1870. The slave trade represented the major source of revenue for the state of Bornu as late as 1898. The eastern regions of the Central African Republic have never recovered demographically from the impact of 19th-century raids from the Sudan and still have a population density of less than 1 person/kmâ.[156] During the 1870s, European initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in northern Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces. Mahdiâs victory created an Islamic state, one that quickly reinstituted slavery.[157][158]

The Middle Passage, the crossing of the Atlantic to the Americas, endured by slaves laid out in rows in the holds of ships, was only one element of the well-known triangular trade engaged in by Portuguese, Dutch, French and British. Ships having landed slaves in Caribbean ports would take on sugar, indigo, raw cotton, and later coffee, and make for Liverpool, Nantes, Lisbon or Amsterdam. Ships leaving European ports for West Africa would carry printed cotton textiles, some originally from India, copper utensils and bangles, pewter plates and pots, iron bars more valued than gold, hats, trinkets, gunpowder and firearms and alcohol. Tropical shipworms were eliminated in the cold Atlantic waters, and at each unloading, a profit was made.

The Atlantic slave trade peaked in the late 18th century, when the largest number of slaves were captured on raiding expeditions into the interior of West Africa. These expeditions were typically carried out by African kingdoms, such as the Oyo empire (Yoruba), Kong Empire, Kingdom of Benin, Kingdom of Fouta Djallon, Kingdom of Fouta Tooro, Kingdom of Koya, Kingdom of Khasso, Kingdom of Kaabu, Fante Confederacy, Ashanti Confederacy, Aro Confederacy and the kingdom of Dahomey.[159][160] Europeans rarely entered the interior of Africa, due to fear of disease and moreover fierce African resistance. The slaves were brought to coastal outposts where they were traded for goods. The people captured on these expeditions were shipped by European traders to the colonies of the New World. As a result of the War of the Spanish Succession, the United Kingdom obtained the monopoly (asiento de negros) of transporting captive Africans to Spanish America. It is estimated that over the centuries, twelve to twenty million people were shipped as slaves from Africa by European traders, of whom some 15 percent died during the terrible voyage, many during the arduous journey through the Middle Passage. The great majority were shipped to the Americas, but some also went to Europe and Southern Africa.

[edit] African participation in the slave trade

Africans did play a role in the slave trade to a certain extent. The Africans that participated in the slave trade would sell their captive or prisoners of war to European buyers.[161] Selling captives or prisoners was common practice amongst Africans and Arabs during that era. The prisoners and captives that were sold were usually from neighboring or enemy ethnic groups.[162] These captive slaves were not considered as part of the ethnic group or 'tribe' and kings held not particular loyalty to them. At times, Kings and Chiefs would sell the criminals in their society to the buyers so that they could no longer commit crimes in that area. Most other slaves were obtained from kidnappings, or through raids that occurred at gunpoint through joint ventures with the Europeans.[161] Some Africans Kings refused to sell any of their captives or criminals. King Jaja of Opobo refused to do business with the slavers completeley.[162] For this, he was captured along with his people. Ashanti King Agyeman Prempeh (Ashanti king, b. 1872) also sacrificed his own freedom so that his people would not face collective slavery.[162]

Before the arrival of the Portuguese, slavery had already existed in Kingdom of Kongo. Despite its establishment within his kingdom, Afonso I of Kongo believed that the slave trade should be subject to Kongo law. When he suspected the Portuguese of receiving illegally enslaved persons to sell, he wrote letters to the King João III of Portugal in 1526 imploring him to put a stop to the practice.[163]

The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery, who otherwise would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. As one of West Africa's principal slave states, Dahomey became extremely unpopular with neighbouring peoples.[164][165][166] Like the Bambara Empire to the east, the Khasso kingdoms depended heavily on the slave trade for their economy. A family's status was indicated by the number of slaves it owned, leading to wars for the sole purpose of taking more captives. This trade led the Khasso into increasing contact with the European settlements of Africa's west coast, particularly the French.[167] Benin grew increasingly rich during the 16th and 17th centuries on the slave trade with Europe; slaves from enemy states of the interior were sold, and carried to the Americas in Dutch and Portuguese ships. The Bight of Benin's shore soon came to be known as the "Slave Coast".[168]

In the 1840s, King Gezo of Dahomey said:[169]

"The slave trade is the ruling principle of my people. It is the source and the glory of their wealthâthe mother lulls the child to sleep with notes of triumph over an enemy reduced to slaveryâ"

200th anniversary of the British act of parliament abolishing slave trading, commemorated on a British two pound coin.

In 1807, the UK Parliament passed the Bill that abolished the trading of slaves. The King of Bonny (now in Nigeria) was horrified at the conclusion of the practice:[170]

"We think this trade must go on. That is the verdict of our oracle and the priests. They say that your country, however great, can never stop a trade ordained by God himself."

Some historians conclude that the total loss in persons removed, those who died on the arduous march to coastal slave marts and those killed in slave raids, far exceeded the 65â75 million inhabitants remaining in Sub-Saharan Africa at the trade's end.[citation needed] Others believe that slavers had a vested interest in capturing rather than killing, and in keeping their captives alive; and that this coupled with the disproportionate removal of males and the introduction of new crops from the Americas (cassava, maize) would have limited general population decline to particular regions of western Africa around 1760â1810, and in Mozambique and neighbouring areas half a century later. There has also been speculation that within Africa, females were most often captured as brides, with their male protectors being a "bycatch" who would have been killed if there had not been an export market for them.

During the period from late 19th century and early 20th century, demand for the labor-intensive harvesting of rubber drove frontier expansion and slavery. The personal monarchy of Belgian King Leopold II in the Congo Free State saw mass killings and slavery to extract rubber.[171]

[edit] Modern times

The trading of children has been reported in modern Nigeria and Benin. In parts of Ghana, a family may be punished for an offense by having to turn over a virgin female to serve as a sex slave within the offended family. In this instance, the woman does not gain the title or status of "wife". In parts of Ghana, Togo, and Benin, shrine slavery persists, despite being illegal in Ghana since 1998. In this system of ritual servitude, sometimes called trokosi (in Ghana) or voodoosi in Togo and Benin, young virgin girls are given as slaves to traditional shrines and are used sexually by the priests in addition to providing free labor for the shrine. Slavery in Sudan continues as part of an ongoing civil war. Evidence emerged in the late 1990s of systematic slavery in cacao plantations in West Africa; see the chocolate and slavery article.[169]

[edit] The Americas

[edit] Among indigenous peoples

In Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica the most common forms of slavery were those of prisoners-of-war and debtors. People unable to pay back a debt could be sentenced to work as a slave to the person owed until the debt was worked off. Warfare was important to the Maya society, because raids on surrounding areas provided the victims required for human sacrifice, as well as slaves for the construction of temples.[172] Most victims of human sacrifice were prisoners of war or slaves.[173] According to Aztec writings, as many as 84,000 people were sacrificed at a temple inauguration in 1487.[174] Slavery was not usually hereditary; children of slaves were born free. In the Inca Empire, workers were subject to a mita in lieu of taxes which they paid by working for the government. Each ayllu, or extended family, would decide which family member to send to do the work. It is unclear if this labor draft or corvée counts as slavery. The Spanish adopted this system, particularly for their silver mines in Bolivia.[175]

Other slave-owning societies and tribes of the New World were, for example, the Tehuelche of Patagonia, the Comanche of Texas, the Caribs of Dominica, the Tupinamb¡ of Brazil, the fishing societies, such as the Yurok, that lived along the coast from what is now Alaska to California, the Pawnee and Klamath.[176] Many of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, such as the Haida and Tlingit, were traditionally known as fierce warriors and slave-traders, raiding as far as California. Slavery was hereditary, the slaves being prisoners of war. Among some Pacific Northwest tribes about a quarter of the population were slaves.[177][178] One slave narrative was composed by an Englishman, John R. Jewitt, who had been taken alive when his ship was captured in 1802; his memoir provides a detailed look at life as a slave, and asserts that a large number were held.

[edit] Brazil

A Guaraní family captured by Indian slave hunters. By Jean Baptiste Debret

Slavery was a mainstay of the Brazilian colonial economy, especially in mining and sugar cane production. Brazil obtained 37% of all African slaves traded, and more than 3 million slaves were sent to this one country. Starting around 1550, the Portuguese began to trade African slaves to work the sugar plantations, once the native Tupi people deteriorated. Although Portuguese Prime Minister Marquês de Pombal abolished slavery in mainland Portugal on the 12 February 1761, slavery continued in her overseas colonies. Slavery was practiced among all classes. Slaves were owned by upper and middle classes, by the poor, and even by other slaves.[179]

From São Paulo, the Bandeirantes, adventurers mostly of mixed Portuguese and native ancestry, penetrated steadily westward in their search for Indian slaves. Along the Amazon river and its major tributaries, repeated slaving raids and punitive attacks left their mark. One French traveler in the 1740s described hundreds of miles of river banks with no sign of human life and once-thriving villages that were devastated and empty. In some areas of the Amazon Basin, and particularly among the Guarani of southern Brazil and Paraguay, the Jesuits had organized their Jesuit Reductions along military lines to fight the slavers. In the mid-to-late 19th century, many Amerindians were enslaved to work on rubber plantations.[180][181][182]

[edit] Resistance and abolition

Escaped slaves formed Maroon communities which played an important role in the histories of Brazil and other countries such as Suriname, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica. In Brazil, the Maroon villages were called palenques or quilombos. Maroons survived by growing vegetables and hunting. They also raided plantations. At these attacks, the maroons would burn crops, steal livestock and tools, kill slavemasters, and invite other slaves to join their communities.

Jean-Baptiste Debret, a French painter who was active in Brazil in the first decades of the 19th Century, started out with painting portraits of members of the Brazilian Imperial family, but soon became concerned with the slavery of both blacks and indigenous inhabitants. His paintings on the subject (two appear on this page) helped bring attention to the subject in both Europe and Brazil itself.

