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Neo-Nazism

Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II social or political movements seeking to revive Nazism or some variant thereof.[1][2][3][4] The term neo-Nazism can also refer to the ideology of those movements.[5][6]

Neo-Nazi activity appears to be a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries, as well as international networks. Some European countries have laws prohibiting the expression of pro-Nazi, racist or anti-Semitic views. Many Nazi-related symbols are banned in European countries in an effort to curtail neo-Nazism.

Contents

Austria

Parties of the extreme right are among the strongest in Austria.[7]

There had been 500,000 registered members of the Nazi Party in Austria, but since it was considered a victim of German aggression, the purge of Nazis was less complete than that which occurred in Germany. All Austrian parties supported clemency for former Nazis, because not doing so would have meant antagonizing a large proportion of the Austrian public. The success of the extreme right in Austria has been the result not of economic crisis or social conflict, but primarily of political factors, including the failure of denazification, and the presence of former Nazis in their old positions.[8]

The major postwar extreme right political party was the Austrian National Democratic Party (NDP), until it was banned in 1988 for violating Austria's anti-Nazi legislation, Verbotsgesetz 1947.[9] The Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) served as a shelter for ex-Nazis almost from the beginning of its history. In 1980, scandals undermined Austria's two main parties and the economy stagnated, with the result that the major parties could no longer offer their members the same benefits. Jörg Haider, a populist demagogue and effective speaker, became leader of the FPÖ. Haider offered partial justification for Nazism, calling its employment policy effective. In 1994, the FPÖ won 33 percent of the vote in Carinthia and 22 percent in Vienna, showing that it had become a force capable of reversing the old pattern of Austrian politics. In the 1994 Austrian election, the FPÖ won 22 percent of the vote.[10]

Historian Walter Laqueur writes that even though Haider welcomed old Nazis at his meetings and went out of his way to address SS veterans, the FPÖ is not a fascist party in the traditional sense, since it has not made anti-communism an important issue, and does not advocate the overthrow of the democratic order or the use of violence. In his view, the FPÖ is "not quite fascist", although it is part of a tradition, similar to that of 19th century Viennese mayor Karl Lueger, that involves nationalism, xenophobic populism, and authoritarianism.[11]

The FPÖ was identified as neo-Nazi by Professor Ali Mazrui, in a BBC world lecture.[12]

Haider, who in 2005 left the Freedom Party and formed the Alliance for Austria's Future, was killed in a traffic accident in October, 2008.[13] The Freedom Party's current leader, Barbara Rosenkranz, running in the Austrian presidential election, is controversial for having made allegedly pro-Nazi statements.[14] Rosenkranz is married to Horst Rosenkranz, a key member of a banned neo-Nazi party, and a man known for publishing far-right books. Rosenkranz says that she sees nothing dishonourable" in her husband's behavior.[15]

The volume "Rechtsextremismus in Österreich seit 1945" ("Right-wing Extremism in Austria since 1945"), issued by DÖW in 1979, listed nearly 50 active extreme right-wing organizations in Austria. Their influence waned gradually, partly due to liberalization programs in secondary schools and universities that emphasized Austrian identity and democratic traditions. Votes for the RFS in student elections fell from 30% in the 1960s to 2% in 1987. In the 1995 elections for the student representative body Österreichische Hochschülerschaft, the RFS got 4% of the vote. The FPÖ won 22% of the votes at the General Election in the same year.[16]

Belgium

A Belgian neo-Nazi organization, Bloed, Bodem, Eer en Trouw (Blood, Land, Honour and Faithfulness), was created in 2004 after splitting from the international network (Blood and Honour). The group rose to public prominence in September 2006, after 17 members (including 11 soldiers) were arrested under the December 2003 anti-terrorist laws and laws against racism, anti-semitism and negationism. According to Justice Minister Laurette Onkelinx and Interior Minister Patrick Dewael, the suspects (11 of whom were members of the military) were preparing terrorist attacks in order to "destabilize" Belgium.[17][18] According to journalist Manuel Abramowicz, of the Resistances network, the ultras of the radical right have always had as its aim to "infiltrate the state mechanisms," including the army in the 1970s and the 1980s, through Westland New Post and the Front de la Jeunesse.[19]

