Cannabis Indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate, pre-1937.
Vaporizer with flexible drawtube
Medical cannabis (also referred to as medical marijuana) is the use of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids such as THC as a physician-recommended form of medicine or herbal therapy. The Cannabis plant from which the cannabis drug is derived has a long history of medicinal use, with evidence dating back to 2,737 BCE.
Although the extent of the medicinal value of cannabis has been disputed, and despite the opposition to research and use put forward by most national governments, it does have several well-documented beneficial effects. Among these are: the amelioration of nausea and vomiting, stimulation of hunger in chemotherapy and AIDS patients, lowered intraocular eye pressure (shown to be effective for treating glaucoma), as well as general analgesic effects (pain relief).
Synthetic cannabinoids are available as prescription drugs in some countries. Examples include Marinol, available in the United States and Canada, and Cesamet, available in Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and also in the United States.
There are several methods for administration of dosage, including vaporizing or smoking dried buds, drinking or eating extracts, and taking capsules. The comparable efficacy of these methods was the subject of an investigative study conducted by the National Institutes of Health.
While cannabis for recreational use is illegal in most parts of the world, its use as a medicine is legal in a number of territories, including Canada, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Israel, Italy, Finland, and Portugal. In the United States, federal law outlaws all cannabis use, while permission for medical cannabis varies among states. Distribution is usually done within a framework defined by local laws. Medical cannabis remains a controversial issue worldwide.
 Clinical applications
"Victoria", the United States' first legal medical marijuana plant grown by The Wo/Men's Alliance for Medical Marijuana.
In a 2002 review of medical literature, medical cannabis was shown to have established effects in the treatment of nausea, vomiting, premenstrual syndrome, unintentional weight loss, insomnia, and lack of appetite. Other "relatively well-confirmed" effects were in the treatment of "spasticity, painful conditions, especially neurogenic pain, movement disorders, asthma, [and] glaucoma".
Preliminary findings indicate that cannabis-based drugs could prove useful in treating inflammatory bowel disease (consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), migraines, fibromyalgia, and related conditions.
Medical cannabis has also been found to relieve certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injuries by exhibiting antispasmodic and muscle-relaxant properties as well as stimulating appetite.
Other studies have shown cannabis or cannabinoids may be useful in treating alcohol abuse, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/HD) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, collagen-induced arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, atherosclerosis, bipolar disorder, childhood mental disorders, colorectal cancer, depression, diabetic retinopathy, dystonia, epilepsy, digestive diseases, gliomas, hepatitis C, Huntington's disease, hypertension, urinary incontinence, leukemia, skin tumors, morning sickness, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Parkinson's disease, pruritus, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sickle-cell disease, sleep apnea, and anorexia nervosa. Case reports found that marijuana helped reduce tics, but validation of these results requires longer, controlled studies on larger samples. Controlled research on treating Tourette syndrome with a synthetic version of tetrahydrocannabinol (brand name Marinol), the main psychoactive chemical found in cannabis, showed the patients taking Marinol had a beneficial response without serious adverse effects; other studies have shown that cannabis "has no effects on tics and increases the individuals inner tension".
 Recent studies
 Alzheimer's disease
Research done by the Scripps Research Institute in California shows that the active ingredient in marijuana, THC, prevents the formation of deposits in the brain associated with Alzheimer's disease. THC was found to prevent an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase from accelerating the formation of "Alzheimer plaques" in the brain more effectively than commercially marketed drugs. THC is also more effective at blocking clumps of protein that can inhibit memory and cognition in AlzheimerâÇÖs patients, as reported in Molecular Pharmaceutics.
 Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
One of the more surprising research results from the last decade has been the finding that smoking cannabis does not increase the risk of developing lung cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among people who do not smoke tobacco, and may indeed confer a mildly protective effect. Beginning in 2001, multiple research teams began to report results showing that smoking cannabis does not, by itself, increase the risk of lung cancer, and this result is now well-established. Many studies did report a strongly synergistic effect, however, between tobacco use and smoking cannabis such that tobacco smokers who also smoked cannabis dramatically increased their already very high risk of developing lung cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by as much as 300%. Some of these research results follow below:
- In 2006, Hashibe, Morgenstern, Cui, and Tashkin, et al. presented the results from a study involving 2,240 subjects that showed non-tobacco users who smoked marijuana did not exhibit an increased incidence of lung cancer or head-and-neck malignancies. These results were supported even among very long-term, very heavy users of marijuana.
- Tashkin, a pulmonologist who has studied marijuana for 30 years, said, "It's possible that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana smoke may encourage apoptosis, or programmed cell death, causing cells to die off before they have a chance to undergo malignant transformation". He further commented that "We hypothesized that there would be a positive association between marijuana use and lung cancer, and that the association would be more positive with heavier use. What we found instead was no association at all, and even a suggestion of some protective effect."
- Researchers from the University of British Columbia presented a study at the American Thoracic Society 2007 International Conference showing that smoking marijuana and tobacco together more than tripled the risk of developing COPD over just smoking tobacco alone.
- Similar findings were released in April 2009 by the Vancouver Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease Research Group. The study reported that smoking both tobacco and marijuana synergistically increased the risk of respiratory symptoms and COPD. Smoking only marijuana, however, was not associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms of COPD. In a related commentary, pulmonary researcher Donald Tashkin wrote, "âÇŽwe can be close to concluding that marijuana smoking by itself does not lead to COPD".
- One of the principal constituents of cannabis, THC, has been found to reduce tumor growth in common lung cancer by 50 percent and to significantly reduce the ability of the cancer to spread, say researchers at Harvard University, who tested the chemical in both in vitro lab studies and in mouse studies. The researchers suggest that THC might be used in a targeted fashion to treat lung cancer.
 Breast cancer
According to a 2007 study at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, cannabidiol (CBD) may stop breast cancer from spreading throughout the body. These researchers believe their discovery may provide a non-toxic alternative to chemotherapy while achieving the same results minus the painful and unpleasant side effects. The research team says that CBD works by blocking the activity of a gene called Id-1, which is believed to be responsible for a process called metastasis, which is the aggressive spread of cancer cells away from the original tumor site.
Investigators at Columbia University published clinical trial data in 2007 showing that HIV/AIDS patients who inhaled cannabis four times daily experienced substantial increases in food intake with little evidence of discomfort and no impairment of cognitive performance. They concluded that smoked marijuana has a clear medical benefit in HIV-positive patients. In another study in 2008, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine found that marijuana significantly reduces HIV-related neuropathic pain when added to a patient's already-prescribed pain management regimen and may be an "effective option for pain relief" in those whose pain is not controlled with current medications. Mood disturbance, physical disability, and quality of life all improved significantly during study treatment. Despite management with opioids and other pain modifying therapies, neuropathic pain continues to reduce the quality of life and daily functioning in HIV-infected individuals. Cannabinoid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems have been shown to modulate pain perception. No serious adverse effects were reported, according to the study published by the American Academy of Neurology.
 Brain cancer
A study by Complutense University of Madrid found the chemicals in marijuana promotes the death of brain cancer cells by essentially helping them feed upon themselves in a process called autophagy. The research team discovered that cannabinoids such as THC had anticancer effects in mice with human brain cancer cells and in people with brain tumors. When mice with the human brain cancer cells received the THC, the tumor shrank. Using electron microscopes to analyze brain tissue taken both before and after a 26- to 30-day THC treatment regimen, the researchers found that THC eliminated cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact. The patients did not have any toxic effects from the treatment; previous studies of THC for the treatment of cancer have also found the therapy to be well tolerated. However, the mechanisms which promote THC's tumor cellâÇôkilling action are unknown.
 Opioid dependence
Injections of THC eliminate dependence on opiates in stressed rats, according to a research team at the Laboratory for Physiopathology of Diseases of the Central Nervous System (France) in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology. Deprived of their mothers at birth, rats become hypersensitive to the rewarding effect of morphine and heroin (substances belonging to the opiate family), and rapidly become dependent. When these rats were administered THC, they no longer developed typical morphine-dependent behavior. In the striatum, a region of the brain involved in drug dependence, the production of endogenous enkephalins was restored under THC, whereas it diminished in rats stressed from birth which had not received THC. Researchers believe the findings could lead to therapeutic alternatives to existing substitution treatments.
In humans, drug treatment subjects who use cannabis intermittently are found to be more likely to adhere to treatment for opioid dependence. Historically, similar findings were reported by Clendinning, who in 1843 utilized cannabis substitution for the treatment of alcoholism and opium addiction and Birch, in 1889, who reported success in treating opiate and chloral addiction with cannabis.
 Spasticity in multiple sclerosis
A review of six randomized controlled trials of a combination of THC and CBD extracts for the treatment of MS related muscle spasticity reported, "Although there was variation in the outcome measures reported in these studies, a trend of reduced spasticity in treated patients was noted." The authors postulated that "cannabinoids may provide neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory benefits in MS."
 Medicinal compounds
Cannabis contains over 300 compounds. At least 66 of these are cannabinoids, which are the basis for medical and scientific use of cannabis. This presents the research problem of isolating the effect of specific compounds and taking account of the interaction of these compounds. Cannabinoids can serve as appetite stimulants, antiemetics, antispasmodics, and have some analgesic effects. Five important cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant are tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol, î▓-caryophyllene, and cannabigerol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary compound responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis. The compound is a mild analgesic, and cellular research has shown the compound has antioxidant activity. THC is believed to interfere with parts of the brain normally controlled by the endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter, anandamide. Anandamide is believed to play a role in pain sensation, memory, and sleep.