The Clapham Sect, a group of evangelical reformers, campaigned during much of the 19th century for the United Kingdom to use its influence and power to stop the traffic of slaves to Brazil. Besides moral qualms, the low cost of slave-produced Brazilian sugar meant that British colonies in the West Indies were unable to match the market prices of Brazilian sugar, and each Briton was consuming 16 pounds (7 kg) of sugar a year by the 19th century. This combination led to intensive pressure from the British government for Brazil to end this practice, which it did by steps over several decades.

First, foreign slave trade was banned in 1850. Then, in 1871, the sons of the slaves were freed. In 1885, slaves aged over 60 years were freed. The Paraguayan War contributed to ending slavery, since many slaves enlisted in exchange for freedom. In Colonial Brazil, slavery was more a social than a racial condition. In fact, some of the greatest figures of the time, like the writer Machado de Assis and the engineer André Rebouças had black ancestry.

Brazil's 1877â78 Grande Seca (Great Drought) in the cotton-growing northeast led to major turmoil, starvation, poverty and internal migration. As wealthy plantation holders rushed to sell their slaves south, popular resistance and resentment grew, inspiring numerous emancipation societies. They succeeded in banning slavery altogether in the province of Cear¡ by 1884.[183] Slavery was legally ended nationwide on 13 May by the Lei Aurea ("Golden Law") of 1888. In fact, it was an institution in decadence at these times, as since the 1880s the country had begun to use European immigrant labor instead. Brazil was the last nation in the Western Hemisphere to abolish slavery.

[edit] Modern times

However, in 2004, the government acknowledged to the United Nations that at least 25,000 Brazilians work under conditions "analogous to slavery." The top anti-slavery official puts the number of modern slaves at 50,000.[184] More than 1,000 slave laborers were freed from a sugar cane plantation in 2007 by the Brazilian government, making it the largest anti-slavery raid in modern times in Brazil.[185]

[edit] Other South American countries

Funeral at slave plantation during Dutch colonial rule, Suriname. Colored lithograph printed circa 1840â1850, digitally restored.

During the period from late 19th century and early 20th century, demand for the labor-intensive harvesting of rubber drove frontier expansion and slavery in Latin America and elsewhere. Indigenous people were enslaved as part of the rubber boom in Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, and Brazil.[186] In Central America, rubber tappers participated in the enslavement of the indigenous Guatuso-Maleku people for domestic service.[187]

[edit] British and French Caribbean

Slavery was commonly used in the parts of the Caribbean controlled by France and the British Empire. The Lesser Antilles islands of Barbados, St. Kitts, Antigua, Martinique and Guadeloupe, which were the first important slave societies of the Caribbean, began the widespread use of African slaves by the end of the 17th century, as their economies converted from sugar production.[188] Among white Caribbeans there exists an underclass known as Redlegs; the descendants of English, Welsh,[citation needed] Scottish and Irish indentured servants, and prisoners imported to the island.[189][190] The Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series of 1701 records 25,000 slaves in Barbados, of which 21,700 were white.[191]

By the middle of the 18th century, British Jamaica and French Saint-Domingue had become the largest slave societies of the region, rivaling Brazil as a destination for enslaved Africans. Due to overwork and tropical diseases, the death rates for Caribbean slaves were greater than birth rates. The conditions led to increasing numbers of slave revolts, escaped slaves forming Maroon communities and fighting guerrilla wars against the plantation owners. Campaigns against slavery began during the period of the Enlightenment and grew to large proportions in Europe and United States during the 19th century (see Abolitionism).

To regularise slavery, in 1685 Louis XIV had enacted the code noir, which accorded certain human rights to slaves and responsibilities to the master, who was obliged to feed, clothe and provide for the general well-being of his slaves. Free blacks owned one-third of the plantation property and one-quarter of the slaves in Saint Domingue (later Haiti).[192] Slavery in the French Republic was abolished on 4 February 1794. When it became clear that Napoleon intended to re-establish slavery, Dessalines and Pétion switched sides, in October 1802. On 1 January 1804, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the new leader under the dictatorial 1801 constitution, declared Haiti a free republic.[71] Thus Haiti became the second independent nation in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States, and the only successful slave rebellion in world history.[193]

Whitehall in England announced in 1833 that slaves in its territories would be totally freed by 1840. In the meantime, the government told slaves they had to remain on their plantations and would have the status of "apprentices" for the next six years.

In Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, on 1 August 1834, an unarmed group of mainly elderly Negroes being addressed by the Governor at Government House about the new laws, began chanting: "Pas de six ans. Point de six ans" ("Not six years. No six years"), drowning out the voice of the Governor. Peaceful protests continued until a resolution to abolish apprenticeship was passed and de facto freedom was achieved. Full emancipation for all was legally granted ahead of schedule on 1 August 1838, making Trinidad the first British colony with slaves to completely abolish slavery.[194]

After Great Britain abolished slavery, it began to pressure other nations to do the same. France, too, abolished slavery. By then Saint-Domingue had already won its independence and formed the independent Republic of Haiti. French-controlled islands were then limited to a few smaller islands in the Lesser Antilles.

[edit] North America

[edit] Early events

The first slaves used by Europeans in what later became United States territory were among Lucas V¡squez de Ayllón's colonization attempt of North Carolina in 1526. The attempt was a failure, lasting only one year; the slaves revolted and fled into the wilderness to live among the Cofitachiqui people.[195]

The first historically significant slave in what would become the United States was Estevanico, a Moroccan slave and member of the Narv¡ez expedition in 1528 and acted as a guide on Fray Marcos de Niza's expedition to find the Seven Cities of Gold in 1539.

In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia as indentured servants. It is possible that Africans were brought to Virginia prior to this, both because neither John Rolfe our source on the 1619 shipment nor any contemporary of his ever says that this was the first contingent of Africans to come to Virginia and because the 1625 Virginia census lists one black as coming on a ship that appears to only have landed people in Virginia prior to 1619.[196] The transformation from indentured servitude to racial slavery happened gradually. It was not until 1661 that a reference to slavery entered into Virginia law, directed at Caucasian servants who ran away with a black servant. It was not until the Slave Codes of 1705 that the status of African Americans as slaves would be sealed. This status would last for another 160 years, until after the end of the American Civil War with the ratification of the 13th Amendment in December 1865.

Only a fraction of the enslaved Africans brought to the New World ended up in British North America-- perhaps 5%. The vast majority of slaves shipped across the Atlantic were sent to the Caribbean sugar colonies, Brazil, or Spanish America.

By the 1680s with the consolidation of England's Royal African Company, enslaved Africans were imported to English colonies in larger numbers, and the practice continued to be protected by the English Crown. Colonists began purchasing slaves in larger numbers.

[edit] Slavery in American colonial law

  • 1642: Massachusetts becomes the first colony to legalize slavery.
  • 1650: Connecticut legalizes slavery.
  • 1661: Virginia officially recognizes slavery by statute.
  • 1662: A Virginia statute declares that children born would have the same status as their mother.
  • 1663: Maryland legalizes slavery.
  • 1664: Slavery is legalized in New York and New Jersey.[197]

[edit] Development of slavery

The shift from indentured servants to African slaves was prompted by a dwindling class of former servants who had worked through the terms of their indentures and thus became competitors to their former masters. These newly freed servants were rarely able to support themselves comfortably, and the tobacco industry was increasingly dominated by large planters. This caused domestic unrest culminating in Bacon's Rebellion. Eventually, chattel slavery became the norm in regions dominated by plantations.

Many slaves in British North America were owned by plantation owners who lived in Britain. The British courts had made a series of contradictory rulings on the legality of slavery[198] which encouraged several thousand slaves to flee the newly-independent United States as refugees along with the retreating British in 1783. The British courts having ruled in 1772 that such slaves could not be forcibly returned to North America, the British government resettled them as free men in Sierra Leone.

Several slave rebellions took place during the 17th and 18th centuries.

[edit] Early United States law

Through the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 under the Congress of the Confederation, slavery was prohibited in the territories north west of the Ohio River. By 1804, abolitionists succeeded in passing legislation that would eventually (in conjunction with the 13th amendment) emancipate the slaves in every state north of the Ohio River and the Mason-Dixon Line. However, emancipation in the free states was so gradual that both New York and Pennsylvania listed slaves in their 1840 census returns, and a small number of black slaves were held in New Jersey in 1860.[199] The importation or export of slaves was banned on 1 January 1808;[200] but not the internal slave trade.

Despite the actions of abolitionists, free blacks were subject to racial segregation in the Northern states.[201] Slavery was legal in most of Canada until 1833, but after that it offered a haven for hundreds of runaway slaves. Refugees from slavery fled the South across the Ohio River to the North via the Underground Railroad. Midwestern state governments asserted States Rights arguments to refuse federal jurisdiction over fugitives. Some juries exercised their right of jury nullification and refused to convict those indicted under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.

The Dred Scott decision of 1857 asserted that one could take one's property anywhere, even if one's property was chattel and one crossed into a free territory. It also asserted that African Americans could not be citizens, as many Northern states granted blacks citizenship, who (in some states) could even vote. This was an example of Slave Power, the plantation aristocracy's attempt to control the North. While traditionally, this has been viewed as turning Northern public opinion against the South, it should be noted that pro-slavery forces made gains in the 1858 elections and it was the anti-slavery Republicans who were on the defensive on the issue. After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, armed conflict broke out in Kansas Territory, where the question of whether it would be admitted to the Union as a slave state or a free state had been left to the inhabitants. The radical abolitionist John Brown was active in the mayhem and killing in "Bleeding Kansas." The true turning point in public opinion is better fixed at the Lecompton Constitution fraud. Pro-slavery elements in Kansas had arrived first from Missouri and quickly organized a territorial government that excluded abolitionists. Through the machinery of the territory and violence, the pro-slavery faction attempted to force an unpopular pro-slavery constitution through the state. This infuriated Northern Democrats, who supported popular sovereignty, and was exacerbated by the Buchanan administration reneging on a promise to submit the constitution to a referendum â which it would surely fail. Anti-slavery legislators took office under the banner of the Republican Party.