A police operation, which mobilized 150 agents, searched five military barracks (in Leopoldsburg near the Dutch border: Kleine-Brogel, Peer, Brussels (Royal military school) and Zedelgemâ as well as 18 private addresses in Flanders. They found weapons, munitions, explosives, and a homemade bomb large enough to make "a car explode." The leading suspect, B.T., was organizing the trafficking of weapons, and was developing international links, in particular with the Dutch far right movement De Nationale Alliantie.[20][21][22][23][24][25]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

The neo-Nazi organization Bosanski Pokret Nacionalnog Ponosa (Bosnian Movement of National Pride) was founded in Bosnia and Herzegovina in February 2010. Their model is the Handschar Division. They proclaimed "Jews, Gypsies, Chetniks, the Croatian separatists, Josip Broz Tito, Communists, homosexuals and blacks" as their main enemies.[26]

Chile

Some neo-Nazis in Chile derive their ideology from the writings of Nicol¡s Palacios, while others follow an orthodox Nazi ideology influenced by Miguel Serrano and German Nazis who fled to the country after World War II. Traditional Nazism is more common among descendants of German or other European immigrants in southern Chile. Common targets of neo-Nazi hate crimes in Chile include Peruvians, Bolivians, Gypsies, homosexuals and prostitutes.

The approach influenced by Palacios elevates the Chilean Mestizo in status, since he considered the "Chilean race" a mix of two bellicose master races: the Visigoths of Spain and the Mapuche of Chile. He traced the origins of the Spanish component of the Chilean race to the coast of the Baltic Sea, specifically to Götaland in Sweden, one of the supposed homelands of the Goths.[27] Palacios claimed that both the blonde and the bronze coloured Chilean Mestizo share a "moral physonomy", and that both think and reason in an identical way. He opposed immigration from Southern Europe, and argued on medical grounds that Mestizos derived from south Europeans lack "cerebral control", and are a social load.

Croatia

Neo-Nazis in Croatia base their ideology on the writings of Ante Staräeviä and Ante Paveliä.[28][29][30][31] At the end of World War II, many of Paveliä's UstaÅ¡e members fled to the West, where they found sanctuary and continued their political and terrorist activities (which were tolerated because of Cold War hostilities).[32] The resurgence of the UstaÅ¡e movement in post-war Croatia is partly due to significant financial support of the Croatian Democratic Union by UstaÅ¡e emigrants.[33] To many of their modern supporters, the UstaÅ¡e are considered victims of the historically disputed Bleiburg massacre, and the late president Franjo Tuäman even proposed to rebury UstaÅ¡e members together with victims of the Jasenovac concentration camp, as a sign of national reconciliation.[34][35][36][37][38][39] Croatian Serbs felt insulted by that proposal. Jonathan Levy, one of the lawyers representing plaintiffs in a 1999 lawsuit against the Vatican Bank (Institute for Religious Works), the Franciscan order, and the Croatian Liberation Movement (the UstaÅ¡e), the National Bank of Switzerland and others, said: "Many are still terrified of the Ustashe, the Serbs particularly. Unlike the Nazi Party, the Ustashe still exist and have a party headquarters in Zagreb." [40]

In 1999, Zagreb's Square of the Victims of Fascism was renamed The Square of The Great Men of Croatia, provoking widespread criticism of Croatia's attitude toward the Holocaust.[41] In 2000, city council renamed the square to Square of the Victims of Fascism again.[42] Many streets in Croatia were renamed after the prominent UstaÅ¡e figure Mile Budak, which provoked outrage amongst the Serbian minority. Since 2002, there has been a reversal of this development, and streets with the name of Mile Budak or other persons connected with the UstaÅ¡e movement are few or non-existent.[43] A plaque in Slunj with the inscription "Croatian Knight Jure Francetiä" was erected to commemorate Francetiä, the notorious UstaÅ¡e leader of the Black Legion. The plaque remained there for four years, until it was removed by the authorities.[43][44]

There have been instances of hate speech, such as the phrase Srbe na vrbe! (meaning "hang Serbs on the willow trees!"). An Orthodox church was spray-painted with pro-Ustaše graffiti in 2004.[45][46] Police have sped up responses to the appearance of extreme right wing graffiti and other hate-based vandalism.[47]