Main article: Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol (CBD), is a major constituent of medical cannabis. CBD represents up to 40% of extracts of the medical cannabis plant. Cannabidiol relieves convulsion, inflammation, anxiety, nausea, and inhibits cancer cell growth. Recent studies have shown cannabidiol to be as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia. Because cannabidiol relieves the aforementioned symptoms, cannabis strains with a high amount of CBD would be ideal for people with multiple sclerosis, frequent anxiety attacks and Tourette syndrome.
Cannabinol (CBN) is a therapeutic cannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. It is also produced as a metabolite, or a breakdown product, of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). CBN acts as a weak agonist of the CB1 and CB2 receptors, with lower affinity in comparison to THC.
Main article: Caryophyllene
Part of the mechanism by which medical cannabis has been shown to reduce tissue inflammation is via the compound î▓-caryophyllene. A cannabinoid receptor called CB2 plays a vital part in reducing inflammation in humans and other animals. î▓-Caryophyllene has been shown to be a selective activator of the CB2 receptor. î▓-Caryophyllene is especially concentrated in cannabis essential oil, which contains about 12âÇô35% î▓-caryophyllene.
Main article: Cannabigerol
Like cannabidiol, cannabigerol is not psychoactive but has been shown to lower blood pressure in rates greater than cannabinol.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is known to relieve convulsion, aiding those with diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
î▓-Caryophyllene has important anti-inflammatory properties.
 Pharmacologic THC and THC derivatives
In the USA, the FDA has approved two cannabinoids for use as medical therapies: dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone. These medicines are taken orally.
These medications are usually used when first line treatments for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy fail to work. In extremely high doses and in rare cases "psychotomimetic" side effects are possible. The other commonly-used antiemetic drugs are not associated with these side effects.
The prescription drug Sativex, an extract of cannabis administered as a sublingual spray, has been approved in Canada for the adjunctive treatment (use along side other medicines) of both multiple sclerosis and cancer related pain. This medication may be legally imported into the United Kingdom and Spain on prescription. William Notcutt is one of the chief researchers that has developed Sativex, and he has been working with GW and founder Geoffrey Guy since the company's inception in 1998. Notcutt states that the use of MS as the disease to study "had everything to do with politics."
||Nausea of cancer chemotherapy that has failed to respond adequately to other antiemetics
||$4000.00 U.S. for a year's supply (in Canada)
|Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who have failed to respond adequately to conventional treatments
$652 U.S. for 30 doses @ 10 mg online
||Anorexia associated with AIDSâÇôrelated weight loss
||Adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis in adults
$9,351 Canadian per year
||Pain due to cancer
One of the major criticisms of cannabis as medicine is opposition to smoking as a method of consumption.
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an advisory against smoked medical marijuana stating that, "marijuana has a high potential for abuse, has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and has a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. Furthermore, there is currently sound evidence that smoked marijuana is harmful."
The Institute of Medicine, run by the United States National Academy of Sciences, conducted a comprehensive study in 1999 to assess the potential health benefits of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids. The study concluded that smoking cannabis is not recommended for the treatment of any disease condition,. but did conclude that nausea, appetite loss, pain and anxiety can all be mitigated by marijuana. While the study expressed reservations about smoked marijuana due to the health risks associated with smoking, the study team concluded that until another mode of ingestion was perfected that could provide the same relief as smoked marijuana, there was no alternative. However, modern vaporizers and the ingestion of cannabis in a decarboxylated state have laid most of these concerns to rest. In addition, the study pointed out the inherent difficulty in marketing a non-patentable herb. Pharmaceutical companies will not substantially profit unless there is a patent. For those reasons, the Institute of Medicine concluded that there is little future in smoked cannabis as a medically approved medication. The report also concluded for certain patients, such as the terminally ill or those with debilitating symptoms, the long-term risks are not of great concern.
Marinol was less effective than the steroid megestrol in helping cancer patients regain lost appetites. A phase III study found no difference in effects of an oral cannabis extract or THC on appetite and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) to placebo.
 Harm reduction
The harm caused by smoking can be minimized or eliminated by the use of a vaporizer or ingesting the drug in an edible form. This risk is also thought to be decreased by processing the cannabis leaves into hemp oil.
Vaporizers are devices that heat the active constituents of cannabis in a partial vacuum so that their vapors can be inhaled. Combustion of plant material is avoided, thus preventing the formation of carcinogens such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and carbon monoxide. A pilot study led by Donald Abrams of UC San Francisco showed that vaporizers eliminate the release of irritants and toxic compounds, while delivering equivalent amounts of THC into the bloodstream.
In order to kill microorganisms, especially the molds A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger, Levitz and Diamond suggested baking marijuana at 150 â░C (302 â░F) for five minutes. They also found that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was not degraded by this process.
 Organizational positions
A number of medical organizations have endorsed reclassification of marijuana to allow for further study. These include, but are not limited to, the following:
The use of cannabis, at least as fiber, has been shown to go back at least 10,000 years in Taiwan
. "D├á m├¡" (Pinyin
pronunciation) is the Chinese expression for cannabis, the first character meaning "big" and the second character meaning "hemp."
 Ancient China and Taiwan
Cannabis, called m├¡ É║» or d├ám├¡ ÅĄžÉ║» (with "big; great") in Chinese, was used in Taiwan for fiber starting about 10,000 years ago. The botanist Li Hui-Lin wrote that in China, "The use of Cannabis in medicine was probably a very early development. Since ancient men used hemp seed as food, it was quite natural for them to also discover the medicinal properties of the plant." The oldest Chinese pharmacopeia, the (ca. 100 CE) Shennong Bencaojing çąžÈż▓ÆťČÈŹëçÂô ("Shennong's Materia Medica Classic"), describes dama "cannabis".
The flowers when they burst (when the pollen is scattered) are called É║»ÈĽ¡ [mafen] or É║»Åőâ [mabo]. The best time for gathering is the 7th day of the 7th month. The seeds are gathered in the 9th month. The seeds which have entered the soil are injurious to man. It grows in [Taishan] (in [Shandong] âÇŽ). The flowers, the fruit (seed) and the leaves are officinal. The leaves and the fruit are said to be poisonous, but not the flowers and the kernels of the seeds.
Cannabis is one of the 50 "fundamental" herbs in traditional Chinese medicine, and is prescribed to treat diverse indications.
Every part of the hemp plant is used in medicine; the dried flowers (Åőâ), the achenia (ÈĽ¡), the seeds (É║»ä»ü), the oil (É║»Æ▓╣), the leaves, the stalk, the root, and the juice. The flowers are recommended in the 120 different forms of (ÉóĘ feng) disease, in menstrual disorders, and in wounds. The achenia, which are considered to be poisonous, stimulate the nervous system, and if used in excess, will produce hallucinations and staggering gait. They are prescribed in nervous disorders, especially those marked by local anaesthesia. The seeds, by which is meant the white kernels of the achenia, are used for a great variety of affections, and are considered to be tonic, demulcent, alterative, laxative, emmenagogue, diuretic, anthelmintic, and corrective. They are made into a congee by boiling with water, mixed with wine by a particular process, made into pills, and beaten into a paste. A very common mode of exhibition, however, is by simply eating the kernels. It is said that their continued use renders the flesh firm and prevents old age. They are prescribed internally in fluxes, post-partum difficulties, aconite poisoning, vermillion poisoning, constipation, and obstinate vomiting. Externally they are used for eruptions, ulcers, favus, wounds, and falling of the hair. The oil is used for falling hair, sulfur poisoning, and dryness of the throat. The leaves are considered to be poisonous, and the freshly expressed juice is used as an anthelmintic, in scorpion stings, to stop the hair from falling out and to prevent it from turning grey. They are especially thought to have antiperiodic properties. The stalk, or its bark, is considered to be diuretic, and is used with other drugs in gravel. The juice of the root is used for similar purposes, and is also thought to have a beneficial action in retained placenta and post-partum hemorrhage. An infusion of hemp (for the preparation of which no directions are given) is used as a demulcent drink for quenching thirst and relieving fluxes.
In the early 3rd century CE, Hua Tuo was the first person known to use cannabis as an anesthetic. He reduced the plant to powder and mixed it with wine for administration.
 Ancient Egypt
The Ebers Papyrus (ca. 1,550 BCE ) from Ancient Egypt describes medical marijuana. Other ancient Egyptian papyri that mention medical marijuana are the Ramesseum III Papyrus (1700 BCE), the Berlin Papyrus (1300 BCE) and the Chester Beatty Medical Papyrus VI (1300 BCE). The ancient Egyptians even used hemp (cannabis) in suppositories for relieving the pain of hemorrhoids. The egyptologist Lise Manniche notes the reference to "plant medical marijuana" in several Egyptian texts, one of which dates back to the eighteenth century BCE
 Ancient India
Surviving texts from ancient India confirm that cannabis' psychoactive properties were recognized, and doctors used it for a variety of illnesses and ailments. These included insomnia, headaches, a whole host of gastrointestinal disorders, and pain: cannabis was frequently used to relieve the pain of childbirth.
 Ancient Greece
The Ancient Greeks used cannabis not only for human medicine, but also in veterinary medicine to dress wounds and sores on their horses.
In humans, dried leaves of cannabis were used to treat nose bleeds, and cannabis seeds were used to expel tapeworms. The most frequently described use of cannabis in humans was to steep green seeds of cannabis in either water or wine, later taking the seeds out and using the warm extract to treat inflammation and pain resulting from obstruction of the ear.
In the 5th century BCE Herodotus, a Greek historian, described how the Scythians of the Middle East used cannabis in steam baths.