[edit] Civil War

Peter, a slave from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1863. The scars are a result of a whipping by his overseer, who was subsequently discharged. It took two months to recover from the beating.

Approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to war. According to the 1860 United States Census, about 385,000 individuals[202] (i.e. 1.4% of White Americans in the country, or 4.8% of southern whites) owned one or more slaves.[203][204] and the slave population in the United States stood at four million.[205] 95% of blacks lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there as opposed to 1% of the population of the North. Consequently, fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North.[206]

In the election of 1860, the Republicans swept Abraham Lincoln into the Presidency (with only 39.8% of the popular vote) and legislators into Congress. Lincoln however, did not appear on the ballots in most southern states and his election split the nation along sectional lines. After decades of controlling the Federal Government, several of the southern states declared they had seceded from the U.S. (the Union) in an attempt to form the Confederate States of America.

Northern leaders like Lincoln viewed the prospect of a new Southern nation, with control over the Mississippi River and the West, as unacceptable. This led to the outbreak of the Civil War, which spelled the end for chattel slavery in America. However, in August 1862, Lincoln wrote to editor Horace Greeley that despite his own moral objection to slavery, the objective of the war was to save the Union and not either to save or to destroy slavery. He went on to say that if he could save the Union without freeing a single slave, or by freeing all the slaves, or by freeing only some of the slaves, he would do it. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 was a powerful move that proclaimed freedom for slaves within the Confederacy as soon as the Union Army arrived; Lincoln had no power to free slaves in the border states or the rest of the Union, so he promoted the Thirteenth Amendment, which freed all the remaining slaves in December 1865. The proclamation made the abolition of slavery an official war goal and it was implemented as the Union captured territory from the Confederacy. Slaves in many parts of the south were freed by Union armies or when they simply left their former owners. Over 150,000 joined the Union Army and Navy as soldiers and sailors.

The remaining slaves within the United States remained enslaved until the final ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution on 6 December 1865 (with final recognition of the amendment on 18 December), eight months after the cessation of hostilities. Only in Kentucky did a significant slave population remain by that time, although there were some in West Virginia and Delaware.

After the failure of Reconstruction, freed slaves in the United States were treated as second class citizens. For decades after their emancipation, many former slaves living in the South sharecropped and had a low standard of living. In some states, it was only after the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s that blacks obtained legal protection from racial discrimination (see segregation).

[edit] Modern times

By the 1860 United States Census, the slave population in the United States had grown to four million. [205]

Although the thirteenth amendment is often understood as having made slavery illegal, Section I of the amendment actually states: âNeither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.â Thus slavery can exist constitutionally within the U.S., as punishment for a crime after the party has been convicted.[citation needed]

The United States Department of Labor occasionally prosecutes cases against people for false imprisonment and involuntary servitude. These cases often involve illegal immigrants who are forced to work as slaves in factories to pay off a debt claimed by the people who transported them into the United States. Other cases have involved domestic workers.

Long Islander Mahender Sabhnani, 52, an international perfume maker originally from India, was convicted by US Federal District Court Judge Arthur Spatt (in Central Islip N.Y.) of slavery of 2 Indonesian housekeepers in his $ 2 million Muttontown home, and sentenced on 27 June 2008 to 3 years and 4 months in prison with fine of $ 12,500. His wife, Varsha, was sentenced to 11 years in prison. A 12-count federal indictment included charges of forced labor, conspiracy, involuntary servitude and harboring aliens, specifically "beating slaves with brooms and umbrellas, slashed with knives, and forced to climb stairs and to take freezing showers for misdeeds that included sleeping late or stealing food from the trash because they were poorly fed."[207][208]

[edit] Asia

[edit] Indian subcontinent

The Greek historian Arrian writes in his book Indica:

"This also is remarkable in India, that all Indians are free, and no Indian at all is a slave. In this the Indians agree with the Lacedaemonians. Yet the Lacedaemonians have Helots for slaves, who perform the duties of slaves; but the Indians have no slaves at all, much less is any Indian a slave." (Book VIII, Chapter X)

Though any formalised slave trade has not existed in South Asia, unfree labor has existed for centuries in the Medieval ages, in different forms. The most common forms have been kinds of bonded labor. During the epoch of the Mughals, debt bondage reached its peak, and it was common for money lenders to make slaves of peasants and others who failed to repay debts. Under these practices, more than one generation could be forced into unfree labor; for example, a son could be sold into bonded labor for life to pay off the debt, along with interest.

The early Arab invaders of Sind in the 8th century, the armies of the Umayyad commander Muhammad bin Qasim, are reported to have enslaved tens of thousands of Indian prisoners, including both soldiers and civilians.[209][210] In the early 11th century Tarikh al-Yamini, the Arab historian Al-Utbi recorded that in 1001 the armies of Mahmud of Ghazna conquered Peshawar and Waihand, "in the midst of the land of Hindustan", and captured some 100,000 youths.[211][212] Later, following his twelfth expedition into India in 1018â19, Mahmud is reported to have returned to with such a large number of slaves that their value was reduced to only two to ten dirhams each. This unusually low price made, according to Al-Utbi, "merchants [come] from distant cities to purchase them, so that the countries of Central Asia, Iraq and Khurasan were swelled with them, and the fair and the dark, the rich and the poor, mingled in one common slavery". Elliot and Dowson refers to "five hundred thousand slaves, beautiful men and women.".[213][214][215] Later, during the Delhi Sultanate period (1206â1555), references to the abundant availability of low-priced Indian slaves abound. Levi attributes this primarily to the vast human resources of India, compared to its neighbours to the north and west (Mughal Indian population being approximately 12 to 20 times that of Turan and Iran at the end of 16th century) .[216]

Arab slave traders also brought slaves as early as the 1st century AD from Africa. Most of the African slaves were brought however in the 17th century and were taken into Western India. The Siddi people are of mainly East African descent.

Much of the northern and central parts of the subcontinent was ruled by the so-called Slave Dynasty of Turkic origin from 1206â1290: Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a slave of Muhammad Ghori rose to power following his master's death. For almost a century, his descendants ruled presiding over the introduction of Tankas and building of Qutub Minar.

According to Sir Henry Bartle Frere (who sat on the Viceroy's Council), there were an estimated 8,000,000 or 9,000,000 slaves in India in 1841. In Malabar, about 15% of the population were slaves. Slavery was abolished in both Hindu and Muslim India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843. Provisions of the Indian Penal Code of 1861 effectively abolished slavery in India by making the enslavement of human beings a criminal offense.[217][218][219][220]

[edit] Modern times

According to Human Rights Watch, there are currently more than 4100 bonded laborers in India,[221] who work as slaves to pay off debts; a majority of them are Dalits.[222] There are also an estimated 5 million bonded workers in Pakistan, even though the government has passed laws and set up funds to eradicate the practice and rehabilitate the labourers.[223] As many as 200,000 Nepali girls, many under 14, have been sold into sex slavery in India. Nepalese women and girls, especially virgins, are favored in India because of their fair skin and young looks.[224][225]

[edit] Nepal

Slavery was abolished in Nepal in 1924.[226] In 1997, a human rights agency reported that 40,000 Nepalese workers are subject to slavery and 200,000 kept in bonded labour.[227] Nepal's Maoist-led government has abolished the slavery-like Haliya system in 2008.[228]

As many as 200,000 Nepali girls, many[quantify] under the age of 14, have been sold into sex slavery in India.[224] Nepalese women and girls, especially virgins, are favoured in India because of their fair skin and young looks.[225]

[edit] Afghanistan

"The country generally between Caubul (Kabul) and the Oxus appears to be in a very lawless state; slavery is as rife as ever, and extends through Hazara, Badakshan, Wakhan, Sirikul, Kunjūt (Hunza), &c. A slave, if a strong man likely to stand work well, is, in Upper Badakshan, considered to be of the same value as one of the large dogs of the country, or of a horse, being about the equivalent of Rs 80. A slave girl is valued at from four horses or more, according to her looks &c.; men are, however, almost always exchanged for dogs. When I was in Little Tibet (Ladakh),a returned slave who had been in the Kashmir army took refuge in my camp; he said he was well enough treated as to food &c., but he could never get over having been exchanged for a dog, and constantly harped on the subject, the man who sold him evidently thinking the dog the better animal of the two. In Lower Badakshan, and more distant places, the price of slaves is much enhanced, and payment is made in coin."[229]

In response to the Hazara uprising of 1892, the Afghan Emir Abdur Rahman Khan declared a "Jihad" against the Shiites. His large army defeated the rebellion at its center, in Oruzgan, by 1892 and the local population was being massacred. According to S. A. Mousavi, "thousands of Hazara men, women, and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul and Qandahar, while numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others who might challenge the rule of the Amir". Until the 20th century, some Hazaras were still kept as slaves by the Pashtuns; although Amanullah Khan banned slavery in Afghanistan during his reign,[230] the practice carried on unofficially for many more years.[231]

[edit] China

Slavery throughout pre-modern Chinese history has repeatedly come in and out of favor. Due to the enormous population and relatively high development of the region throughout most of its history, China has always had a large workforce.

Historically, Chinese families customarily had an average of four children or more. This custom was well suited to the agrarian societies of the period. In times of hardship such as widespread famine or severe financial difficulty, parents of poor families sold some of their children to wealthy homes, to be treated as future brides, servants or slaves. This depended on the compassion and good grace of the master. However, more often it was teenagers or young adults who turned themselves in to become servants. They were not technically slaves since they received periodic payments, which they usually sent home to their families.