During some protests in Croatia, supporters of Ante Gotovina and other suspected war criminals have carried nationalist symbols and pictures of Ante Paveliä.[48] In 2003, an attempt was made to amend the Croatian penal code by adding articles prohibiting the public display of Nazi symbols, the propagation of Nazi ideology, historical revisionism and holocaust denial. However, this attempt was prevented by the Croatian constitutional court in the same year.[49] In 2005, the Croatian government made a move toward the Nazi-era law interpretation and practice, by granting to the Croatian parliament the exclusive right to interpret and authenticate the law.[50] An amendment was added in 2006 to prohibit any type of hate crime based on factors such as race, color, gender, sexual orientation, religion or national origin.[51] In 2007, Austrian authorities launched a criminal investigation into the widespread display of UstaÅ¡e symbols at the May 12 gathering of Croatian nationalists in Bleiburg, Austria.[52][53]

On May 17, 2007 concert of Thompson, a popular Croatian singer,in Zagreb was attended by 60,000 people, many of them wearing UstaÅ¡e uniforms. Some gave UstaÅ¡e salutes, and shouted the UstaÅ¡e slogan "Za dom spremni" (for the homeland â ready!). This event prompted the Jerusalem office of the Simon Wiesenthal Center to publicly address a protest to the Croatian president, Stjepan Mesiä.[54][55][56][57][58]

Estonia

There have been alleged neo-Nazi activities in Estonia. In November 2006, the government passed a law banning the display of Nazi symbols.[59]

In 2006, Roman Ilin, a Jewish theatre director from St. Petersburg, Russia, was attacked by neo-Nazis when returning from an underground tunnel after a rehearsal. Ilin subsequently accused Estonian police of indifference after filing the incident.[60] When a dark-skinned French student was attacked in Tartu, the head of an association of foreign students claimed the attack as characteristic of a wave of neo-Nazi violence. However an Estonian police official stated that there were only a few cases involving foreign students over the previous two years.[61]

The United Nations Human Rights Council Special Rapporteur's Report of 2008 noted that non-governmental organizations devoted to human rights as well as community representatives had pointed out that neo-Nazi groups are currently active in Estoniaâparticularly in Tartuâand have perpetrated acts of violence against non-European minorities.[62]

Neo-Nazi groups in Estonia and neighboring Latvia have carried out re-enactments of events set during World War II and have staged parades celebrating the Nazi units of the Baltic states, which fought against the forces of the Soviet Union in the Second World War.[63] Efraim Zuroff of the United States-based Simon Wiesenthal Center commented on some of the attendees: "dozens of foreign neo-Nazis clearly [demonstrated] the danger that they will encourage the rebirth of fascism and racist extremism."[64]

Parliamentary bodies of the member states of Inter-Parliamentary Union's geopolitical group Eurasia (comprising Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan)[65] passed a resolution in 2007, in response to the relocation of a Soviet World War II war memorial by the Government, expressing their collective "deep concern over the neo-Nazi sentiments in Estonia."[66]

France

Neo-Nazi organizations in France are outlawed, yet a significant number exist.[67] Legal far-right groups are also numerous, and include the Bloc identitaire, created by former members of Christian Bouchet's Unité Radicale group. Close to National Bolshevism and Third Position ideologies, Unité Radicale was dissolved in 2002 following Maxime Brunerie's assassination attempt on July 14, 2002 against then President Jacques Chirac. Christian Bouchet had previously been a member of Nouvelle Résistance (NR), an off-shoot of Troisième Voie (Third Way) which described itself as "nationalist revolutionary". Although Nouvelle Résistance at first opposed the "national conservatives" of Jean-Marie Le Pen's National Front, it finally changed strategy, adopting the slogan "Less Leftism! More Fascism![68] " Nouvelle Résistance was also a successor to Jean-François Thiriart's Jeune Europe neo-Nazi Europeanist movement of the 1960s, which had participated in the National Party of Europe, along with Oswald Mosley's Union Movement, Otto Strasser and other groups and individuals.

Germany

In Germany immediately after World War II, Allied forces and the new German government attempted to prevent the creation of new Nazi movements through a process known as denazification. The West German government had passed strict laws prohibiting Nazis from publicly expressing their beliefs as well as barring them from the political process. Displaying the swastika was an offense punishable by up to one year imprisonment. There was little overt neo-Nazi activity in Europe until the 1960s. However, some former Nazis retained their political beliefs, and passed them down to new generations.