 Ancient Africa
The drug and its uses reached the Middle and Near East after 500 AD and then moved across North Africa to other parts of Africa. Cannabis was used in Africa to restore appetite and relieve pain of hemorrhoids. It was also used as an antiseptic and for other medical uses. In a number of countries, it was used to treat of tetanus, hydrophobia, delirium tremens, infantile convulsions, neuralgia and other nervous disorders, cholera, menorrhagia, rheumatism, hay fever, asthma, skin diseases, and protracted labor during childbirth.
Various groups in some n countries like Malawi have been using Chamba (Malawi Gold) for a centuries time for medicinal purposes. Particulary amongst the Ratafarian communities in Malawi. Many medical studies have been done using this leaf since it ranks amongst one of the most potent Marijauna in the world.
 Medieval Islamic world
In the medieval Islamic world, Arabic physicians made use of the diuretic, antiemetic, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, pain killing and antipyretic properties of Cannabis sativa, and used it extensively as medication from the 8th to 18th centuries.
 Modern history
An Irish physician, William Brooke O'Shaughnessy, is credited with introducing the therapeutic use of cannabis to Western medicine. He was Assistant-Surgeon and Professor of Chemistry at the Medical College of Calcutta, and conducted a cannabis experiment in the 1830s, first testing his preparations on animals, then administering them to patients in order to help treat muscle spasms, stomach cramps or general pain.
An advertisement for cannabis americana distributed by a pharmacist in New York
Cannabis as a medicine became common throughout much of the Western world by the 19th century. It was used as the primary pain reliever until the invention of aspirin. Modern medical and scientific inquiry began with doctors like O'Shaughnessy and Moreau de Tours, who used it to treat melancholia and migraines, and as a sleeping aid, analgesic and anticonvulsant.
By the time the United States banned cannabis in a federal law, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act, the plant was no longer extremely popular. Skepticism about cannabis arose in response to the bill. The situation was exacerbated by the stereotypes promoted by the media, that the drug was used primarily by Mexican and African immigrants.
Later in the century, researchers investigating methods of detecting cannabis intoxication discovered that smoking the drug reduced intraocular pressure. In 1973 physician Tod H. Mikuriya reignited the debate concerning cannabis as medicine when he published "Marijuana Medical Papers". High intraocular pressure causes blindness in glaucoma patients, so he hypothesized that using the drug could prevent blindness in patients. Many Vietnam War veterans also found that the drug prevented muscle spasms caused by spinal injuries suffered in battle. Later medical use focused primarily on its role in preventing the wasting syndromes and chronic loss of appetite associated with chemotherapy and AIDS, along with a variety of rare muscular and skeletal disorders.
Later, in the 1970s, a synthetic version of THC was produced and approved for use in the United States as the drug Marinol. It was delivered as a capsule, to be swallowed. Patients complained that the violent nausea associated with chemotherapy made swallowing capsules difficult. Further, along with ingested cannabis, capsules are harder to dose-titrate accurately than smoked cannabis because their onset of action is so much slower. Smoking has remained the route of choice for many patients because its onset of action provides almost immediate relief from symptoms and because that fast onset greatly simplifies titration. For these reasons, and because of the difficulties arising from the way cannabinoids are metabolized after being ingested, oral dosing is probably the least satisfactory route for cannabis administration. Relatedly, some studies have indicated that at least some of the beneficial effects that cannabis can provide may derive from synergy among the multiplicity of cannabinoids and other chemicals present in the dried plant material. Such synergy is, by definition, impossible with respect to the use of single-cannabinoid drugs like Marinol.
During the 1970s and 1980s, six U.S. states' health departments performed studies on the use of medical cannabis. These are widely considered some of the most useful and pioneering studies on the subject. Voters in eight states showed their support for cannabis prescriptions or recommendations given by physicians between 1996 and 1999, including Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Maine, Michigan, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, going against policies of the federal government.
Cannabis female flowers closeup with trichomes
(white). These plant parts contain the highest concentration of medicinal compounds.
In May 2001, "The Chronic Cannabis Use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An Examination of Benefits and Adverse Effects of Legal Clinical Cannabis" (Russo, Mathre, Byrne et al.) was completed. This three-day examination of major body functions of four of the five living US federal cannabis patients found "mild pulmonary changes" in two patients.
On October 7, 2003 a patent entitled "Cannabinoids as Antioxidants and Neuroprotectants" http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6630507/fulltext.html (#6,630,507) was awarded to the United States Department of Health and Human Services, based on research done at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). This patent claims that cannabinoids are "useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and HIV dementia."
 National and international regulations
Cannabis is in Schedule IV of the United Nationsâ┤ Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, making it subject to special restrictions. Article 2 provides for the following, in reference to Schedule IV drugs:
A Party shall, if in its opinion the prevailing conditions in its country render it the most appropriate means of protecting the public health and welfare, prohibit the production, manufacture, export and import of, trade in, possession or use of any such drug except for amounts which may be necessary for medical and scientific research only, including clinical trials therewith to be conducted under or subject to the direct supervision and control of the Party.
The convention thus allows countries to outlaw cannabis for all non-research purposes but lets nations choose to allow medical and scientific purposes if they believe total prohibition is not the most appropriate means of protecting health and welfare. The convention requires that states that permit the production or use of medical cannabis must operate a licensing system for all cultivators,manufacturers and distributors and ensure that the total cannabis market of the state shall not exceed that required "for medical and scientific purposes."
In Austria both îö9-THC and pharmaceutical preparations containing îö9-THC are listed in annex IV of the Narcotics Decree (Suchtgiftverordnung). Compendial formulations are manufactured upon prescription according to the German Neues Rezeptur-Formularium.
On July 9, 2008 the Austrian Parliament approved cannabis cultivation for scientific and medical uses. Cannabis cultivation is controlled by the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (├ľsterreichische Agentur f├╝r Gesundheit und Ern├Ąhrungssicherheit, AGES).
In Canada, the regulation on access to marijuana for medical purposes, established by Health Canada in July 2001, defines two categories of patients eligible for access to medical cannabis. Category 1 covers any symptoms treated within the context of providing compassionate end-of-life care or the symptoms associated with medical conditions listed below:
- severe pain and/or persistent muscle spasms from multiple sclerosis, from a spinal cord injury, from spinal cord disease,
- severe pain, cachexia, anorexia, weight loss, and/or severe nausea from cancer or HIV/AIDS infection,
- severe pain from severe forms of arthritis, or
- seizures from epilepsy.
Category 2 is for applicants who have debilitating symptom(s) of medical condition(s), other than those described in Category 1. The application of eligible patients must be supported by a medical practitioner.
The cannabis distributed by Health Canada is provided under the brand CannaMed by the company Prairie Plant Systems Inc. In 2006, 420 kg of CannaMed cannabis was sold, representing an increase of 80% over the previous year. However, patients complain of the single strain selection as well as low potency, providing a pre-ground product put through a wood chipper (which deteriorates rapidly) as well as gamma irradation and foul taste and smell.
It is also legal for patients approved by Health Canada to grow their own cannabis for personal consumption, and it's possible to obtain a production license as a person designated by a patient. Designated producers were permitted to grow a cannabis supply for only a single patient, however. That regulation and related restrictions on supply were found unconstitutional by the Federal Court of Canada in January, 2008. The court found that these regulations did not allow a sufficient legal supply of medical cannabis, and thus forced many patients to purchase their medicine from unauthorized, black market sources. This was the eighth time in the previous ten years that the courts ruled against Health Canada's regulations restricting the supply of the medicine.
In May, 2009, Health Canada revised their earlier regulations to permit licensed, designated producers to grow cannabis for a maximum of two patients. The move was called a "mockery" of the court's intention by lawyer Ron Marzel, who represented plaintiffs in the successful challenge in Federal Court to Health Canada's previously-existing rules. Marzel has announced plans to ask the court to overturn all prohibitions on cannabis use if Health Canada refuses to create regulations that will allow an adequate legal supply for use by medically-authorized patients.
In Germany dronabinol was rescheduled 1994 from annex I to annex II of the Narcotics Law (Bet├Ąubungsmittelgesetz) in order to ease research; in 1998 dronabinol was rescheduled from annex II to annex III and since then has been available by prescription, whereas îö9-THC is still listed in annex I. Manufacturing instructions for dronabinol containing compendial formulations are described in the Neues Rezeptur-Formularium.
In Spain, since the late 1990s and early 2000s, medical cannabis underwent a process of progressive decriminalization and legalisation. The parliament of the region of Catalonia is the first in Spain have voted unanimously in 2001 legalizing medical marijuana, it is quickly followed by parliaments of Aragon and the Balearic Islands. The Spanish Penal Code prohibits the sale of cannabis but it does not prohibit consumption. Until early 2000, the Penal Code did not distinguish between therapeutic use of cannabis and recreational use, however, several court decisions show that this distinction is increasingly taken into account by the judges. From 2006, the sale of seed is legalized, the sale and public consumption remains illegal, and private cultivation and use are permitted.
Several studies have been conducted to study the effects of cannabis on patients suffering from diseases like cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, seizures or asthma. This research was conducted by various Spanish agencies at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid headed by Manuel Guzman, the hospital of La Laguna in Tenerife led neurosurgeon Luis Gonz├¡lez Feria or the University of Barcelona.
