Japhetic theory is a term used to describe a linguistic theory developed by the Soviet linguist Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr (1864'1934). In linguistics it can be compared to Lysenkoism in biology: a theory that was promoted and supported for ideological rather than scientific reasons, because it was thought to represent "proletarian science" as opposed to "bourgeois science."
Marr adopted the term "Japhetic", from Japheth, the name of one of the sons of Noah, in order to characterise his theory that the Kartvelian languages of the Caucasus area were related to the Semitic languages of the Middle East (named after Shem, Japheth's brother). Marr postulated a common origin of Caucasian, Semitic-Hamitic, and Basque languages. This initial theory pre-dated the October revolution. In 1917, Marr enthusiastically endorsed the revolution, and offered his services to the new Soviet regime. He was soon accepted as the country's leading linguist.
Under the Soviet government Marr developed his theory to claim that Japhetic languages had existed across Europe before the advent of the Indo-European languages. They could still be recognised as a substratum over which the Indo-European languages had imposed themselves. Using this model, Marr attempted to apply the Marxist theory of class struggle to linguistics, arguing that these different strata of language corresponded to different social classes. He even claimed that the same social classes in widely different countries spoke versions of their own languages that were linguistically closer to one another than to the speech of other classes who supposedly spoke "the same" language. This aspect of Marr's thinking was an attempt to extend the Marxist theory of international class consciousness far beyond its original meaning, by trying to apply it to language. Marr also insisted that the notion that a people are united by common language was nothing more than false consciousness created by "bourgeois nationalism".
To draw support for his speculative doctrine, Marr elaborated a Marxist footing for it. He hypothesized that modern languages tend to fuse into a single language of communist society. This theory was a base of the mass campaign in 1920-30s in the Soviet Union of introduction of Latin alphabets for smaller ethnicities of the country, including replacement of the existing Cyrillic alphabets.
Obtaining recognition of his theory from Soviet officials, Marr was permitted to manage the National Library of Russia from 1926 until 1930 and the Japhetic Institute of the Academy of Sciences from 1921 until his death. He was elected Vice-President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences during 1930.
During 1950, after Marr's death, a diatribe against him authored nominally by Stalin was published, entitled Marxism and Problems of Linguistics (1950) (it was inspired by the writings of Marr's most energetic opponent, Arnold Chikobava.). The author wrote that "N. Y. Marr introduced into linguistics incorrect and non-Marxist formula, regarding the "class character" of language, and got himself into a muddle and put linguistics into a muddle. Soviet linguistics cannot be advanced on the basis of an incorrect formula which is contrary to the whole course of the history of peoples and languages." Since then, the Japhetic theory has been seen as deeply flawed, both inside and outside the former Soviet Union.
- J. V. Stalin, Marxism and Problems of Linguistics, first published in the June 20, July 4, and August 2, 1950 issues of Pravda; reprinted by Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow. online version (marxists.org)
 See also
This article is based on one or more articles in Wikipedia, with modifications and
additional content by SOURCES editors. This article is covered by a Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 License (CC-BY-SA) and the GNU Free Documentation License
(GFDL). The remainder of the content of this website, except where otherwise indicated,
is copyright SOURCES and may not be reproduced without written permission.
(For information call 416-964-7799 or use the
SOURCES.COM is an online portal and directory for journalists, news media, researchers
and anyone seeking experts, spokespersons, and reliable information resources. Use
SOURCES.COM to find experts, media contacts, news releases, background information,
scientists, officials, speakers, newsmakers, spokespeople, talk show guests, story
ideas, research studies, databases, universities, associations and NGOs, businesses,
government spokespeople. Indexing and search applications by Ulli Diemer and Chris
For information about being included in SOURCES as a expert or
spokesperson see the FAQ or use
the online membership form.
Check here for
information about becoming an
For partnerships, content and applications, and domain name opportunities