During the Tang dynasty, Chinese captured Korean civilians from Koguryo, Paekche, and Silla to sell as slaves.[232][233]

Here are two accounts of slavery given by two Westerners in the late 19th century and early 20th century:

"In the houses of wealthy citizens, it is not unusual to find twenty to thirty slaves attending upon a family. Even citizens in the humbler walks of life deem it necessary to have each a slave or two. The price of a slave varies, of course, according to age, health, strength, and general appearance. The average price is from fifty to one hundred dollars, but in time of war, or revolution, poor parents, on the verge of starvation, offer their sons and daughters for sale at remarkably low prices. I remember instances of parents, rendered destitute by the marauding bands who invested the two southern Kwangs in 1854â55, offering to sell their daughters in Canton for five dollars apiece. . . . The slavery to which these unfortunate persons are subject, is perpetual and hereditary, and they have no parental authority over their offspring. The great-grandsons of slaves, however, can, if they have sufficient means, purchase their freedom. . . . Masters seem to have the same uncontrolled power over their slaves that parents have over their children. Thus a master is not called to account for the death of a slave, although it is the result of punishment inflicted by him."[234]

"In former times slaves were slain and offered in sacrifice to the spirit of the owner when dead, or by him to his ancestors: sometimes given as a substitute to suffer the death penalty incurred by his owner or in fulfilment of a vow. It used to be customary in Kuei-chou (and Szü-chuan too, I believe) to inter living slaves with their dead owners; the slaves were to keep a lamp burning in the tomb.... "Slavery exists in China, especially in Canton and Peking.... It is a common thing for well-to-do people to present a couple of slave girls to a daughter as part of her marriage dowery [sic]. Nearly all prostitutes are slaves. It is, however, customary with respectable people to release their slave girls when marriageable. Some people sell their slave girls to men wanting a wife for themselves or for a son of theirs. "I have bought three different girls: two in Szü-chuan for a few taels each, less than fifteen dollars. One I released in Tientsin, another died in Hongkong; the other I gave in marriage to a faithful servant of mine. Some are worth much money at Shanghai."[235]

In the 17th century Qing Dynasty, there was a hereditarily servile people called Booi Aha (Manchu:booi niyalma; Chinese transliteration: ÅÈ¡É¿Å), which is a Manchu word literally translated as "household person" and sometimes rendered as "nucai" or "slaves".

In his book China Marches West, Peter C. Perdue stated:"In 1624(After Nurhachi's invasion of Liaodong) "Chinese households....while those with less were made into slaves." The Manchu was establishing close personal and paternalist relationship between masters and their slaves, as Nurhachi said:" The Master should love the slaves and eat the same food as him".[236] Perdue further pointed out that booi aha "did not correspond exactly to the Chinese category of "bondservant-slave" (Chinese:ÅÅ); instead, it was a relationship of personal dependency on a master which in theory guaranteed close personal relationships and equal treatment, even though many western scholars would directly translate "booi" as "bondservant".[237]

Various classes of Booi
  1. booi niru a Manchu word (Chinese:ÅÈ¡äÉ), meaning Neiwufu Upper Three Banner's platoon leader of about 300 men .
  2. Booi guanlin a Manchu word (Chinese:ÅÈ¡ç¡É), meaning the manager of booi doing all the domestic duties of Neiwufu.
  3. Booi amban is also a Manchu word, meaning high official, (Chinese:ÅÈ¡ÅÈ).
  4. Estate bannerman (Chinese:Å„ÅÆä) are those renegade Chinese who joined the Jurchen, or original civilians-soldiers working in the fields. These people were all turned into booi aha, or field slaves.

[edit] Modern times

All forms of slavery have been illegal in China since 1910,[238] although the practice still exists through illegal trafficking in some areas.[239]

[edit] Japan

Slavery in Japan was, for most of its history, indigenous, since the export and import of slaves was restricted by Japan being a group of islands. However, Koreans were shipped to Japan as slaves during the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 16th century.[240][241] The export of a slave from Japan is recorded in 3rd century Chinese document, although the system involved is unclear. These slaves were called seiko (çÅ?), lit. "living mouth".

In the 8th century, a slave was called nuhi (ÅÅ?) and series of laws on slavery was issued. In an area of present-day Ibaraki Prefecture, out of a population of 190,000, around 2,000 were slaves; the proportion is believed to have been even higher in western Japan.

Slavery persisted into the Sengoku period (1467â1615), but the attitude that slavery was anachronistic had become widespread.[242] Oda Nobunaga is said to have had an African slave or former-slave in his retinue.[243][dubious ]

In late 16th century Japan, slavery was officially banned; but forms of contract and indentured labor persisted alongside the period penal codes' forced labor. Somewhat later, the Edo period penal laws prescribed "non-free labor" for the immediate family of executed criminals in Article 17 of the GotÅke reijÅ (Tokugawa House Laws), but the practice never became common. The 1711 GotÅke reijÅ was compiled from over 600 statutes promulgated between 1597 and 1696.[244]

[edit] World War II

As the Empire of Japan annexed Asian countries, from the late 19th century onwards, archaic institutions including slavery were abolished in those countries. However, during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War, the Japanese military used millions of civilians and prisoners of war as forced labor, on projects such as the Burma Railway.

According to a joint study by historians including Zhifen Ju, Mitsuyoshi Himeta, Toru Kubo and Mark Peattie, more than 10 million Chinese civilians were mobilized by the KÅa-in (Japanese Asia Development Board) for forced labour.[245] According to the Japanese military's own record, nearly 25% of 140,000 Allied POWs died while interned in Japanese prison camps where they were forced to work (U.S. POWs died at a rate of 37%).[246][247] More than 100,000 civilians and POWs died in the construction of the Burma-Siam Railway.[248] The U.S. Library of Congress estimates that in Java, between 4 and 10 million romusha (Japanese: "manual laborer"), were forced to work by the Japanese military.[249] About 270,000 of these Javanese laborers were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia. Only 52,000 were repatriated to Java, meaning that there was a death rate of 80%. (For further details, see Japanese war crimes.)[250]

Approximately 5,400,000 Koreans were conscripted from 1939 to 1945. About 670,000 of them were taken to Japan, where about 60,000 died between 1939 and 1945 due mostly to exhaustion or poor working conditions. Many of those taken to Karafuto Prefecture (modern-day Sakhalin) were trapped there at the end of the war, stripped of their nationality and denied repatriation by Japan; they became known as the Sakhalin Koreans.[251] The total deaths of Korean forced laborers in Korea and Manchuria for those years is estimated to be between 270,000 and 810,000.[252]

As many as 200,000 women,[253] mostly from Korea and China, and some other countries such as the Philippines, Taiwan, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Netherlands,[254] and Australia[255] were forced into sexual slavery during the World War II. (See Comfort women)

[edit] Korea

Indigenous slaves existed in Korea. Slavery was officially abolished with the Gabo Reform of 1894 but remained extant in reality until 1930. During the Joseon Dynasty (1392â1910), Korean was a hierarchical society. Some low class citizen called as Cheonmin. Low status was hereditary, as well as a form of legal punishment.[256] During poor harvests and famine, many peasants would voluntarily become low class in order to survive.[257][258][259][260] However, if the slaves or Cheonmin had money, he or she could buy her own freedom. The Cheonmin were extremely disrespected among the culture, and the high class people, the yangban could do whatever he/she liked with the Cheonmin.

[edit] Southeast Asia

There was a large slave class in Khmer Empire who built the enduring monuments in Angkor Wat and did most of the heavy work.[261] Slaves had been taken captive from the mountain tribes.[262] People unable to pay back a debt to the upper ruling class could be sentenced to work as a slave too.[263] Between the 17th and the early 20th centuries one-quarter to one-third of the population of some areas of Thailand and Burma were slaves.[264]

In Siam (Thailand), the war captives became the property of the king. During the reign of Rama III (1824â1851), there were an estimated 46,000 war slaves. Slaves from independent hill populations were "hunted incessantly and carried off as slaves by the Siamese, the Anamites, and the Cambodians" (Colquhoun 1885:53).[265] Slavery was not abolished in Siam until 1905.[266]

Yi people in Yunnan practiced a complicated form of slavery. People were split into the Black Yi (nobles, 7% of the population), White Yi (commoners), Ajia (33% of the Yi population) and the Xiaxi (10%). Ajia and Xiaxi were slave castes. The White Yi were not slaves but had no freedom of movement. The Black Yi were famous for their slave-raids on Han Chinese communities. After 1959 some 700,000 slaves were freed.[267][268][269]

Slaves in Toraja society in Indonesia were family property. Sometimes Torajans decided to become slaves when they incurred a debt, pledging to work as payment. Slaves could be taken during wars, and slave trading was common. Torajan slaves were sold and shipped out to Java and Siam. Slaves could buy their freedom, but their children still inherited slave status. Slaves were prohibited from wearing bronze or gold, carving their houses, eating from the same dishes as their owners, or having sex with free womenâa crime punishable by death. Slavery was abolished in 1863 in all Dutch colonies.[270][271]

[edit] Modern times

There are currently an estimated 300,000 women and children involved in the sex trade throughout Southeast Asia.[272] It is common that Thai women are lured to Japan and sold to Yakuza-controlled brothels where they are forced to work off their price.[273][274]

According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), an estimated 800,000 people are subject to forced labor in Myanmar.[275] In November 2006, the International Labor Organization announced it will be seeking "to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity" over the continuous forced labor of its citizens by the military at the International Court of Justice.[276]

[edit] Central Asia and the Caucasus

Russian conquest of the Caucasus led to the abolition of slavery by the 1860s[277][278] and the conquest of the Central Asian Islamic khanates of Bukhara, Samarkand, and Khiva by the 1870s.[279] The Russian administration liberated the slaves of the Kazakhs in 1859.[280] A notorious slave market for captured Russian and Persian slaves was centred in the Khanate of Khiva from the 17th to the 19th century.[281] During the first half of the 19th century alone, some one million Persians, as well as an unknown number of Russians, were enslaved and transported to Central Asian khanates.[282][283] When the Russian troops took Khiva in 1898 there were 29,300 Persian slaves, captured by Turkoman raiders. According of Josef Wolff (Report of 1843â1845) the population of the Khanate of Bukhara was one million two hundred thousand, of whom 200,000 were Persian slaves.[284] At the beginning of the 21st century Chechens and Ingush kept Russian captives as slaves or in slave-like conditions in the mountains of the northern Caucasus.[285]

[edit] Oceania

In the first half of the 19th century, small-scale slave raids took place across Polynesia to supply labor and sex workers for the whaling and sealing trades, with examples from both the westerly and easterly extremes of the Polynesian triangle. By the 1860s this had grown to a larger scale operation with Peruvian slave raids in the South Sea Islands to collect labor for the guano industry.