Several cannabis consumption clubs and user associations have been established throughout Spain. These clubs, the first of which was created in 1991, are non-profit associations who grow cannabis and sell it at cost to its members. The legal status of these clubs is uncertain: in 1997, four members of the first club, the Barcelona Ram├│n Santos Association of Cannabis Studies, were sentenced to 4 months in prison and a 3000 euro fine, while at about the same time, the court of Bilboa ruled that another club was not in violation of the law. The Andalusian regional government also commissioned a study by criminal law professors on the "Therapeutic use of cannabis and the creation of establishments of acquisition and consumption. The study concluded that such clubs are legal as long as they distribute only to a restricted list of legal adults, provide only the amount of drugs necessary for immediate consumption, and not earn a profit. The Andalusian government never formally accepted these guidelines and the legal situation of the clubs remains insecure. In 2006 and 2007, members of these clubs were acquitted in trial for possession and sale of cannabis and the police were ordered to return seized crops.
 United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, if you are arrested or taken to court for possession of cannabis, you are asked if there are any mitigating factors to explain why it is in your possession. It is unknown whether this is solely a formality, or if an excuse of medical usage has ever been used successfully to reduce the penalty issued. However, in the United Kingdom, possession of small quantities of cannabis does not usually warrant an arrest or court appearance (street cautions or fines are often given out instead). Under UK law, certain cannabinoids are permitted medically, but these are strictly controlled with many provisos under the Misuse of drugs act 1971 (in the 1985 amendments). The British Medical Associations official stance is "users of cannabis for medical purposes should be aware of the risks, should enroll for clinical trials, and should talk to their doctors about new alternative treatments; but we do not advise them to stop."
 United States
In the United States, it is important to differentiate between medical cannabis at the federal and at the state level. At the federal level, cannabis per se has been made criminal by implementation of the Controlled Substances Act which classifies marijuana as a Schedule I drug, the strictest classification on par with heroin, LSD and Ecstasy, and the Supreme Court ruled in 2005 that the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution allowed the government to ban the use of cannabis, including medical use. The United States Food and Drug Administration states "marijuana has a high potential for abuse, has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and has a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision".
15 states have legalized medical marijuana: Alaska, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia Washington D.C. and Washington; Maryland allows for reduced penalties if cannabis use has a medical basis. California, Colorado, New Mexico, Maine, Rhode Island, and Montana are currently the only states to utilize dispensaries to sell medical cannabis. California's medical marijuana industry took in about $2 billion a year and generated $100 million in state sales taxes during 2008 with an estimated 2,100 dispensaries, co-operatives, wellness clinics and taxi delivery services in the sector colloquially known as âÇťcannabusinessâÇŁ.
On 19 October 2009 the US Deputy Attorney General issued a US Department of Justice memorandum to "All United States Attorneys" providing clarification and guidance to federal prosecutors in US States that have enacted laws authorizing the medical use of marijuana. The document is intended solely as "a guide to the exercise of investigative and prosecutorial discretion and as guidance on resource allocation and federal priorities." The US Deputy Attorney General David W. Ogden provided seven criteria, the application of which acts as a guideline to prosecutors and federal agents to ascertain whether a patients use, or their caregivers provision, of medical marijuana "represents part of a recommended treatment regiment consistent with applicable state law", and recommends against prosecuting patients using medical cannabis products according to state laws. Not applying those criteria, the Dep. Attorney General Ogden concludes, would likely be "an inefficient use of limited federal resources". The memorandum does not change any laws. Sale of cannabis remains illegal under federal law. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's position, that marijuana has no accepted value in the treatment of any disease in the United States, has also remained the same.
The Health and Human Services Division of the federal government holds a patent for medical marijuana. The patent, "Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants", issued October 2003 reads: "Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism. This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and HIV dementiaâÇŽ"
 See also
- ^ Mohamed Ben Amar (2006). "Cannabinoids in medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105 (1âÇô2): 1âÇô25. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.02.001. PMID 16540272. http://www.doctordeluca.com/Library/WOD/WPS3-MedMj/CannabinoidsMedMetaAnalysis06.pdf. Retrieved 8 April 2010.
- ^ Aggarwal SK, Carter GT, Sullivan MD, ZumBrunnen C, Morrill R, Mayer JD (2009). "Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions". J Opioid Manag 5 (3): 153âÇô68. PMID 19662925. http://students.washington.edu/sunila/JOM_5-3-03.pdf. Lay summary âÇô SF Weekly (15 September 2009).
- ^ "Microsoft Word - Abstractbook.doc" (PDF). http://www.cannabis-med.org/meeting/Cologne2009/reader.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- ^ Benson, John; Joy, Janet E.; Watson, Stanley J., ed (1999). Marijuana and medicine: assessing the science base. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-309-07155-0.
- ^ a b "Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana". National Institutes of Health. February 1997. http://www.nih.gov/news/medmarijuana/MedicalMarijuana.htm. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- ^ Grotenhermen, Franjo (2002). "Review of Therapeutic Effects". Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Potential. New York City: Haworth Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-7890-1508-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=JvIyVk2IL_sC&pg=PA123.
- ^University of Bath (1 August 2005). "Cannabis-based drugs could offer new hope for inflammatory bowel disease patients". Press release. http://www.bath.ac.uk/news/archive/2005/8/1/cannabisibd010805.html. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- ^ Russo EB (February 2004). "Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?". Neuro Endocrinology Letters 25 (1-2): 31âÇô9. ISSN 0172-780X. PMID 15159679. http://www.freedomtoexhale.com/clinical.pdf.
- ^ Zajicek J, Fox P, Sanders H, et al. (November 2003). "Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial". Lancet 362 (9395): 1517âÇô26. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14738-1. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 14615106. http://www.cmcr.ucsd.edu/geninfo/CannabinoidsMS_Lancet11-03.pdf.
- ^ "Spinal Cord Injury and Disease". Therapeutic Uses of Marijuana. Medical Marijuana Information Resource Centre. http://www.medicalmarijuanainformation.com/therapeuticuses/patientGroups.php?groupID=19. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- ^ Maurer M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A (1990). "Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial". European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 240 (1): 1âÇô4. doi:10.1007/BF02190083. ISSN 0940-1334. PMID 2175265.
- ^ Kogel RW, Johnson PB, Chintam R, Robinson CJ, Nemchausky BA (October 1995). "Treatment of Spasticity in Spinal Cord Injury with Dronabinol, a Tetrahydrocannabinol Derivative". American Journal of Therapeutics 2 (10): 799âÇô805. doi:10.1097/00045391-199510000-00012. ISSN 1075-2765. PMID 11854790.
- ^ Thanos PK, Dimitrakakis ES, Rice O, Gifford A, Volkow ND (November 2005). "Ethanol self-administration and ethanol conditioned place preference are reduced in mice lacking cannabinoid CB1 receptors". Behavioural Brain Research 164 (2): 206âÇô13. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2005.06.021. ISSN 0166-4328. PMID 16140402.
- ^ D. Bearman, Cannabis Efficacy in Treating ADD & ADHD. Third National Clinical Conference on Cannabis Therapeutics, May 2004 at Google Video (Adobe Flash video)
- ^Vlahos, Kelley Beaucar (20 April 2004). "Cannabis 'Scrips to Calm Kids?". Fox News Channel. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,117541,00.html. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- ^ Carter GT, Rosen BS (July 2001). "Marijuana in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". The American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care 18 (4): 264âÇô70. doi:10.1177/104990910101800411. ISSN 1049-9091. PMID 11467101.
- ^ a bKohn, David (5 November 2004). "Researchers buzzing about marijuana-derived medicines". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2004/11/05/MNGV39LE091.DTL. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- ^ Weydt P, Hong S, Witting A, M├Âller T, Stella N, Kliot M (September 2005). "Cannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival". Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Disorders 6 (3): 182âÇô4. doi:10.1080/14660820510030149. ISSN 1466-0822. PMID 16183560. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a723777607.
- ^ Malfait AM, Gallily R, Sumariwalla PF, et al. (August 2000). "The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 (17): 9561âÇô6. doi:10.1073/pnas.160105897. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 10920191. PMC 16904. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10920191.
- ^Hitti, Miranda (8 November 2005). "Pot-Based Drug Promising for Arthritis". WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/news/20051108/pot-based-drug-promising-for-arthritis. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- ^ Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Lee YE, Harper CE (September 1975). "Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma". The American Review of Respiratory Disease 112 (3): 377âÇô86. ISSN 0003-0805. PMID 1099949. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/medical/tashkin/tashkin1.htm.
- ^ Steffens, S; Veillard, NR; Arnaud, C; Pelli, G; Burger, F; Staub, C; Karsak, M; Zimmer, A et al. (16 April 2005). "Cannabis may help keep arteries clear". New Scientist 434 (7034): 782. doi:10.1038/nature03389. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 15815632.
- ^ Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB (April 1998). "The use of cannabis as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder: anecdotal evidence and the need for clinical research". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 30 (2): 171âÇô7. ISSN 0279-1072. PMID 9692379. http://www.ukcia.org/research/TheUseofCannabisasaMoodStabilizerinBipolarDisorder.html.
- ^ Ashton CH, Moore PB, Gallagher P, Young AH (May 2005). "Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential". Journal of Psychopharmacology 19 (3): 293âÇô300. doi:10.1177/0269881105051541. ISSN 0269-8811. PMID 15888515.
- ^Mikuriya, Tod (July 8âÇô9, 2006). "Cannabis as a Frontline Treatment for Childhood Mental Disorders". CounterPunch. http://www.counterpunch.org/mikuriya07082006.html. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- ^ Patsos HA, Hicks DJ, Dobson RR, et al. (December 2005). "The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, induces cell death in colorectal carcinoma cells: a possible role for cyclooxygenase 2". Gut 54 (12): 1741âÇô50. doi:10.1136/gut.2005.073403. ISSN 0017-5749. PMID 16099783.