After German reunification in the 1990s, neo-Nazi groups gained more followers, mostly among disaffected teenagers in the former East Germany. Many of the groups that increased their membership this way were new, having arisen amidst the economic collapse and high unemployment in the former East Germany. They have also had an aversion to people from Slavic countries (especially Poland) and people of other national backgrounds who moved from the former West Germany into the former German Democratic Republic after Germany was reunited. Much of their ideology was similar to Strasserism.

Activities

German neo-Nazis have attacked accommodations for refugees and migrant workers in Hoyerswerda (September 17â22, 1991); Rostock-Lichtenhagen (August 23â27, 1992); and Schwedt, Eberswalde, Eisenhüttenstadt, Elsterwerda (October 1991), and painted graffiti on 9 Polish-owned cars in Löcknitz (13 January 2008).[69] Neo-Nazis were involved in the murders of three Turkish girls in a November 23, 1992 arson attack in Mölln, in which nine other people were injured. A May 29, 1993 arson attack by far right skinheads on the house of a Turkish family in Solingen resulted in the deaths of two women and three girls, as well as in severe injuries for seven other people.[70] This, and similar incidents preceded demonstrations in many German cities involving hundreds of thousands of people protesting against far right violence.[citation needed] These protests precipitated massive neo-Nazi counter-demonstrations and violent clashes between neo-Nazis and anti-fascists. Statistics show that in 1991, there were 849 hate crimes, and in 1992 there were 1,485 (with a significant concentration in the eastern Bundesländer). After 1992, the numbers went down, although they have risen sharply in subsequent years. In 4 decades of the former East Germany, 17 people have been murdered by far right groups.[71]

Beginning in the late 1990s and early 2000s, Neo-Nazis started holding demonstrations on the anniversary of the Bombing of Dresden in World War II. The 2009 march was organized by Junge Landsmannschaft Ostdeutschland which is supported by the NPD. Surrounded by policemen 6,000 Neo-Nazis were never let out of their meeting point. At the same time a "living line" â some 15,000 people with white roses came out in the streets holding hands to demonstrate against Nazism, this making an alternative âmemory dayâ of war victims.[72]

Legal issues

German law forbids the production of pro-Nazi materials, so when such items are procured they are smuggled into the country mostly from the United States, Scandinavia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Italy.[citation needed] Neo-Nazi rock bands such as Landser have been outlawed in Germany, yet bootleg copies of their albums printed in the US and other countries are still sold in the country.

Some neo-Nazis make use of the Reichskriegsflagge, which is still legal in Germany.

German neo-Nazi websites mostly depend on Internet servers in the US and Canada, and use other terms for Nazi ideas and symbols. They also invent new symbols reminiscent of the swastika and adopt other symbols used by the Nazis, such as the sun disc, sun wheel, hooked cross, wolf's cross, wolf's hook, black sun, and dark star. Historian Walter Laqueur writes that the German National Democratic Party (NPD) cannot be classified as neo-Nazi.[73] However, it has been accused of being a partly neo-Nazism accepting party, and a trial was held before the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany over the prohibition of the National Democratic Party (NPD).[citation needed] In the course of the trial, it was discovered that some high-ranking party members worked as informants for the domestic intelligence service, the Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz. The trial was temporarily suspended, and then rejected by the court because of the unclear influence of informants within the NPD.

In 2004, NPD received 9.1% of the vote in the parliamentary elections for Saxony, thus earning the right to seat state parliament members.[74] The other parties refused to enter discussions with the NPD. In the 2006 parliamentary elections for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, the NPD received 7.3% of the vote and six seats in the state parliament. On March 13, 2008, NPD leader Udo Voigt was charged with incitement (Volksverhetzung), for distributing racially-charged pamphlets referring to German footballer Patrick Owoyomela, whose mother is Nigerian. In 2009 he was given a seven-month suspended sentence and ordered to donate 2,000 euros to UNICEF.[75]

Neo-Nazi groups that have been active in Germany and have attracted government attention include the Volkssozialistische Bewegung Deutschlands/Partei der Arbeit (which was banned in 1982), the Action Front of National Socialists/National Activists (banned in 1983), the Nationalist Front (banned in 1992), the Free German Workers' Party of Michael Kühnen and Friedhelm Busse, the German Alternative, National Offensive, and the Homeland-Faithful German Youth, which was banned in late March 2009). German Interior Minister Wolfgang Schäuble condemned the Homeland-Faithful German Youth, accusing it of teaching children that anti-immigrant racism and anti-Semitism were acceptable. Homeland-Faithful German Youth claimed that it was centred primarily on "environment, community and homeland", but it has been argued to have NPD links.[76]

Greece

The most notable Greek neo-Nazi political organization is Chrysi Avyi. According to numerous journalist accounts, the Greek police does very little â if anything â to quell Chrysi Avyi's violent activities, avoiding to arrest or bring the neo-Nazis to justice.[77] Another Greek neo-Nazi group is the strasserist organization "Mavros Krinos" (îîύρî¿ς îšρîîî¿ς â Black Lily).