[edit] Hawaii

Ancient Hawaii was a caste society. People were born into specific social classes. Kauwa were the outcast or slave class. They are believed to have been war captives, or the descendents of war captives. Marriage between higher castes and the kauwa was strictly forbidden. The kauwa worked for the chiefs and were often used as human sacrifices at the luakini heiau. (They were not the only sacrifices; law-breakers of all castes or defeated political opponents were also acceptable as victims.)[286]

[edit] New Zealand

In traditional Mäori society of Aotearoa, prisoners of war became taurekareka, slaves, unless released, ransomed or tortured.[287] With some exceptions, the child of a slave remained a slave. As far as it is possible to tell, slavery seems to have increased in the early 19th century, as a result of increased numbers of prisoners being taken by Mäori military leaders such as Hongi Hika and Te Rauparaha in the Musket Wars, the need for labor to supply whalers and traders with food, flax and timber in return for western goods, and the missionary condemnation of cannibalism. Slavery was outlawed when the British annexed New Zealand in 1840, immediately prior to the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, although it did not end completely until government was effectively extended over the whole of the country with the defeat of the Kingi movement in the Wars of the mid 1860s.

[edit] Chatham Islands

One group of Polynesians who migrated to the Chatham Islands became the Moriori who developed a largely pacifist culture. It was originally speculated that they settled the Chathams direct from Polynesia, but it is now widely believed they were disaffected Mäori who emigrated from the South Island of New Zealand.[288][289][290][291] Their pacifism left the Moriori unable to defend themselves when the islands were invaded by mainland Mäori in the 1830s. Some 300 Moriori men, women and children were massacred and the remaining 1,200 to 1,300 survivors were enslaved.[292][293]

[edit] Rapa Nui / Easter Island

The isolated island of Rapa Nui/Easter Island was inhabited by the Rapanui, who suffered a series of slave raids from 1805 or earlier, culminating in a near genocidal experience in the 1860s. The 1805 raid was by American sealers and was one of a series that changed the attitude of the islanders to outside visitors, with reports in the 1820s and 1830s that all visitors received a hostile reception. In December 1862, Peruvian slave raiders took between 1,400 and 2,000 islanders back to Peru to work in the guano industry; this was about a third of the island's population and included much of the island's leadership, the last ariki-mau and possibly the last who could read Rongorongo. After intervention by the French ambassador in Lima, the last 15 survivors were returned to the island, but brought with them smallpox, which further devastated the island.

[edit] Abolitionist movements

Proclamation of the abolition of slavery by Victor Hughes in the Guadeloupe, 1 November 1794

Slavery has existed, in one form or another, throughout the whole of human history. So, too, have movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves. Moses led Israelite slaves from ancient Egypt according to the Biblical Book of Exodus â possibly the first account of a movement to free slaves. {Exodus 5â20} However, abolitionism should be distinguished from efforts to help a particular group of slaves, or to restrict one practice, such as the slave trade.

Drescher (2009) provides a model for the history of the abolition of slavery, emphasizing its origins in Western Europe. Around the year 1500, slavery had virtually died out in Western Europe, but was a normal phenomenon practically everywhere else. The imperial powers, France, Spain, Britain, Portugal, the Netherlands and a few others, built worldwide empires based primarily on plantation agriculture using slaves imported from Africa. However, the powers took care to minimize the presence of slavery in their homelands. During the âAge of Revolutionsâ (c. 1770â1815), Britain abolished its international slave trade and imposed similar restrictions upon other western nations; the U.S. followed suit in 1808. Although there were numerous slave revolts in the Caribbean, the only successful uprising came in the French colony of St. Domingue, where the slaves rose up, killed the mulattoes and whites, and established the independent Republic of Haiti. The continuing profitability of slave-based plantations and the threats of race war slowed the development of abolition movements during the first half of the 19th century. These movements were strongest in Britain, and after 1840 in the United States, in both instances they were based on evangelical religious enthusiasm that stressded the horrible impact on the slaves themselves. The Northern states of the United States abolished slavery, partly in response to the Declaration of Independence, between 1777 and 1804. Britain ended slavery in its empire in the 1830s. However the plantation economies of the southern United States, based on cotton, and those in Brazil and Cuba, based on sugar, expanded and grew even more profitable. The bloody American Civil War ended slavery in the United States in the 1860s; the system ended in Cuba and Brazil in the 1880s because it was no longer profitable for the owners. Slavery continued to exist in Africa, where Arab slave traders raided black areas for new captives to be sold in the system. European colonial rule and diplomatic pressure slowly put an end to the trade, and eventually to the practice of slavery itself.[294]

[edit] Britain

In 1772, the Somersett Case (R. v. Knowles, ex parte Somersett)[295] of the English Court of King's Bench ruled that slavery was unlawful in England (although not elsewhere in the British Empire). A similar case, that of Joseph Knight, took place in Scotland five years later and ruled slavery to be contrary to the law of Scotland.

Following the work of campaigners in the United Kingdom, such as William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson, the Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was passed by Parliament on 25 March 1807, coming into effect the following year. The act imposed a fine of â100 for every slave found aboard a British ship. The intention was to outlaw entirely the Atlantic slave trade within the whole British Empire.

The significance of the abolition of the British slave trade lay in the number of people hitherto sold and carried by British slave vessels. Britain shipped 2,532,300 Africans across the Atlantic, equalling 41% of the total transport of 6,132,900 individuals. This made the British empire the biggest slave-trade contributor in the world due to the magnitude of the empire. A fact that made the abolition act all the more damaging to the global trade of slaves.[296]

The Slavery Abolition Act, passed on 23 August 1833, outlawed slavery itself in the British colonies. On 1 August 1834 all slaves in the British West Indies, were emancipated, but still indentured to their former owners in an apprenticeship system. The intention of, was to educate former slaves to a trade but instead allowed slave owners to maintain ownership illegally. The act was finally repealed in 1838.[297]

Britain abolished slavery in both Hindu and Muslim India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843.[298]

Domestic slavery practised by the educated African coastal elites (as well as interior traditional rulers) in Sierra Leone was abolished in 1928. A study found practices of domestic slavery still widespread in rural areas in the 1970s.[299][300]

[edit] France

There were slaves in mainland France (especially in trade ports such as Nantes or Bordeaux).,[301] but the institution was never officially authorized there. The legal case of Jean Boucaux in 1739 clarified the unclear legal position of possible slaves in France, and was followed by laws that established registers for slaves in mainland France, who were limited to a three-year stay, for visits or learning a trade. Unregistered "slaves" were regarded as free. However, slavery was of vital importance in France's Caribbean possessions, especially Saint-Domingue. In 1793, influenced by the French Declaration of the Rights of Man of August 1789 and alarmed as the massive slave revolt of August 1791 that had become the Haitian Revolution threatened to ally itself with the British, the French Revolutionary commissioners Sonthonax and Polverel declared general emancipation to reconcile them with France. In Paris, on 4 February 1794, Abbé Grégoire and the Convention ratified this action by officially abolishing slavery in all French territories outside mainland France, freeing all the slaves both for moral and security reasons.

Napoleon sent troops to the Caribbean in 1802 to try to re-establish slavery due to the economic stress France was suffering while fighting all over Europe. They succeeded in Guadeloupe, but the ex-slaves of Saint-Domingue defeated the French corps that was sent and declared independence. This colony became Haiti, the first black republic, on 1 January 1804, with at its head the leader of the revolt, Toussaint Louverture.[71] Slavery in the French colonies was finally abolished only in 1849.

[edit] United States

In 1688, four German Quakers in Germantown, a small village outside Philadelphia, wrote and presented a protest against the institution of slavery to their local Quaker Meeting. The Meeting did not know what to do and passed the petition up the chain of authority, where it continued to be ignored and was archived and forgotten for 150 years. In 1844 it was rediscovered and became a focus of the abolitionist movement. The 1688 Petition was the first American public document of its kind to protest slavery, and in addition was one of the first public documents to define universal human rights.