- ^ Bambico FR, Katz N, Debonnel G, Gobbi G (October 2007). "Cannabinoids elicit antidepressant-like behavior and activate serotonergic neurons through the medial prefrontal cortex" (Free full text). The Journal of Neuroscience 27 (43): 11700âÇô11. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1636-07.2007. ISSN 0270-6474. PMID 17959812. http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17959812. Lay summary âÇô Fox News Channel (25 October 2007).
- ^ Denson TF, Earleywine M (April 2006). "Decreased depression in marijuana users". Addictive Behaviors 31 (4): 738âÇô42. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.05.052. ISSN 0306-4603. PMID 15964704. http://www.doctordeluca.com/Library/WOD/WPS3-MedMj/DecreasedDepressionInMjUsers05.pdf.
- ^ Jiang W, Zhang Y, Xiao L, et al. (November 2005). "Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects" (Free full text). The Journal of Clinical Investigation 115 (11): 3104âÇô16. doi:10.1172/JCI25509. ISSN 0021-9738. PMID 16224541.
- ^Medical College of Georgia (27 February 2006). "Marijuana Compound May Help Stop Diabetic Retinopathy". Science Daily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/02/060227184647.htm. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- ^ El-Remessy AB, Al-Shabrawey M, Khalifa Y, Tsai NT, Caldwell RB, Liou GI (January 2006). "Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes" (Free full text). The American Journal of Pathology 168 (1): 235âÇô44. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2006.050500. ISSN 0002-9440. PMID 16400026. PMC 1592672. http://ajp.amjpathol.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16400026.
- ^"Dystonia". Recent Research on Medical Marijuana. National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. 14 January 2009. http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=7006. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- ^ Fox SH, Kellett M, Moore AP, Crossman AR, Brotchie JM (January 2002). "Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the potential of cannabinoid receptor stimulation in the treatment of dystonia". Movement Disorders 17 (1): 145âÇô9. doi:10.1002/mds.1280. ISSN 0885-3185. PMID 11835452.
- ^ Marsicano G, Goodenough S, Monory K, et al. (October 2003). "CB1 cannabinoid receptors and on-demand defense against excitotoxicity". Science 302 (5642): 84âÇô8. doi:10.1126/science.1088208. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 14526074.
- ^ Bacci A, Huguenard JR, Prince DA (September 2004). "Long-lasting self-inhibition of neocortical interneurons mediated by endocannabinoids". Nature 431 (7006): 312âÇô6. doi:10.1038/nature02913. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 15372034. Lay summary âÇô Science Daily (16 September 2004).
- ^"Gastrointestinal Disorders". Recent Research on Medical Marijuana. National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. 14 January 2009. http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=7009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- ^ Di Carlo G, Izzo AA (January 2003). "Cannabinoids for gastrointestinal diseases: potential therapeutic applications". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 12 (1): 39âÇô49. doi:10.1517/13543718.104.22.168. ISSN 1354-3784. PMID 12517253.
- ^ Lorente M, Carracedo A, Torres S, et al. (February 2009). "Amphiregulin is a factor for resistance of glioma cells to cannabinoid-induced apoptosis". Glia 57 (13): NA. doi:10.1002/glia.20856. ISSN 0894-1491. PMID 19229996.
- ^ Ramer R, Hinz B (January 2008). "Inhibition of cancer cell invasion by cannabinoids via increased expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1" (Free full text). Journal of the National Cancer Institute 100 (1): 59âÇô69. doi:10.1093/jnci/djm268. ISSN 0027-8874. PMID 18159069. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18159069.
- ^"Hepatitis C". Recent Research on Medical Marijuana. National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. 14 January 2009. http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=7010. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- ^ Sylvestre DL, Clements BJ, Malibu Y (October 2006). "Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C". European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 18 (10): 1057âÇô63. doi:10.1097/01.meg.0000216934.22114.51. ISSN 0954-691X. PMID 16957511.
- ^ "Cannabidiol: The Wonder Drug of the 21st Century?". Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/medical/cannabid.htm. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- ^Hebrew University of Jerusalem (18 June 2006). "Hashish-like Drug Lowers Blood Pressure". Press release. http://www.hunews.huji.ac.il/articles.asp?cat=6&artID=640. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- ^ISRAEL21c (15 June 2006). "Blood Pressure Lowered With Cannabis Component". The Hempire. http://www.thehempire.com/index.php/cannabis/news/blood_pressure_lowered_with_cannabis_component. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- ^"Incontinence". National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. 14 January 2009. http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=7012. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- ^ Powles T, te Poele R, Shamash J, et al. (February 2005). "Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines: the role of the cannabinoid receptors and the MAPK pathway" (Free full text). Blood 105 (3): 1214âÇô21. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-03-1182. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 15454482. http://www.bloodjournal.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15454482.
- ^ Casanova ML, Bl├¡zquez C, Mart├şnez-Palacio J, et al. (January 2003). "Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors" (Free full text). The Journal of Clinical Investigation 111 (1): 43âÇô50. doi:10.1172/JCI16116. ISSN 0021-9738. PMID 12511587.
- ^Harrison, Don (6 October 2005). "Marijuana effective against morning sickness: study". The Province. http://www.mercycenters.org/libry/info_Mothers.doc. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- ^ Hildebrandt, Erin (May/June 2004). "Medical Marijuana: A Surprising Solution to Severe Morning Sickness". Mothering 124. http://www.mothering.com/medical-marijuana-surprising-solution-severe-morning-sickness. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- ^Schultz, Nora (12 September 2008). "A New MRSA Defense". Technology Review. http://www.technologyreview.com/biomedicine/21366/. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- ^Wilbert, Caroline (4 September 2008). "Marijuana Ingredients May Fight MRSA". WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/news/20080904/marijuana-chemicals-may-fight-mrsa. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- ^ Kreitzer AC, Malenka RC (February 2007). "Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease models". Nature 445 (7128): 643âÇô7. doi:10.1038/nature05506. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 17287809. Lay summary âÇô Stanford University School of Medicine (7 February 2007).
- ^ Szepietowski JC, Szepietowski T, Reich A (2005). "Efficacy and tolerance of the cream containing structured physiological lipids with endocannabinoids in the treatment of uremic pruritus: a preliminary study". Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica 13 (2): 97âÇô103. ISSN 1330-027X. PMID 16324422.
- ^ Bergasa NV (December 2005). "The pruritus of cholestasis". Journal of Hepatology 43 (6): 1078âÇô88. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2005.09.004. ISSN 0168-8278. PMID 16253381.
- ^Motluk, Alison (31 July 2002). "Natural high helps banish bad memories". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn2616-natural-high-helps-banish-bad-memories.html. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
- ^Leveque, Phillip (14 June 2007). "Medical Marijuana: PTSD Medical Malpractice". Salem-News.com. http://salem-news.com/articles/june142007/leveque_61407.php. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
- ^ "Science: Endocannabinoids extinguish bad memories in the brain". IACM-Bulletin (International Association for Cannabis as Medicine). 4 August 2002. http://www.cannabis-med.org/english/bulletin/ww_en_db_cannabis_artikel.php?id=123#1. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
- ^ "Cannabis use in sickle cell disease: A questionnaire study". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16173972. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- ^ Carley DW, Paviovic S, Janelidze M, Radulovacki M (June 2002). "Functional role for cannabinoids in respiratory stability during sleep" (Free full text). Sleep 25 (4): 391âÇô8. ISSN 0161-8105. PMID 12071539. http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=12071539.
- ^ Grotenhermen, Russo. Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential . New York: The Hawthorn Integrative Healing Press, 2002,. Grotenhermen, âÇťReview of Therapeutic Effects.âÇŁ Chapter 11, p. 128
- ^ Sandyk R, Awerbuch G. Marijuana and Tourette's syndrome. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1988 Dec;8(6):444-5. PMID 3235704
- ^ Muller-Vahl KR, Kolbe H, Dengler R. [Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Effect of nicotine, alcohol and marihuana on clinical symptoms] Nervenarzt. 1997 Dec;68(12):985-9. German. PMID 9465342
- ^ Singer HS. "Tourette's syndrome: from behaviour to biology". Lancet Neurol. 2005 Mar;4(3):149âÇô59. PMID 15721825
- ^ M├╝ller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Koblenz A, J├Âbges M, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, Emrich HM. "Treatment of Tourette's syndrome with Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): a randomized crossover trial". Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002 Mar;35(2):57âÇô61. PMID 11951146 as cited in Singer PMID 15721825
- ^ Robertson MM. "Tourette syndrome, associated conditions and the complexities of treatment" (PDF). Brain. 2000;123 Pt 3:425âÇô62. PMID 10686169
- ^ Eubanks LM, Rogers CJ, Beuscher AE, et al. (November 2006). "A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and Alzheimer's disease pathology" (Free full text). Molecular Pharmaceutics 3 (6): 773âÇô7. doi:10.1021/mp060066m. ISSN 1543-8384. PMID 17140265.
- ^ Hashibe M, Morgenstern H, Cui Y, Tashkin D, et al. (October 2006). "Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: results of a population-based case-control study". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15 (10): 1829âÇô34. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0330. PMID 17035389. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/15/10/1829.long. Retrieved 2010-06-11. Lay summary.