Twelve Greek neo-Nazis participated as volunteers in the Yugoslav wars in Bosnia, aiding the Serbian Army in capturing the town of Srebrenica.[78]

Israel

Israel has seen a surge of neo-Nazi activity in the past decade, linked to the arrival of over 1.2 million immigrants from the former Soviet Unionâ a substantial proportion of whom do not identify as Jews, even though they have some Jewish ancestry.[79] In August 2007, Israeli police broke up Patrol 35, a cell in Petah Tikva made up of eight young immigrants from the former Soviet Union, which had been attacking religious Jews, foreign workers and homosexuals, and which had been vandalizing synagogues with Nazi images.[80][81]

The Soviet Union-born neo-Nazis[82] are reported to operate in cities across Israel, and have been described as having little connection to Jewish heritage, and of being influenced by the rise of neo-Nazism and anti-Semitism in Europe.[80][81] Widely publicized arrests have led to a call to reform the Law of Return to permit the revocation of Israeli citizenship forâ and the subsequent deportation ofâ neo-Nazis.[81]

Mongolia

Neo-Nazism is a growing political force in Mongolia. From 2008, Mongolian Neo-Nazi groups have defaced public and private buildings in Ulan Bator, smashed Chinese shopkeepers' windows, and killed moderate Mongols. The Neo-Nazi Mongols' targets for violence are Chinese, Koreans,[83] Mongol women who sleep with Chinese men, and LGBT people.[84] They wear Nazi uniforms and revere the Mongolian Empire and Genghis Khan. Observers have noted the irony of Neo-Nazi Mongols, because Nazi Germany killed Soviet prisoners of war with Mongolian features. Some have ascribed it to poor historical education.[83] With 3000 members in one of the most prominent groups, the movement is expected to grow in reaction to perceptions of a rising China.[84] One such group is Tsagaan Khass, whose name translates to White Swastika.

Russia

Traditional Nazism, which defines Slavs as racially inferior Untermenschen, appeals to few people in Russia. Consequently, there are few neo-Nazis in Russia.[85] Russian neo-Nazi groups are characterized by racism, anti-Semitism, Islamophobia and extreme xenophobia towards people from Asia.[86] Their ideology centers on defending Russian national identity against what they perceive as a takeover by minority groups such as Jews, South Caucasian and North Caucasian people, also Central Asians people and Muslims. Dark-skinned Russians are often subjected to racial abuse, regardless of religious affiliation. Russian neo-Nazis have generally not outlined discernible economic programs. They have openly admired and imitated the German Nazis and Adolf Hitler.

The Russian National Unity Group (RNE), led by Alexander Barkashov, was founded in 1990 and claims to have members in 250 cities. The RNE adopted the swastika as its symbol, and sees itself as the avant-garde of a coming national revolution; it is critical of other major organizations of the far right, such as that of Vladimir Zhirinovsky. Historian Walter Laqueur calls the RNE far closer to the Nazi model than Zhirinovsky's party. The RNE publishes several news sheets, one of which, Russky poryadok, claims to have a circulation of 150,000. Full members of the RNE are called Soratnik (comrades in arms), and receive combat training at locations near Moscow; many earn a living as security officers and armed guards.[87]

Similar to the RNE is the National-Social Union, lead by Viktor Yakushev. It wants to establish a national state and an economy emphasizing Aryan values, and aims to fight to stop Zionists from establishing global hegemony. Yakushev believes that all Freemasons are homosexuals, that members of inferior races have one fewer chromosome than members of superior races, and that Jews are "biorobots" programmed to commit suicide.[88]

Social roots

The collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s caused great economic and social problems, including widespread unemployment and poverty. Several far right paramilitary organizations were able to tap into popular discontent, particularly among the marginalized, lesser educated, and habitually unemployed youth. Of the three major age groups â youths, adults, and the elderly â youths may have been hit the hardest. The elderly suffered due to inadequate (or unpaid) pensions, but they found effective political representation in the Communists, and generally had their concerns addressed through better budget allocations. Adults, although often suffering financially and psychologically due to job losses, were generally able to find new sources of income. Moreover, Soviet-era indoctrination into the ideals of egalitarianism predisposed most adults against the message of right-wing extremists.