Slaves in the United States who escaped ownership would often make their way to Canada via the "Underground Railroad". The more famous of the African American abolitionists include former slaves Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth and Frederick Douglass. Many more people who opposed slavery and worked for abolition were northern whites, such as William Lloyd Garrison and John Brown. Slavery was legally abolished in 1865 by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

The American Colonization Society, the primary vehicle for returning black Americans to greater freedom in Africa, established the colony of Liberia in 1821â22, on the premise former American slaves would have greater freedom and equality there.[302] The ACS assisted in the movement of thousands of African Americans to Liberia, with its founder Henry Clay stating; "unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free whites of this country. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off".[303]

While abolitionists agreed on the evils of slavery, there were differing opinions on what should happen after African Americans were freed. Some abolitionists, worried about the difficulties of integrating numerous uneducated people into a hostile environment, hoped to send freed people to Africa. By the time of Emancipation, most African-Americans were now native to the United States and did not want to leave. They believed that their labor had made the land theirs as well as that of the whites; trade unions feared competition in supplying an affordable labor force against former slaves. Most freed people stayed in the United States by choice.[citation needed]

[edit] Congress of Vienna

The Declaration of the Powers, on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, of 8 February 1815 (Which also formed ACT, No. XV. of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna of the same year) included in its first sentence the concept of the "principles of humanity and universal morality" as justification for ending a trade that was "odious in its continuance".[304]

[edit] Twentieth century worldwide

The 1926 Slavery Convention, an initiative of the League of Nations, was a turning point in banning global slavery. Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948 by the UN General Assembly, explicitly banned slavery. The United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery was convened to outlaw and ban slavery worldwide, including child slavery. In December 1966, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which was developed from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 8 of this international treaty bans slavery. The treaty came into force in March 1976 after it had been ratified by 35 nations. As of November 2003, 104 nations had ratified the treaty. According to the British Anti-Slavery Society, "Although there is no longer any state which recognizes any claim by a person to a right of property over another, there are an estimated 27 million people throughout the world, mainly children, in conditions of slavery."[305][306][307][308]