- ^ Osterweil, Neil (24 May 2006). "ATS: Marijuana Smoking Found Non-Carcinogenic". MedPage Today. http://www.medpagetoday.com/HematologyOncology/LungCancer/3393. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
- ^ Kaufman, Marc (26 May 2006). "Study Finds No Cancer-Marijuana Connection". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/25/AR2006052501729.html. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
- ^American Thoracic Society (21 May 2007). "Marijuana Worsens COPD Symptoms in Current Cigarette Smokers". Press release. http://www.thoracic.org/sections/publications/press-releases/conference/articles/2007/press-releases/marijuana-worsens-copd-symptoms-in-current-cigarette-smokers.html. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
- ^"Marijuana smoking increases risk of COPD for tobacco smokers". PhysOrg.com. 13 April 2009. http://www.physorg.com/news158861123.html. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
- ^ Tan, WC; Lo, C; Jong, A; Xing, L; Fitzgerald, MJ; Vollmer, WM; Buist, SA; Sin, DD et al.; et al. for the Vancouver Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) Research Group (14 April 2009). "Marijuana and chronic obstructive lung disease: a population-based study" (PDF). CMAJ (Toronto: Canadian Medical Association) 180 (8): 814âÇô20. doi:10.1503/cmaj.081040. ISSN 0820-3946. PMID 19364790. PMC 2665947. http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/180/8/814.pdf. Retrieved 15 August 2009.
- ^ Tashkin, Donald P. (14 April 2009). "Does smoking marijuana increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?" (PDF). CMAJ (Toronto: Canadian Medical Association) 180 (8): 797âÇô8. doi:10.1503/cmaj.090142. ISSN 0820-3946. PMID 19364782. PMC 2665954. http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/180/8/797.pdf. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
- ^American Association for Cancer Research (17 April 2007). "Marijuana Cuts Lung Cancer Tumor Growth In Half, Study Shows". Science Daily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/04/070417193338.htm. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
- ^ a b McAllister SD, Christian RT, Horowitz MP, Garcia A, Desprez PY (November 2007). "Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells" (Free full text). Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 6 (11): 2921âÇô7. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-07-0371. ISSN 1535-7163. PMID 18025276. http://mct.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18025276. Lay summary âÇô BBC News (19 November 2007).
- ^ Haney M, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, et al. (August 2007). "Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. Caloric intake, mood, and sleep". Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 45 (5): 545âÇô54. doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31811ed205. ISSN 1525-4135. PMID 17589370.
- ^ Abrams DI, Hilton JF, Leiser RJ, et al. (August 2003). "Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial". Annals of Internal Medicine 139 (4): 258âÇô66. ISSN 0003-4819. PMID 12965981.
- ^ Ellis RJ, Toperoff W, Vaida F, et al. (February 2009). "Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial". Neuropsychopharmacology 34 (3): 672âÇô80. doi:10.1038/npp.2008.120. ISSN 0893-133X. PMID 18688212.
- ^ Abrams DI, Jay CA, Shade SB, et al. (February 2007). "Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial". Neurology 68 (7): 515âÇô21. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000253187.66183.9c. ISSN 0028-3878. PMID 17296917.
- ^ a b Salazar M, Carracedo A, Salanueva IJ, et al. (May 2009). "Cannabinoid action induces autophagy-mediated cell death through stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cells". The Journal of Clinical Investigation 119 (5): 1359âÇô72. doi:10.1172/JCI37948. ISSN 0021-9738. PMID 19425170. Lay summary âÇô HealthDay (1 April 2009).
- ^ a b Morel LJ, Giros B, Daug├ę V (June 2009). "Adolescent Exposure to Chronic Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Blocks Opiate Dependence in Maternally Deprived Rats". Neuropsychopharmacology 34 (11): 2469âÇô76. doi:10.1038/npp.2009.70. ISSN 0893-133X. PMID 19553915. Lay summary âÇô PhysOrg.com (7 July 2009).
- ^ Raby WN, Carpenter KM, Rothenberg J, et al. (July 2009). "Intermittent marijuana use is associated with improved retention in naltrexone treatment for opiate-dependence". The American Journal on Addictions 18 (4): 301âÇô8. doi:10.1080/10550490902927785. ISSN 1055-0496. PMID 19444734.
- ^Mikuriya, Tod H. (6 October 1999). "Dependency and Cannabis". http://www.mikuriya.com/cw_depend.html. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
- ^ Mikuriya TH (January 1969). "Marijuana in medicine: past, present and future". California Medicine 110 (1): 34âÇô40. ISSN 0008-1264. PMID 4883504.
- ^ Lakhan SE, Rowland M. "Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review". BMC Neurology. 2009;9(59). PMID 19961570.
- ^ Downer EJ, Campbell, VA. "Phytocannabinoids, CNS cells and development: A dead issue?" Drug and Alcohol Review. 2010 Jan;29(1):91-98. PMID 20078688
- ^ Burns TL, Ineck JR. "Cannabinoid analgesia as a potential new therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic pain." The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2006 Feb;40(2):251-60. PMID 16449552
- ^ Ben Amar M (April 2006). "Cannabinoids in medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105 (1-2): 1âÇô25. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.02.001. ISSN 0378-8741. PMID 16540272. http://www.doctordeluca.com/Library/WOD/WPS3-MedMj/CannabinoidsMedMetaAnalysis06.pdf.
- ^ Devane WA, Hanus L, Breuer A, Pertwee RG, Stevenson LA, Griffin G, Gibson D, Mandelbaum A, Etinger A, Mechoulam R (December 1992). "Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor". Science 258 (5090): 1946âÇô9. doi:10.1126/science.1470919. PMID 1470919.
- ^ Mechoulam R, Fride E (1995). "The unpaved road to the endogenous brain cannabinoid ligands, the anandamides". in Pertwee RG. Cannabinoid receptors. Boston: Academic Press. pp. 233âÇô258. ISBN 0-12-551460-3.
- ^ Grlie, L (1976). "A comparative study on some chemical and biological characteristics of various samples of cannabis resin". Bulletin on Narcotics 14: 37âÇô46.
- ^ Mechoulam R, Peters M, Murillo-Rodriguez E, Hanus LO (August 2007). "Cannabidiol--recent advances". Chemistry & Biodiversity 4 (8): 1678âÇô92. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200790147. ISSN 1612-1872. PMID 17712814.
- ^ Zuardi AW, Crippa JA, Hallak JE, Moreira FA, Guimar├úes FS (April 2006). "Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug". Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 39 (4): 421âÇô9. doi:/S0100-879X2006000400001 (inactive 2009-08-09). ISSN 0100-879X. PMID 16612464. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bjmbr/v39n4/6164.pdf.
- ^ "Marijuana and Tourette's Syndrome". Druglibrary.org. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/medical/mjtouret.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- ^by CannabisMD.net. "Medical Marijuana - Arthritis". Cannabismd.net. http://www.cannabismd.net/arthritis/. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- ^by CannabisMD.net. "Medical Marijuana - Multiple Sclerosis". Cannabismd.net. http://www.cannabismd.net/multiple-sclerosis/. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- ^ Karniol IG, Shirakawa I, Takahashi RN, Knobel E, Musty RE (1975). "Effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol in man". Pharmacology 13 (6): 502âÇô12. doi:10.1159/000136944. PMID 1221432.
- ^ McCallum ND, Yagen B, Levy S, Mechoulam R (May 1975). "Cannabinol: a rapidly formed metabolite of delta-1- and delta-6-tetrahydrocannabinol". Experientia 31 (5): 520âÇô1. PMID 1140243.
- ^ Mahadevan A, Siegel C, Martin BR, Abood ME, Beletskaya I, Razdan RK (October 2000). "Novel cannabinol probes for CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 43 (20): 3778âÇô85. doi:10.1021/jm0001572. PMID 11020293.
- ^ Petitet F, Jeantaud B, Reibaud M, Imperato A, Dubroeucq MC (1998). "Complex pharmacology of natural cannabinoids: evidence for partial agonist activity of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and antagonist activity of cannabidiol on rat brain cannabinoid receptors". Life Sciences 63 (1): PL1âÇô6. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(98)00238-0. PMID 9667767. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0024320598002380.
- ^ a b c d Gertsch J, Leonti M, Raduner S, et al. (July 2008). "Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (26): 9099âÇô104. doi:10.1073/pnas.0803601105. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 18574142. PMC 2449371. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18574142.
- ^"Lowering Of Blood Pressure Achieved Through Use Of Hashish-like Drug". Sciencedaily.com. 2006-06-20. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/06/060620083025.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- ^ Koch, Wendy (23 June 2005). "Spray alternative to pot on the market in Canada". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2005-06-23-pot-spray_x.htm. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
- ^ "Sativex - Investigational Cannabis-Based Treatment for Pain and Multiple Sclerosis Drug Development Technology". SPG Media. http://www.drugdevelopment-technology.com/projects/sativex/. Retrieved 2008-08-08.
- ^ "Europe: Sativex Coming to England, Spain". http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/411/sativex.shtml. Retrieved 2006-03-25.
- ^ Greenberg, Gary (November 2005). "Respectable Reefer". Mother Jones. http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2005/11/respectable-reefer. Retrieved 15 August 2009.
- ^ Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethans K, Perry D (February 2008). "Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia". The Journal of Pain 9 (2): 164âÇô73. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2007.09.002. ISSN 1526-5900. PMID 17974490. Lay summary âÇô News-Medical.Net (17 February 2008).
- ^ "ALL PRICES FOR: Marinol - Brand Version : 10 mg". PharmacyChecker.com. http://www.pharmacychecker.com/Pricing.asp?DrugName=Marinol&DrugId=25680&DrugStrengthId=43149. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
- ^ Food and Drug Administration (23 December 1992). "FDA approves new indication for Dronabinol". Press release. Archived from [http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/ANS00457.html the original] on 6 May 1997. http://web.archive.org/web/19970506023515/http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/ANS00457.html. Retrieved 15 August 2009.