Activities

Russian neo-Nazis have made it an explicit goal to take over the country by force, and have put serious effort into preparing for this. Paramilitary organizations operating under the guise of sports clubs have trained their members in squad tactics, hand to hand combat and weapons handling. They have stockpiled and used weapons, often illegally.

On August 15, 2007, Russian authorities arrested a student for allegedly posting a video on the Internet which appears to show two Muslim migrant workers being beheaded in front of a red and black swastika flag.[89] Alexander Verkhovsky, the head of a Moscow-based center that monitors hate crime in Russia, said, "It looks like this is the real thing. The killing is genuine ... There are similar videos from the Chechen war. But this is the first time the killing appears to have been done intentionally."[90] A Russian neo-Nazi group called the Russian National Socialist Party claimed responsibility for the murders.

Serbia

Neo-Nazism in Serbia is mostly based on national and religious factors.[91] Nacionalni stroj (National Alignment), a neo-Nazi organization from the Vojvodina region, orchestrated several incidents. Charges were laid against 18 of the leading members, and each of them faced up to eight years in prison.[92]

Sweden

Neo-Nazi activities in Sweden have been limited to sects and groups of white-supremacist "skinheads", none of which has more than a few hundred members.[93]

United States

There are a number of small neo-Nazi groups in the United States. The earliest example of this ideological tendency can be traced back to 1924 and the formation of the Free Society of Teutonia. This organization merged with the Friends of New Germany to form the German-American Bund. The German-American Bund and similar groups achieved limited popularity in the 1930s (at one point staging a rally with over 20,000 people), but rapidly faded with the onset of World War II. The groups either disbanded or were dismantled by force of law (such as the 1942 sedition trial) during the war period. After the war, new organizations formed, with varying degrees of support for Nazi principles.

The National States' Rights Party, founded in 1958 by Edward Reed Fields and J. B. Stoner countered racial integration in the American South with Nazi-inspired publications and iconography. The American Nazi Party founded by George Lincoln Rockwell in 1959 achieved high-profile coverage in the press through their public demonstrations.[94]

Organizations which report upon American neo-Nazi activities include the Anti-Defamation League and Southern Poverty Law Center. While a small minority of American neo-Nazis draw public attention, most operate underground, so they can recruit, organize and raise funds without interference or harassment. The American correctional system houses many white supremacist and neo-Nazi prison gangs, and often white prisoners join those gangs for protection.[citation needed]

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, which allows political organizations great latitude in expressing Nazi, racist, and anti-Semitic views. A First Amendment landmark was the "Skokie Affair", in which neo-Nazis threatened to march in a predominantly Jewish suburb of Chicago. The march never took place in Skokie, but the court ruling allowed the neo-Nazis to stage a series of demonstrations in the Chicago area. Neo-Nazis are known to attack and harass Jews, African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, Arab Americans, Native Americans, homosexuals, Catholics, and people with different political or religious opinions. American neo-Nazi groups often operate websites, occasionally stage public demonstrations, and maintain ties to groups in Europe and elsewhere.[95]