[edit] See also

General
People
Ideals and organisations
Other

[edit] References

  1. ^ Paul Finkelman, "Laws" in Finkelman and Miller, eds, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1998) 2:477-8
  2. ^ "Mesopotamia: The Code of Hammurabi". http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/CODE.HTM. "e.g. Prologue, "the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves". Code of Laws #7, "If any one buy from the son or the slave of another man"." 
  3. ^ "Slavery". Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/548305/slavery. 
  4. ^ Introduction of Slavery
  5. ^ W. V. Harris, "Demography, Geography and the Sources of Roman Slaves," The Journal of Roman Studies, 1999
  6. ^ Roman Slavery
  7. ^ BBC â History â Resisting Slavery in Ancient Rome
  8. ^ Ben Kiernan "Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur", Yale University Press, 2007, ISBN 0300100981, 9780300100983, Pages 65â68
  9. ^ Léonie J. Archer (1988). "Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labour: And Other Forms of Unfree Labour." History Workshop Centre for Social History (Oxford, England), Published by Routledge, ISBN 0415002036, 9780415002035, Page 28
  10. ^ John M. Rist, uman Value: A Study in Ancient Philosophical Ethics (1982) page 26
  11. ^ Sparta â A Military City-State
  12. ^ "Ancient Greece". Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwqwnRA9. 
  13. ^ "Slavery" The Encyclopedia Americana, 1981, page 19
  14. ^ "Slavery". http://www.dl.ket.org/latinlit/mores/slaves/. Retrieved 18 September 2010. 
  15. ^ The Ancient Celts, Barry Cunliffe
  16. ^ See Slavery and Thralldom: The Unfree in Viking Scandinavia
  17. ^ See Iceland History
  18. ^ see Origin of Vikings: Algeidjuborg trafficking of "valkyries" to Islam
  19. ^ Niels Skyum-Nielsen, "Nordic Slavery in an International Context," Medieval Scandinavia 11 (1978-79) 126-48
  20. ^ The Destruction of Kiev
  21. ^ William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols
  22. ^ Life in 13th Century Novgorod â Women and Class Structure
  23. ^ The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia
  24. ^ How To Reboot Reality â Chapter 2, Labor
  25. ^ The Full Collection of the Russian Annals, vol.13, SPb, 1904
  26. ^ The Tatar Khanate of Crimea â All Empires
  27. ^ Supply of Slaves
  28. ^ Moscow â Historical background
  29. ^ a b Historical survey > Slave societies
  30. ^ Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier
  31. ^ Ottoman Dhimmitude
  32. ^ Famous Battles in History The Turks and Christians at Lepanto
  33. ^ A medical service for slaves in Malta during the rule of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem
  34. ^ Brief History of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem
  35. ^ Historical survey > Ways of ending slavery
  36. ^ Cossacks, Encyclopedia.com
  37. ^ Allard, Paul (1912). "Slavery and Christianity". Catholic Encyclopedia. XIV. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14036a.htm. Retrieved 4 February 2006. 
  38. ^ a b Klein, Herbert. The Atlantic Slave Trade.
  39. ^ Bales, Kevin. Understanding Global Slavery: A Reader
  40. ^ Goodman, Joan E. (2001). A Long and Uncertain Journey: The 27,000 Mile Voyage of Vasco Da Gama. Mikaya Press, ISBN 096504937X.
  41. ^ a b c d de Oliveira Marques, António Henrique R. (1972). History of Portugal. Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231031599, p. 158-160, 362â370.
  42. ^ Thomas Foster Earle, K. J. P. Lowe "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe" p.157 Google
  43. ^ David Northrup, "Africa's Discovery of Europe" p.8 (Google)
  44. ^ David A. Koplow Smallpox The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge
  45. ^ U.S. Library of Congress
  46. ^ Health in slavery[dead link]
  47. ^ CIA Factbook: Haiti
  48. ^ a b P. C. Emmer, Chris Emery, "The Dutch Slave Trade, 1500â1850" p.3(Google book)
  49. ^ "The World's Oldest Trade": Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century
  50. ^ Allen J. Frantzen and Douglas Moffat, eds. The work of work: servitude, slavery, and labor in Medieval England (1994)
  51. ^ James Davie Butler, "British Convicts Shipped to American Colonies," American Historical Review, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Oct., 1896), pp. 12â33 in JSTOR
  52. ^ Rees Davies, British Slaves on the Barbary Coast, BBC, July 1, 2003
  53. ^ de Bruxelles, Simon (28 February 2007). "Pirates who got away with it". Study of sails on pirate ships (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/africa/article1449736.ece. Retrieved 25 November 2007. 
  54. ^ Europe: a History. http://books.google.com/books?id=jrVW9W9eiYMC&pg=PA561&lpg=PA561&dq=barbary+lundy&source=web&ots=NxJusqG1IC&sig=p_th8heyRg-OFiSM_T8Oi9yvnu8. Retrieved 25 November 2007. 
  55. ^  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Barbary Pirates". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  56. ^ Was slavery the engine of economic growth?
  57. ^ Heward, Edmund (1979). Lord Mansfield: A Biography of William Murray 1st Earl of Mansfield 1705â1793 Lord Chief Justice for 32 years, p.141. Chichester: Barry Rose (publishers) Ltd. ISBN 0-85992-163-8
  58. ^ S.M.Wise, Though the Heavens May Fall, Pimlico (2005)
  59. ^ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore BBC
  60. ^ The West African Squadron and slave trade
  61. ^ John Andrew, The Hanging of Arthur Hodge[1], Xlibris, 2000, ISBN 0-7388-1930-1. The assertion is probably correct; there appear to be no other records of any British slave owners being executed for holding slaves, and, given the excitement which the Hodge trial excited, it seems improbable that another execution could have occurred without attracting attention. Slavery itself as an institution in the British West Indies only continued for another 23 years after Hodge's death.
  62. ^ Vernon Pickering, A Concise History of the British Virgin Islands, ISBN 0934139059, page 48
  63. ^ Records indicate at least two earlier incidents. On 23 November 1739, in Williamsburg, Virginia, two white men, Charles Quin and David White, were hanged for the murder of another white man's black slave; and on 21 April 1775, the Fredericksburg newspaper, the Virginia Gazette reported that a white man William Pitman had been hanged for the murder of his own black slave. Blacks in Colonial America, p101, Oscar Reiss, McFarland & Company, 1997; Virginia Gazette, 21 April 1775, University of Mary Washington Department of Historic Preservation archives
  64. ^ The Last Galleys
  65. ^ Huguenots and the Galleys
  66. ^ French galley slaves of the ancien régime
  67. ^ The Great Siege of 1565
  68. ^ Kirill Pankratov (May 20, 2005). "Baltic Countries Always Somebodyâs Bitch". The Exile. http://www.exile.ru/articles/detail.php?ARTICLE_ID=7754&IBLOCK_ID=35. Retrieved 19 September 2010. 
  69. ^ Roma Celebrate 150 years of Freedom 2005 Romania
  70. ^ The Historical encyclopedia of world slavery, Volume 1 By Junius P. Rodriguez
  71. ^ a b c A Brief History of Dessalines from 1825 Missionary Journal
  72. ^ Jeremy Popkin, You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery(Cambridge University Press; 2010)
  73. ^ "German Firms That Used Slave or Forced Labor During the Nazi Era". Jewish Virtual Library. January 27, 2000. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/germancos.html. Retrieved 19 September 2010. 
  74. ^ Eastern Europe Exports Flesh to the EU
  75. ^ Crime gangs 'expand sex slavery into shires'
  76. ^ Eastern Europe â Coalition Against Trafficking of Women
  77. ^ A modern slave's brutal odyssey
  78. ^ Moldova: Lower prices behind sex slavery boom and child prostitution
  79. ^ The Russian Mafia in Asia
  80. ^ The "Natasha" Trade â The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women
  81. ^ Poverty, crime and migration are acute issues as Eastern European cities continue to grow
  82. ^ Russia: With No Jobs At Home, Women Fall Victim To Trafficking
  83. ^ Court acquits brothers in assault and detention case
  84. ^ Police bring home 3 sex slaves from China
  85. ^ Sold as a sex slave in Europe
  86. ^ Jana Costachi, "Preventing Victimization in Moldova" Global Issues, June 2003
  87. ^ a b Oren, Michael B. (3 November 2005). "The Middle East and the Making of the United States, 1776 to 1815". http://www.columbia.edu/cu/news/05/11/michaelOren.html. Retrieved 18 February 2007. 
  88. ^ Islam and Slavery
  89. ^ "Know about Islamic Slavery in Africa"
  90. ^ "Horrible Traffic in Circassian WomenâInfanticide in Turkey," New York Daily Times, August 6 1856
  91. ^ a b Soldier Khan
  92. ^ Insights into the concept of Slavery
  93. ^ Battuta's Trip: Journey to West Africa (1351â1353)
  94. ^ Slavery in the Sahara
  95. ^ A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight (washingtonpost.com)
  96. ^ a b c "Slavery in Arabia". "Owen 'Alik Shahadah". http://www.arabslavetrade.com. 
  97. ^ Slaves And Slave Trading In Shi'i Iran, AD 1500â1900
  98. ^ Slavery. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  99. ^ Islam and Slavery
  100. ^ Battuta's Trip: Anatolia (Turkey) 1330 â 1331
  101. ^ Chaman Andam, slavery in early 20th century Iran
  102. ^ Focus on the slave trade
  103. ^ The Unknown Slavery: In the Muslim world, that is â and it's not over
  104. ^ When europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed
  105. ^ Davis, Robert. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500â1800.Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt, "Transatlantic Slave Trade", Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 1999), ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
  106. ^ The Turco-Mongol Invasions
  107. ^ The living legacy of jihad slavery
  108. ^ Slave trade in the early modern Crimea from the perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish sources
  109. ^ Islam and slavery: Sexual slavery
  110. ^ Janissary
  111. ^ Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East
  112. ^ The Turks: History and Culture
  113. ^ In the Service of the State and Military Class
  114. ^ The Mamluk (Slave) Dynasty (Timeline)
  115. ^ Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East. Oxford Univ Press 1994.
  116. ^ a b Richard Leiby, Terrorists by Another Name: The Barbary Pirates, The Washington Post, 15 October 2001
  117. ^ British Slaves on the Barbary Coast by Professor Rees Davies, BBC
  118. ^ World History: 700 to 1516
  119. ^ Amazigh Arts in Morocco
  120. ^ Slavery in Islam
  121. ^ â400 for a Slave
  122. ^ War and Genocide in Sudan
  123. ^ The Lost Children of Sudan
  124. ^ The Abolition season on BBC World Service
  125. ^ Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law
  126. ^ Iraqi sex slaves recount ordeals
  127. ^ Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History
  128. ^ Slow Death for Slavery â Cambridge University Press
  129. ^ Digital History Slavery Fact Sheets
  130. ^ Tanzania â Stone Town of Zanzibar
  131. ^ 18th and Early 19th Centuries. The Encyclopedia of World History
  132. ^ Fulani slave-raids
  133. ^ Central African Republic: History
  134. ^ Twentieth Century Solutions of the Abolition of Slavery
  135. ^ CJO â Abstract â Trading in slaves in Ethiopia, 1897â1938
  136. ^ Ethiopia
  137. ^ Chronology of slavery
  138. ^ Slow Death for Slavery: The Course of Abolition in Northern Nigeria, 1897â1936 (review), Project MUSE â Journal of World History
  139. ^ The end of slavery, BBC World Service | The Story of Africa
  140. ^ The impact of the slave trade on Africa
  141. ^ The Crypt: Slaves in the Islamic world
  142. ^ White slaves. Muslim masters.
  143. ^ The mysteries and majesties of the Aeolian Islands
  144. ^ History of Menorca
  145. ^ When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed
  146. ^ Watch-towers and fortified towns
  147. ^ Islamic Expansion and Decline: Chapter 8: The Slave Society
  148. ^ Rees Davies, British Slaves on the Barbary Coast, BBC, 1 July 2003
  149. ^ Jefferson Versus the Muslim Pirates by Christopher Hitchens, City Journal Spring 2007
  150. ^ Goodwin, Stefan. Africa's Legacies of Urbanization: Unfolding Saga of a Continent
  151. ^ David Livingstone; Christian History Institute
  152. ^ The blood of a nation of Slaves in Stone Town
  153. ^ BBC Remembering East African slave raids
  154. ^ Zanzibar
  155. ^ Swahili Coast
  156. ^ Central African Republic: Early history
  157. ^ Civil War in the Sudan: Resources or Religion?
  158. ^ Slave trade in the Sudan in the nineteenth century and its suppression in the years 1877â80.
  159. ^ The Great Slave Empires Of Africa
  160. ^ The Transatlantic Slave Trade
  161. ^ a b Tunde Obadina. "Slave trade: a root of contemporary African Crisis". Africa Business Information Services. http://www.afbis.com/analysis/slave.htm. Retrieved 19 September 2010. 
  162. ^ a b c Souljah (February 22, 2007). "Myth Busting: "Africans Sold Their Own Into Slavery and Are Just As Guilty as Whites..."". http://www.the4thworld.net/node/15. Retrieved 18 September 2010. 
  163. ^ African Political Ethics and the Slave Trade
  164. ^ Museum Theme: The Kingdom of Dahomey
  165. ^ Dahomey (historical kingdom, Africa)
  166. ^ Benin seeks forgiveness for role in slave trade
  167. ^ Le Mali précolonial
  168. ^ The Story of Africa
  169. ^ a b West is master of slave trade guilt
  170. ^ African Slave Owners
  171. ^ Adam Hochschild, King Leopold's Ghost
  172. ^ Maya Society
  173. ^ human sacrifice â Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
  174. ^ Evidence May Back Human Sacrifice Claims |LiveScience
  175. ^ Bolivia â Ethnic Groups
  176. ^ Slavery in the New World
  177. ^ Digital History African American Voices
  178. ^ Haida Warfare
  179. ^ Rebellions in Bahia, 1798-l838. Culture of slavery
  180. ^ Bandeira
  181. ^ Bandeira â Encyclopedia Britannica
  182. ^ Bandeirantes
  183. ^ (Mike Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts, 88â90)
  184. ^ Hall, Kevin G., "Slavery exists out of sight in Brazil", Knight Ridder Newspapers, 5 September 2004.
  185. ^ "Slave laborers freed in Brazil". BBC News. July 3, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6266712.stm. 
  186. ^ Michael Edward Stanfield , Red Rubber, Bleeding Trees: Violence, Slavery, and Empire in Northwest Amazonia, 1850â1933
  187. ^ Mark Edelman, "A Central American Genocide: Rubber, Slavery, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Guatusos-Malekus," Comparative Studies in Society and History (1998), 40: 356â390.
  188. ^ Involuntary Immigrants
  189. ^ White Slavery, what the Scots already know
  190. ^ The Irish in the Caribbean 1641â1837: An Overview
  191. ^ Caribbean History
  192. ^ Slavery and the Haitian Revolution
  193. ^ "Haiti, 1789 to 1806". http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h34-np2.html. 
  194. ^ Dryden, John. 1992 "Pas de Six Ans!" In: Seven Slaves & Slavery: Trinidad 1777â1838, by Anthony de Verteuil, Port of Spain, pp. 371â379.
  195. ^ Niruena (September 18, 2005). "Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon". Everything2. http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1752906. 
  196. ^ Vaughn, Alden T. "Blacks in Virginia: A Note on the First Decade" in William and Mary Quarterly 29 (1972) no. 3, p. 474
  197. ^ McElrath, Jessica, Timeline of Slavery in America-African American History, About.com, URL last accessed 6 December 2006.
  198. ^ (National Archives Link)
  199. ^ Dictionary of Afro-American slavery By Randall M. Miller, John David Smith. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997. p.471.
  200. ^ Foner, Eric. "Forgotten step towards freedom," New York Times. 30 December 2007.
  201. ^ "Africans in America" â PBS Series â Part 4 (2007)
  202. ^ Gary A. Warner, Journey to freedom, Daily Press, 24 June 2005
  203. ^ Black Slaveowners
  204. ^ Southern History
  205. ^ a b Introduction â Social Aspects of the Civil War
  206. ^ James McPherson, Drawn with the Sword, page 15
  207. ^ Man in Slave Case Sentenced to 3 Years, New York Times
  208. ^ "2nd NY millionaire gets prison in slavery case". http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5jBr01Uk1hYUWVPqB_-Us4SEM-UBAD91ILMEG0. 
  209. ^ Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, tr., The Chachnamah, an Ancient History of Sind, 1900, reprint (Delhi, 1979), pp. 154, 163. This thirteenth-century source claims to be a Persian translation of an (apparently lost) eighth century Arabic manuscript detailing the Islamic conquests of Sind.
  210. ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 1, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, Seventh to Eleventh Centuries (Leiden, 1990)
  211. ^ Muhammad Qasim Firishta, Tarikh-i-Firishta (Lucknow, 1864).
  212. ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 2, The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11thâ13th Centuries (Leiden, 1997)
  213. ^ Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Utbi, Tarikh al-Yamini (Delhi, 1847), tr. by James Reynolds, The Kitab-i-Yamini (London, 1858),
  214. ^ Wink, Al-Hind, II
  215. ^ Henry M. Elliot and John Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 vols (London, 1867â77), II,
  216. ^ Dale, Indian Merchants,
  217. ^ Slavery :: Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
  218. ^ Historical survey > Slave-owning societies
  219. ^ Islamic Law and the Colonial Encounter in dumb ass British India
  220. ^ Hindus Beyond the fucking Hindu Kush: Indians in the Central Asian Slave Trade
  221. ^ Indiaâs âhidden apartheidâ
  222. ^ The Untouchables
  223. ^ Life as a modern slave in Pakistan
  224. ^ a b Millions Suffer in Sex Slavery
  225. ^ a b Fair skin and young looks: Nepalese victims of human trafficking languish in Indian brothels
  226. ^ Tucci, Giuseppe. (1952). Journey to Mustang, 1952. Trans. by Diana Fussell. 1st Italian edition, 1953; 1st English edition, 1977. 2nd edition revised, 2003, p. 22. Bibliotheca Himalayica. ISBN 99933-0-378-X (South Asia); 974-524-024-9 (Outside of South Asia).
  227. ^ Widespread slavery found in Nepal, BBC News
  228. ^ Slavery criminalised in Nepal, 8 September 2008
  229. ^ "Report of "The Mary's" Exploration from Caubul to Kashgar." T. G. Montgomerie. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 41 (1871), p. 146.
  230. ^ Afghan Constitution: 1923
  231. ^ Afghan History: kite flying, kite running and kite banning By Mir Hekmatullah Sadat
  232. ^ Memoirs of the Research Department, Issue 2. p. 63. http://books.google.com/books?id=IZ_WAAAAMAAJ&q=korean+girls+ming&dq=korean+girls+ming&hl=en&ei=wpY3TPGfGoL78AaPqfinBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDAQ6AEwATgU. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  233. ^ Kenneth B. Lee (1997). Korea and East Asia: the story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 49. ISBN 027595823X. http://books.google.com/books?id=XrZQs-6KswMC&pg=PA49&dq=chinese+slaves+korea&hl=en&ei=CZE3TIOhBIL78AaPqfinBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=chinese%20slaves%20korea&f=false. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  234. ^ Gray, John Henry. (1878). China: A History of the Laws, Manners and Customs of the People, pp. 241â243. Reprint: Dover Publications, Mineola, New York. (2002).
  235. ^ William Mesny. (13 May 1905). Mesny's Miscellany, Vol IV, p. 399.
  236. ^ A History of Chinese Civilization
  237. ^ Perdue, Peter (Pub. Date: April 2005). China Marches West. # Publisher: Triliteral. pp. 118. ISBN ISBN 9780674016842. http://books.google.com/books?id=Yd-2tiB6k-YC&pg=PA118&lpg=PA118&dq=bondservant+in+Manchu+time&source=web&ots=QhDVHFNvbL&sig=qjBUeygAIm_r1PtWlhChcBCFxVw&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result. 
  238. ^ Commemoration of the Abolition of Slavery Project
  239. ^ "Chinese Police Find Child Slaves."
  240. ^ Korea through western cartographic eyes.
  241. ^ Hideyoshi and Korea
  242. ^ Thomas Nelson, "Slavery in Medieval Japan," Monumenta Nipponica 2004 59(4): 463â492
  243. ^ Leupp, Gary P. (2003). Interracial Intimacy in Japan: Western Men and Japanese Women, 1543â1900, p. 37.
  244. ^ Lewis, James Bryant. (2003). Frontier Contact Between Choson Korea and Tokugawa Japan, p. 31-32.
  245. ^ Ju Zhifen (2002). "Japan's Atrocities of Conscripting and Abusing North China Draftees after the Outbreak of the Pacific War". Joint study of the Sino-Japanese war. http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~asiactr/sino-japanese/minutes_2002.htm. 
  246. ^ How Japanese companies built fortunes on American POWs
  247. ^ Japanese Atrocities in the Philippines
  248. ^ Links for research, Allied POWs under the Japanese
  249. ^ Library of Congress, 1992, "Indonesia: World War II and the Struggle For Independence, 1942â50; The Japanese Occupation, 1942â45" Access date: 9 February 2007.
  250. ^ Christopher Reed: Japan's Dirty Secret, One Million Korean Slaves
  251. ^ Lankov, Andrei (5 January 2006). "Stateless in Sakhalin". The Korea Times. http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/opinion/200601/kt2006010516434554130.htm. Retrieved 26 November 2006. 
  252. ^ Rummel, R. J. (1999). Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1990. Lit Verlag. ISBN 3-8258-4010-7.  Available online: "Statistics of Democide: Chapter 3 â Statistics Of Japanese Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources". Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War. http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.CHAP3.HTM. Retrieved 1 March 2006. 
  253. ^ Congress backs off of wartime Japan rebuke
  254. ^ Comfort Women Were 'Raped': U.S. Ambassador to Japan
  255. ^ Abe ignores evidence, say Australia's 'comfort women'
  256. ^ Edward Willett Wagner â The Harvard University Gazette
  257. ^ Korea, history pre-1945: slavery â Encyclopaedia Britannica
  258. ^ The Choson Era: Late Traditional Korea
  259. ^ Korean Nobi
  260. ^ Nobi: Rescuing the Nation from Slavery
  261. ^ Cambodia Angkor Wat
  262. ^ Windows on Asia
  263. ^ Khmer Society â Angkor Wat
  264. ^ Slavery
  265. ^ Slavery in Nineteenth-Century Northern Thailand
  266. ^ The Kingdom of Ayutthaya
  267. ^ The Yi Nationality
  268. ^ General Profile of the Yi
  269. ^ The Yi ethnic minority
  270. ^ "Stamps". Stamslandia.webng.com. http://stampslandia.webng.com/gallery2/niz/niz_old.htm. 
  271. ^ Toraja History and Cultural Relations
  272. ^ Sex-slave trade flourishes in Thailand
  273. ^ January 2006 "Woman's Dying Wish: to punish traffickers who ruined her life" The Nation, 23 January 2006
  274. ^ A modern form of slavery: Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand
  275. ^ ILO cracks the whip at Yangon
  276. ^ "ILO seeks to charge Myanmar junta with atrocities". Reuters. 16 November 2006. http://in.today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=worldNews&storyID=2006-11-16T163442Z_01_NOOTR_RTRJONC_0_India-276537-1.xml&archived=False. Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  277. ^ "Horrible Traffic in Circassian WomenâInfanticide in Turkey," New York Daily Times, 6 August 1856
  278. ^ Georgia in the Beginning of Feudal Decomposition. (XVIII cen.)
  279. ^ Khiva, Bukhara, Khokand
  280. ^ Traditional Institutions in Modern Kazakhstan
  281. ^ Adventure in the East â TIME
  282. ^ Ichan-Kala, Encyclopedia Britannica
  283. ^ Fabled Cities of Central Asia: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva: Robin Magowan, Vadim E. Gippenreiter
  284. ^ Report of Josef Wolff 1843â1845
  285. ^ Slave of the Caucasus
  286. ^ Kapu System and Caste System of Ancient Hawai'i
  287. ^ Maori Prisoners and Slaves in the Nineteenth Century
  288. ^ Clark, Ross (1994). Moriori and Maori: The Linguistic Evidence. In Sutton, Douglas G. (Ed.) (1994), The Origins of the First New Zealanders. Auckland: Auckland University Press. pp. 123â135. 
  289. ^ Solomon, Mäui; Denise Davis (updated 9 June 2006). Moriori. Te Ara â the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/Moriori/en. 
  290. ^ Howe, Kerry (updated 9-June-2006). "Ideas of Mäori origins". Te Ara â the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/IdeasOfMaoriOrigins/en. 
  291. ^ King, Michael (2000 (Original edition 1989)). Moriori: A People Rediscovered. Viking. ISBN ISBN 0-14-010391-0. 
  292. ^ Moriori â The impact of new arrivals â Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand
  293. ^ New Zealand A to Z |Chatham Islands
  294. ^ Seymour Drescher, Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (Cambridge University Press, 2009)
  295. ^ (1772) 20 State Tr 1; (1772) Lofft 1
  296. ^ Paul E. Lovejoy: 'The Volume of the Atlantic Slave Trade: A Synthesis.' The Journal of African History, Vol. 23, No. 4 (1982).
  297. ^ This Day at Law: Slavery abolished in the British Empire
  298. ^ Indian Legislation
  299. ^ House of Commons â International Development â Memoranda
  300. ^ Response The 1833 Abolition of Slavery Act didn't end the vile trade
  301. ^ Bordeaux faces its slave history
  302. ^ Background on conflict in Liberia
  303. ^ Maggie Montesinos Sale (1997). The slumbering volcano: American slave ship revolts and the production of rebellious masculinity. p.264. Duke University Press, 1997. ISBN 0822319926
  304. ^ The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time, Published by s.n., 1816 Volume 32. p. 200
  305. ^ UN Chronicle |Slavery in the Twenty-First Century
  306. ^ BBC Millions 'forced into slavery'
  307. ^ Slavery: Modern Slavery: Debt Bondage & Slave Exploitation
  308. ^ The Skin Trade â TIME