- ^ "Sativex: CEDAC Final Recommendation on Reconsideration and Reasons for Recommendation". Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. 27 September 2007. http://cadth-acmts.ca/media/cdr/complete/cdr_complete_Sativex_September-26-2007.pdf. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
- ^ a b Food and Drug Administration (20 April 2006). "Inter-Agency Advisory Regarding Claims That Smoked Marijuana Is a Medicine". Press release. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2006/ucm108643.htm. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- ^ Minnesotans for Compassionate Care (11 March 2009). "Medical Marijuana Passes House Civil Justice Committee Without Dissent". Press release. http://stopthedrugwar.org/in_the_trenches/2009/mar/11/press_release_medical_marijuana_. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- ^ Janet E. Joy, Stanley J. Watson, Jr., and John A. Benson, Jr., editors; Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health, Institute of Medicine (1999). Benson, John; Joy, Janet E.; Watson, Stanley J.. ed. Marijuana and medicine: assessing the science base. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. ISBN 978-0-309-07155-0.
- ^ Jatoi A, Windschitl HE, Loprinzi CL, et al. (January 2002). "Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination therapy for cancer-associated anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study" (PDF). Journal of Clinical Oncology (Alexandria, VA: American Society of Clinical Oncology) 20 (2): 567âÇô73. doi:10.1200/JCO.20.2.567. ISSN 0732-183X. PMID 11786587. http://jco.ascopubs.org/cgi/reprint/20/2/567. Lay summary âÇô Medscape (30 January 2002).
- ^ Strasser, F; Strasser, F; Luftner, D; Possinger, K; Ernst, G; Ruhstaller, T; Meissner, W; Ko, YD et al.; Luftner D, Possinger K, et al. (20 July 2006). "Comparison of Orally Administered Cannabis Extract and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Treating Patients With Cancer-Related Anorexia-Cachexia Syndrome: A Multicenter, Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial From the Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group" (PDF). Journal of Clinical Oncology (Alexandria, VA: American Society of Clinical Oncology) 24 (21): 3394âÇô3400. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.05.1847. ISSN 0732-183X. PMID 16849753. http://jco.ascopubs.org/cgi/reprint/24/21/3394. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
- ^ "MAPS/CaNORML vaporizer and waterpipe studies". Maps.org. http://www.maps.org/mmj/vaporizer.html. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- ^ 'Run from the Cure' Rick Simpson video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7331006790306000271
- ^ Abrams DI, Vizoso HP, Shade SB, Jay C, Kelly ME, Benowitz NL (November 2007). "Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 82 (5): 572âÇô8. doi:10.1038/sj.clpt.6100200. ISSN 0009-9236. PMID 17429350.
- ^ Levitz SM, Diamond RD (October 1991). "Aspergillosis and marijuana". Annals of Internal Medicine 115 (7): 578âÇô9. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-115-7-578_2 (inactive 2009-09-08). ISSN 0003-4819. PMID 1652910. http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/abstract/115/7/578-a.
- ^ "AMA Urges Reclassifying Marijuana". Americans for Safe Access. http://www.safeaccessnow.org/article.php?id=5870#5. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- ^ "Use of Cannabis for Medicinal Purposes". Report 3 of the Council on Science and Public Health (I-09). American Medical Assn. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/443/csaph-report3-i09.pdf. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- ^ "Supporting Research into the Therapeutic Role of Marijuana" (PDF). The American College of Physicians. 2008. http://www.acponline.org/advocacy/where_we_stand/other_issues/medmarijuana.pdf. Retrieved 15 August 2009.
- ^ "Medical Marijuana Endorsements and Statements of Support". Marijuana Policy Project. 2007. http://www.mpp.org/library/medical-marijuana-endorsements-and-statements-of-support.html. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- ^ "Marijuana: Policy & Advocacy". American Academy of Family Physicians. 2009. http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/m/marijuana.html. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
- ^ Abel, Ernest L. (1980). "Cannabis in the Ancient World". Marihuana: the first twelve thousand years. New York City: Plenum Publishers. ISBN 978-0-306-40496-2. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/history/first12000/1.htm.
- ^ Li, Hui-Lin (1974). "An Archaeological and Historical Account of Cannabis in China", Economic Botany 28.4:437-448, p. 444.
- ^ Bretschneider, Emil (1895). Botanicon Sinicum: Notes on Chinese Botany from Native and Western Sources. Part III, Botanical Investigations in the Materia Medica of the Ancient Chinese. Kelly & Walsh. p. 378.
- ^ Wong, Ming (1976). La M├ędecine chinoise par les plantes. Paris: Tchou. OCLC 2646789.
- ^ Smith, Frederick Porter (1911). Chinese Materia Medica: Vegetable Kingdom. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press. pp. 90-91.
- ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23-220 CE). Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 332. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0. OCLC 71779118.
- ^ "The Ebers Papyrus The Oldest (confirmed) Written Prescriptions For Medical Marihuana era 1,550 BCE". www.onlinepot.org. http://www.onlinepot.org/medical/eberspapyrus.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
- ^ "History of Cannabis". www.reefermadnessmuseum.org. http://www.reefermadnessmuseum.org/history/AEgyptian.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-09.
- ^ Pain, Stephanie (2007-12-15). "The Pharaoh's pharmacists". New Scientist (Reed Business Information Ltd.). http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/mg19626341.600-the-pharaohs-pharmacists.html.
- ^ Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, University of Texas Press, 1989, ISBN 978-0-292-70415-2
- ^ Touw M (January 1981). "The religious and medicinal uses of Cannabis in China, India and Tibet". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 13 (1): 23âÇô34. ISSN 0279-1072. PMID 7024492. http://www.cnsproductions.com/pdf/Touw.pdf.
- ^ a b c d "The Haworth Press Online Catalog: Article Abstract". www.haworthpress.com. http://www.haworthpress.com/store/ArticleAbstract.asp?sid=0JN5HCHTFHLA9LA1NQVRUKQM7C3RB5A4&ID=4344. Retrieved 2009-01-18.
- ^ http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/nc/nc1a.htm
- ^ http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/nc/nc1a.htm
- ^ http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/nc/nc1a.htm
- ^ Lozano, Indalecio (2001). "The Therapeutic Use of Cannabis sativa (L.) in Arabic Medicine". Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 1 (1): 63âÇô70. doi:10.1300/J175v01n01_05.
- ^ Mack, Allyson; Janet Elizabeth Joy (2001). Marijuana as Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. National Academy Press.
- ^ "History of Cannabis". BBC News. 2 November 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/1632726.stm. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- ^ a b "Marijuana - The First Twelve Thousand Years - Reefer Racism". Druglibrary.org. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/history/first12000/11.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-26.
- ^ "Golden Guide". www.zauberpilz.com. http://www.zauberpilz.com/golden/g31-40.htm.
- ^ Zimmerman, Bill; Nancy Crumpacker and Rick Bayer (1998). Is Marijuana the Right Medicine for You?: A Factual Guide to Medical Uses of Marijuana. Keats Publishing. ISBN 0879839066.
- ^ Baker, D.; Pryce, G., Giovannoni, G., Thompson, A.J. (May 2003). "The therapeutic potential of cannabis" (Reprint). Lancet Neurology (London: The Lancet Publishing Group) 2 (5): 291âÇô98. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(03)00381-8. ISSN 1474-4422. http://www.ukcia.org/research/TherapeuticPotentialOfCannabis.pdf. Retrieved 15 August 2009.
- ^ McPartland, John M.; Russo, Ethan B.. "Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts?". Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics. International Association for Cannabis as Medicine. http://www.cannabis-med.org/data/pdf/2001-03-04-7.pdf.
- ^ Mack,Alison ; Joy, Janet (2001). Marijuana As Medicine. National Academy Press. ISBN 0309065313.
- ^ Russo, Ethan; Mathre, Mary Lynn; Byrne, Al; Velin, Robert; Bach, Paul J; Sanchez-ramos, Juan; Kirlin, Kristin A (2002). "Chronic Cannabis Use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An Examination of Benefits and Adverse Effects of Legal Clinical Cannabis" (PDF). Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics (The Haworth Press) 2 (1): 3. doi:10.1300/J175v02n01_02. http://www.medicalcannabis.com/PDF/Chronic_Cannabis.pdf.
- ^ a b US6,630,507 (2003-10-07) Hampson, Aidan J.; Axelrod, Julius; Grimaldi, Maurizio, Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants.