Members of The Order were convicted of crimes such as racketeering, conspiracy, violating civil rights and sedition. Matthew F. Hale of the Creativity Movement was imprisoned for soliciting the murder of a federal judge. Aryan Nations lost a $6.2 million dollar lawsuit after some of its members opened fire on a passing vehicle. Aryan Nations has since lost its headquarters and paramilitary training grounds, and has split into three separate organizations.[citation needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Radical Right in Germany: 1870 to the Present. Pearson Education. 2002. pp. 9, 178. ISBN 0582291933. OCLC 49785551. http://books.google.com/books?id=EkInaWFrki4C&printsec=frontcover#PPA9,M1. 
  2. ^ Brigitte Bailer-Galanda; Wolfgang Neugebauer. "Right-Wing Extremism in Austria: History, Organisations, Ideology". http://www.döw.at/english/right/englre.html. "Right-wing extremism can be equated neither with National Socialism nor with neo-Fascism or neo-Nazism. Neo-Nazism, a legal term, is understood as the attempt to propagate, in direct defiance of the law (Verbotsgesetz), Nazi ideology or measures such as the denial, playing-down, approval or justification of Nazi mass murder, especially the Holocaust." 
  3. ^ Martin Frost. "Neo Nazism". http://www.martinfrost.ws/htmlfiles/neonazism1.html. "The term neo-Nazism refers to any social or political movement seeking to revive National Socialism or a form of Fascism, and which postdates the Second World War. Often, especially internationally, those who are part of such movements do not use the term to describe themselves." 
  4. ^ Lee, Martin A. 1997. The Beast Reawakens. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, pp. 85â118, 214â234, 277â281, 287â330, 333â378. On Volk concept," and a discussion of ethnonationalist integralism, see pp. 215â218
  5. ^ Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen (2002). "Neo-Nazism". The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. http://www.holocaust-education.dk/eftertid/nynazisme.asp. Retrieved 2007-12-08. "Neo-Nazism is the name for a modern offshoot of Nazism. It is a radically right-wing ideology, whose main characteristics are extreme nationalism and violent xenophobia. Neo-Nazism is, as the word suggests, a modern version of Nazism. In general, it is an incoherent right-extremist ideology, which is characterised by âborrowingâ many of the elements that constituted traditional Nazism." 
  6. ^ OndÅej Cakl & Kl¡ra Kalibov¡ (2002). "Neo-Nazism". Faculty of Humanities at Charles University in Prague, Department of Civil Society Studies. http://czechkid.eu/si1310.html. Retrieved 2007-12-08. "Neo-Nazism: An ideology which draws upon the legacy of the Nazi Third Reich, the main pillars of which are an admiration for Adolf Hitler, aggressive nationalism (ânothing but the nationâ), and hatred of Jews, foreigners, ethnic minorities, homosexuals and everyone who is different in some way." 
  7. ^ Laqueur, Walter, Fascism: Past, Present, Future, p. 5
  8. ^ Laqueur, Walter, Fascism: Past, Present, Future, p. 117
  9. ^ Brigitte Bailer-Galanda (1997). "'Revisionism' in Germany and Austria: The Evolution of a Doctrine". In Hermann Kurthen, Werner Bergmann, & Rainer Erb. Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany After Unification. Oxford University Press. p. 188. ISBN 0195104854. 
  10. ^ Laqueur, Walter, Fascism: Past, Present, Future, pp. 80, 116, 117
  11. ^ Laqueur, Walter, Fascism: Past, Present, Future, p. 117-118
  12. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/people/features/world_lectures/mazrui_lect.shtml
  13. ^ "Austria's Haider dies in accident". BBC News. 2008-10-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7664846.stm. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  14. ^ "Austria spooked by Nazi past in election". BBC News. 2010-04-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8634796.stm. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  15. ^ "Reich mother on the march in Hitler's homeland". The Independent (London). 2010-04-24. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/reich-mother-on-the-march-in-hitlers-homeland-1953005.html. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  16. ^ Brigitte Bailer-Galanda/Wolfgang Neugebauer. (1996). 'Incorrigibly Right â Right-Wing Extremists, "Revisionists" and Anti-Semites in Austrian Politics Today'. Vienna-New York.
  17. ^ De nouvelles découvertes, La Libre Belgique, 8 September 2006 (French)
  18. ^ Mandats d'arrêts confirmés pour les néo-nazis, Le Soir, 13 September 2006 (French)
  19. ^ Les néonazis voulaient déstabiliser le pays, Le Soir, Jeudi 7 septembre 2006 (French)
  20. ^ Un groupe terroriste néonazi démantelé, Le Nouvel Observateur, 8 septembre 2006 (French)
  21. ^ La Belgique démantèle un groupe néonazi préparant des attentats, Le Monde, 7 septembre 2006 (French)
  22. ^ Des militaires néonazis voulaient commettre des attentats, RTL Belgique, 8 septembre 2006 (French)
  23. ^ Des militaires néonazis voulaient déstabiliser la Belgique par des attentats, AFP, September 8, 2006 (French)
  24. ^ La Belgique découvre, stupéfaite, un complot néonazi au sein de son armée, AFP, September 8, 2006. (French)
  25. ^ Un réseau terroriste de militaires néonazis démantelé en Belgique, Le Monde, September 8, 2006 (French)
  26. ^ [1]
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