Jewish quota was a percentage that limited the number of Jews in various establishments. In particular, in 19th and 20th centuries some countries had Jewish quotas for higher education, a special case of Numerus clausus.
Jewish educational quotas could be state-wide law or adopted only in certain institutions, often unofficially. The limitation took the form of total prohibition of Jewish students, or of limiting the number of Jewish students so that their share in the students' population would not be larger than their share in the general population. In some establishments, the Jewish quota placed a limit on growth rather than set a fixed level of participation to be achieved. Countries with a history of antisemitism, such as Germany and Hungary, had particularly strict quotas.
According to historian David Oshinsky, on writing about Jonas Salk, "Most of the surrounding medical schools - Cornell, Columbia, Pennsylvania, and Yale - had rigid quotas in place. In 1935 Yale accepted 76 applicants from a pool of 501. About 200 of those applicants were Jewish and only five got in." He notes that the dean's instructions were remarkably precise: "Never admit more than five Jews, take only two Italian Catholics, and take no blacks at all." As a result, Oshinsky added, "Jonas Salk and hundreds like him ...." enrolled in NYU instead.
Jews who wanted an education used various ways to overcome this discrimination: bribing the authorities, changing their religion, or traveling to countries without such limitations. In Hungary, for example, 5,000 Jewish youngsters (including Edward Teller) left the country after the introduction of Numerus Clausus. One American who fell victim to the Jewish quota was late physicist and Nobel laureate Richard P. Feynman, who was turned away from Columbia College in the 1930s and went to MIT instead.
 Countries legislating limitations on the admission of Jewish students
- Canada: in 1920-1940s, some universities, such as McGill University, had Jewish quotas.
- Germany: On 25 April 1933, the Nazi government introduced a 1.5 quota for new admissions of German Non-Aryansâi.e. essentially of German Jewsâas core issue of a law claiming to generally limit the number of (Aryan and non-Aryan) students admitted to high-schools (hĂśhere Schulen) and universities. In addition, high-schools and universities deemed to have more students than required for the professions for which they were training their students were required to reduce their student enrollment; doing so, they had to reach a maximum of 5% of German non-Aryan students. The law was supposedly enacted to avoid overcrowding schools and universities, which referred to German concerns at the time that large numbers of students would decrease the quality of higher education. In the beginning of 1933, about 1% of the German population was Jewish, but for several decades more than 1% of German students had been Jewish. After 30 July 1939, Jews were no longer permitted to attend German public schools at all, and the prior quota law was eliminated by a non-public regulation in January 1940.p. 193
- Apart from their strong and predominant anti-semitic agenda, the law and its subsequent regulations were temporarily indeed used to limit general university access, i.e. including "non-Arians" (i.e. Jews), as the name of the law implied. Starting 1934, a regulation limited the overall numbers of students admitted to German universities, and a special quota was introduced reducing women's admissions to a maximum of 10%. Although the limits were not entirely enforcedâwomen's quota stayed a bit above of 10% mainly because a smaller percentage of men than women accepted their university admissionsâ, they made it for women approximately twice as hard to enter a university career than for men of the same qualification.S. 80ff. After two semesters, the admission limits were revoked, however, leaving in place the anti-Aryan regulations.p. 178
- For additional information in German, see the article at the German Wikipedia
- ^ Oshinsky, David M. Polio: An American Story, Oxford Univ. Press (2006)
- ^ Gesetz gegen die ĂberfĂźllung deutscher Schulen und Hochschulen (RGBl 1933 I, S. 225) (original German text of the Law against the Overcrowding of German Schools and Universities, introduced in 1933) Erste Verordnung zur DurchfĂźhrung des Gesetzes gegen die ĂberfĂźllung deutscher Schulen und Hochschulen (RGBl 1933 I, S. 226) (original German text of the First Regulation for the Implementation of the Law against the Overcrowding of German Schools and Universities, introduced in 1933)
- ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (no date). Germany: Jewish Population in 1933. Holocaust Encyclopedia. (retrieved 27 February 2010)
- ^ Claudia Huerkamp (1993). JĂźdische Akademikerinnen in Deutschland 1900-1938 (= Jewish academics in Germany 1900-1938). Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 19. Jg. (Heft 3), Rassenpolitik und Geschlechterpolitik im Nationalsozialismus, pp. 311-331. Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (GmbH & Co. KG)
- ^ a b A. G. v. Olenhusen: Die "nichtarischen" Studenten an den deutschen Hochschulen (= The non-Aryan students at German universities). Vierteljahrshefte fĂźr Zeitgeschichte, 14(1966), pp. 175-206. (German)
- ^ Claudia Huerkamp (1996). BildungsbĂźrgerinnen. Frauen im Studium und in akademischen Berufen 1900-1945. (Reihe: BĂźrgertum, Band 10) ISBN 3525356757
- ^ See: Peter Tibor NAGY: The "numerus clausus" policy of anti-semitism or policy of higher education
- ^ http://www.jewishachievement.com/about/about.html
This article is based on one or more articles in Wikipedia, with modifications and
additional content by SOURCES editors. This article is covered by a Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 License (CC-BY-SA) and the GNU Free Documentation License
(GFDL). The remainder of the content of this website, except where otherwise indicated,
is copyright SOURCES and may not be reproduced without written permission.
(For information call 416-964-7799 or use the
SOURCES.COM is an online portal and directory for journalists, news media, researchers
and anyone seeking experts, spokespersons, and reliable information resources. Use
SOURCES.COM to find experts, media contacts, news releases, background information,
scientists, officials, speakers, newsmakers, spokespeople, talk show guests, story
ideas, research studies, databases, universities, associations and NGOs, businesses,
government spokespeople. Indexing and search applications by Ulli Diemer and Chris
For information about being included in SOURCES as a expert or
spokesperson see the FAQ or use
the online membership form.
Check here for
information about becoming an
For partnerships, content and applications, and domain name opportunities
Sources home page