- ^ a b "Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 As amended by the 1972 Protocol" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. United Nations. 13 March 1961. pp. 2âÇô3. http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/conv/convention_1961_en.pdf. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
- ^ (German) "Verordnung der Bundesministerin f├╝r Gesundheit und Frauen ├╝ber den Verkehr und die Gebarung mit Suchtgiften (Suchtgiftverordnung âÇô SV)" (PDF). Bundesministerium f├╝r Gesundheit und Frauen. 2005. http://www.bmgfj.gv.at/cms/site/attachments/4/6/4/CH0755/CMS1046868566720/suchtgiftverordnung_konsolidierte_version_(idf_bgbl._ii_nr._480_2008).pdf. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- ^ (German) Valenta, Claudia (2005). "Magistrale Problem-Rezepturen". ├ľsterreichische Apothekerzeitung (Vienna: ├ľsterreichische Apotheker-Verlagsges.m.b.H.) (5). http://www.oeaz.at/zeitung/3aktuell/2005/05/haupt/haupt5_2005rezept.html. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- ^ a b (German) ABDA âÇô Bundesvereinigung Deutscher Apothekerverb├Ąnde (21 April 2008). "Rezepturhinweise: Dronabinol- und Cannabis-Zubereitungen" (PDF). Pharmazeutische Zeitung (Eschborn: Govi-Verlag Pharmazeutischer Verlag GmbH). http://www.pharmazeutische-zeitung.de/fileadmin/nrf/PDF/1-Dronabinol.pdf. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- ^ "AFP: Austria allows cannabis for medical purposes". afp.google.com. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gMXaMnzKEu6FxfDVlCHd4xMcmEbg. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
- ^ (German) "├nderung des Suchtmittelgesetzes - SMG" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt f├╝r die Republik ├ľsterreich (Vienna: ├ľsterreichischer Bundesverlag). 19 December 2008. http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/BgblAuth/BGBLA_2008_I_143/BGBLA_2008_I_143.pdf. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- ^ "Frequently Asked Questions - Medical Use of Marihuana". Health Canada. 13 June 2005. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/marihuana/about-apropos/faq-eng.php. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- ^ "More pot, please: Demand booming for Prairie Plant's marijuana". CBC News. 23 October 2006. http://www.cbc.ca/news/story/2006/10/23/prairie-plant.html. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- ^ Capler, Rielle (July 2007). "A Review of the Cannabis Cultivation Contract between Health Canada and Prairie Plant Systems". British Columbia Compassion Club Society. http://www.thecompassionclub.org/resources/HC_PPS_Contract_Report.pdf. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- ^ a b Kari, Shannon (June 1, 2009). "Court challenge aims to legalize all cannabis use; Advocates say previous rule a 'mockery'.". National Post (Toronto): p. A.6. ProQuest Newsstand, Document ID: 1739130721.
- ^ Grotenhermen, Franjo (Spring 2002). "The Medical Use of Cannabis in Germany". Journal of Drug Issues 32 (2): 607âÇô34. http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=200785.
- ^ (German) "Gesetz ├╝ber den Verkehr mit Bet├Ąubungsmitteln (Bet├Ąubungsmittelgesetz âÇô BtMG)" (PDF). Bundesministerium der Justiz. 19 January 2009. http://bundesrecht.juris.de/bundesrecht/btmg_1981/gesamt.pdf. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- ^ Hidalgo, Susana. "El debate sobre el cannabis no espabila." P├║blico.es http://translate.google.com/translate?js=y&prev=_t&hl=es&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.publico.es%2Fespana%2F205176%2Fdebate%2Fcannabis%2Fespabila&sl=es&tl=en&history_state0=es|en|Ley%2520Corcuera
- ^ a b P├ęrez-Lanzac C. El cannabis pelea por un espacio legal. El Pa├şs. Sep. 12 2008. http://translate.google.com.mx/translate?js=y&prev=_t&hl=es&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.elpais.com%2Farticulo%2Fsociedad%2Fcannabis%2Fpelea%2Fespacio%2Flegal%2Felpepisoc%2F20081209elpepisoc_1%2FTes&sl=es&tl=en&history_state0= Accessed 11
- ^ a b http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199798/ldselect/ldsctech/151/15106.htm
- ^ "The DEA Position On Marijuana". Drug Enforcement Administration. May 2006. http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/marijuana_position.html. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
- ^ "Marijuana Registry". Alaska Health and Social Services. http://www.hss.state.ak.us/dph/bvs/marijuana.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ "Medical Marijuana Program". California Department of Public Health. http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/mmp/Pages/Medical%20Marijuana%20Program.aspx. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ "Colorado Medical Marijuana Registry". Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/hs/medicalmarijuana/marijuanafactsheet.html. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ "Narcotics Enforcement Division". Hawaii Department of Public Safety. http://hawaii.gov/psd/law-enforcement/narcotics-enforcement. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ Nemitz, Bill (2009-02-26). "Maine's cannabis contradiction". Portland Press Herald. http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/story.php?id=241787&ac=PHnws. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ "Michigan Medical Marijuana Program". Michigan Department of Community Health. http://www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,1607,7-132-27417_51869---,00.html. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ "Montana Medical Marijuana Program". Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services. http://www.dphhs.mt.gov/medicalmarijuana/. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ "Medical Marijuana". Nevada Department of Health and Human Services. http://health.nv.gov/MedicalMarijuana.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ http://www.philly.com/philly/news/homepage/82034457.html
- ^ "Medical Cannabis Program". New Mexico Department of Health. http://www.health.state.nm.us/idb/medical_cannabis.shtml. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ "Oregon Medical Marijuana Program (OMMP)". State of Oregon - Department of Human Services. http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/ommp. Retrieved 2009-10-07.
- ^ "Medical Marijuana Program (MMP)". Rhode Island Department of Health. http://www.health.ri.gov/hsr/mmp/index.php. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ "Vermont Marijuana Registry: A Guide for Patients and Physicians". Vermont Criminal Information Center. http://www.dps.state.vt.us/cjs/marijuana.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ "âž 18.2-251.1. Possession or distribution of marijuana for medical purposes permitted.". Virginia Department of Health. http://leg1.state.va.us/cgi-bin/legp504.exe?000+cod+18.2-251.1. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
- ^ "Medical Marijuana Frequently Asked Questions". Washington State Department of Health. http://www.doh.wa.gov/hsqa/medical-marijuana/default.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ "US medical cannabis policy eased". BBC News. 20 October 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8315603.stm. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- ^ Mitchell, Dan (31 May 2008). "Legitimizing Marijuana". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/31/technology/31online.html. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
- ^ The Times - California dreaming of full marijuana legalisation
- ^ 19 Oct. 2009; Office of the Deputy Attorney General, US Dept. of Justice, Washington D.C. 20530. Memorandum for Selected United States Attorneys. Subject: Investigations and Prosecutions in States Authorizing the Medical Use of Marijuana
- ^ Billy, Michael (7 July 2008). "Opinion: US Government Holds Patent For Medical Marijuana, Shows Hipocrisy". DigitalJournal.com. http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/257008. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
 Further reading
- 2009 Conference on Cannabinoids in Medicine, International Association for Cannabis as Medicine
- Cabral, Guy A. (2001). "Marijuana and Cannabinoids: Effects on Infections, Immunity, and AIDS". Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 1 (3âÇô4): 61âÇô85. doi:10.1300/J175v01n03_06. See also its alternate publication: Cabral, Guy A. (2001). "Marijuana and cannabinoids: effects on infections, immunity, and AIDS". in Ethan Russo. Cannabis therapeutics in HIV/AIDS. Routledge. pp. 61âÇô85. ISBN 978-0-7890-1699-7. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=qUMQqa1PT4QC&oi=fnd&pg=PA61.
- Grotenhermen, Russo "Cannabis and cannabinoids: pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutic potential".
- Watson SJ, Benson JA, Joy JE (June 2000). "Marijuana and medicine: assessing the science base: a summary of the 1999 Institute of Medicine report". Archives of General Psychiatry 57 (6): 547âÇô52. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.6.547. ISSN 0003-990X. PMID 10839332.
- "References on Multiple Sclerosis and Marijuana". Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/medical/ms_mj_ref.htm.
- Tashkin, Donald P. (2001). "Effects of Smoked Marijuana on the Lung and Its Immune Defenses: Implications for Medicinal Use in HIV-Infected Patients". in Ethan Russo. Cannabis therapeutics in HIV/AIDS. New York City: Haworth Press. pp. 87âÇô102. ISBN 978-0-7890-1699-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=qUMQqa1PT4QC&lpg=PA87.
- Wujastyk, Dominik (12 September 2001). "Cannabis in Traditional Indian Herbal Medicine". http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgadkw/papers/cannabis.pdf. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- Joy, Janet E.; Watson, Stanley J.; Benson, John A., eds (1999). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-07155-0. OCLC 246585475. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309071550.
- Zuardi AW (June 2006). "History of cannabis as a medicine: a review". Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 28 (2): 153âÇô7. doi:10.1590/S1516-44462006000200015. ISSN 1516-4446. PMID 16810401. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbp/v28n2/29785.pdf.
- Martinez, Martin (4 August 2008). "History of Medical Cannabis". http://www.cannabismd.net/history-of-medical-cannabis/. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- "'Medical' Marijuana - The Facts". Drug Enforcement Administration. http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/ongoing/marinol.html.
- Aggarwal, Sunil K.; Carter, Gregory T.; Sullivan, Mark D.; ZumBrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Mayer, Jonathan D. (2009). "Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions". Journal of Opioid Management 5 (3): 153âÇô68. PMID 19662925. http://students.washington.edu/sunila/JOM_5-3-03.pdf. Lay summary âÇô SF Weekly (15 September 2009).
 External links
This article is based on one or more articles in Wikipedia, with modifications and
additional content by SOURCES editors. This article is covered by a Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 License (CC-BY-SA) and the GNU Free Documentation License
(GFDL). The remainder of the content of this website, except where otherwise indicated,
is copyright SOURCES and may not be reproduced without written permission.
(For information call 416-964-7799 or use the
SOURCES.COM is an online portal and directory for journalists, news media, researchers
and anyone seeking experts, spokespersons, and reliable information resources. Use
SOURCES.COM to find experts, media contacts, news releases, background information,
scientists, officials, speakers, newsmakers, spokespeople, talk show guests, story
ideas, research studies, databases, universities, associations and NGOs, businesses,
government spokespeople. Indexing and search applications by Ulli Diemer and Chris
For information about being included in SOURCES as a expert or
spokesperson see the FAQ or use
the online membership form.
Check here for
information about becoming an
For partnerships, content and applications, and domain name opportunities
Sources home page