[edit] Bibliography

  • Davis, David Brion. Slavery and Human Progress (1984).
  • Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (1966)
  • Davis, David Brion. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (2006)
  • Drescher, Seymour. Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (Cambridge University Press, 2009)
  • Finkelman, Paul, and Joseph Miller, eds. Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery (2 vol 1998)
  • Hinks, Peter, and John McKivigan, eds. Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition (2 vol. 2007) 795pp; isbn 978-0-313-33142-8
  • Parish, Peter J. Slavery: History and Historians (1989)
  • Phillips, William D. Slavery from Roman Times to the Early Atlantic Slave Trade (1984)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P. ed. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (2 vol. 1997)

[edit] Greece and Rome

  • Bradley, Keith. Slavery and Society at Rome (1994)
  • Cuffel, Victoria. "The Classical Greek Concept of Slavery," Journal of the History of Ideas Vol. 27, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1966), pp. 323â342 in JSTOR
  • Finley, Moses, ed. Slavery in Classical Antiquity (1960)
  • Westermann, William L. The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity (1955) 182pp

[edit] Africa and Middle East

  • Campbell, Gwyn. The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia (Frank Cass, 2004)
  • Lovejoy, Paul. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa (Cambridge UP, 1983)

[edit] Latin America and British Empire

  • Klein, Herbert S. African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean (Oxford University Press, 1988)
  • Klein, Herbert. The Atlantic Slave Trade (1970)
  • Klein, Herbert S. Slavery in Brazil (Cambridge University Press, 2009)
  • Morgan, Kenneth. Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America (2008)
  • Stinchcombe, Arthur L. Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment: The Political Economy of the Caribbean World (Princeton University Press, 1995)
  • Walvin, James. Black Ivory: Slavery in the British Empire (2nd ed. 2001)
  • Ward, J. R. British West Indian Slavery, 1750-1834 (Oxford U.P. 1988)

[edit] United States

  • Fogel, Robert. Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery (1989)
  • Genovese, Eugene. Roll Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (1974)
  • Miller, Randall M., and John David Smith, eds. Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery (1988)
  • Phillips, Ulrich B. American Negro Slavery: A Survey of the Supply, Employment and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Regime (1918)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P. ed. Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia (2 vol 2007)

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