New Journalism was a style of 1960s and 1970s news writing and journalism which used literary techniques deemed unconventional at the time. The term was codified with its current meaning by Tom Wolfe in a 1973 collection of journalism articles he published as The New Journalism, which included works by himself, Truman Capote, Hunter S. Thompson, Norman Mailer, Joan Didion, Robert Christgau, and others.
Articles in the New Journalism style tended not to be found in newspapers, but rather in magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly, CoEvolution Quarterly, Esquire Magazine, New York, The New Yorker, Rolling Stone, and for a short while in the early 1970s, Scanlan's Monthly.
Various trends and tendencies throughout the history of American Journalism have been labeled âÄúnew journalism.âÄĚ Robert E. Park, for instance, in his Natural History of the Newspaper, referred to the advent of the penny press in the 1830s as âÄúnew journalism.âÄĚ Likewise, the appearance of the yellow press, papers such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World in the 1880s, led journalists and historians to proclaim that a âÄúNew JournalismâÄĚ had been created. Ault and Emery, for instance, said "Industrialization and urbanization changed the face of American during the latter half of the Nineteenth century, and its newspapers entered an era known as that of the âÄėNew Journalism.âÄô âÄĚ In 1960 John Hohenberg, in The Professional Journalist, called the interpretive reporting which developed after World War II a âÄúnew journalism which not only seeks to explain as well as to inform; it even dares to teach, to measure, to evaluate.âÄĚ
During the sixties and seventies the term enjoyed widespread popularity, often with meanings bearing manifestly little or no connection with one another. Although James E. Murphy noted that 'âÄú...most user of the term seem to refer to something more specific than vague new directions in journalismâÄĚ Curtis D. MacDougal devoted the Preface of the Sixth Edition of his Interpretative Reporting to New Journalism and cataloged many of the contemporary definitions: âÄúActivist, advocacy, participatory, tell-it-as-you-see-it, sensitivity, investigative, saturation, humanistic, reformist and a few more.âÄĚ
The Magic Writing MachineâÄĒStudent Probes of the New Journalism, a collection edited and introduced by Everette E. Dennis, came up with six categories, labelled new nonfiction (reportage), alternative journalism ("modern muckraking"), advocacy journalism, underground journalism and precision journalism. Michael Johnson's The New Journalism addresses itself to three phenomena: the underground press, the artists of nonfiction, and changes in the established media.
Journalists recognized as using the style include Norman Mailer, Joan Didion, Truman Capote, P. J. O'Rourke, George Plimpton, Terry Southern, and Gay Talese. Hunter S. Thompson was a major practitioner of new journalism and gonzo journalism, his own particular style. Thompson's first book, Hell's Angels: The Strange and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, is a more conventional piece, and shows the beginnings of a more memoir-based approach to reportage. Gay Talese's 1966 article for Esquire, Frank Sinatra Has a Cold, was an influential piece of new journalism that gave a detailed portrait of Frank Sinatra without ever interviewing him.
New journalism writers brought new approaches to areas already covered by the mainstream press. The psychedelic movement was something that many of the writers of the period covered, such as in Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. The Vietnam War was another common topic, as was the political turmoil on the homefront. Terry Southern's Grooving in Chi documented the 1968 Chicago National Democratic Convention for Esquire Magazine in new journalism manner. New journalism's techniques were also applied to less obvious subjects, such as financial markets (by George Goodman under the pseudonym Adam Smith, in essays originally published in New York Magazine and later collected in a book called The Money Game.)
Some authors of conventional fiction switched to writing in the style of new journalism, such as Truman Capote's In Cold Blood, and Norman Mailer's Armies of the Night. However, neither author ever agreed to their style's comparison to Wolfe's school of narration, nor did many others who have been retrospectively promoted as being members and therein associated. Much to the contrary, many of these writers would deny that their work was generically relevant to other new journalists at the time.
 Early development, the sixties
February 14, 1972, article in New York,
by Tom Wolfe
, announcing the birth of New Journalism
How and when the term New Journalism began to refer to a genre has not been clear. Tom Wolfe, a practitioner and principal advocate of the form, wrote in at least two articles in 1972 that he had no idea of where it began. Trying to shed light on the matter, literary critic Seymour Krim, offered his explanation in 1973.
I'm certain that [Pete] Hamill first used the expression. In about April of 1965 he called me at Nugget Magazine, where I was editorial director, and told me he wanted to write an article about new New Journalism. It was to be about the exciting things being done in the old reporting genre by Talese, Wolfe and Breslin. He never wrote the piece, so far as I know, but I began using the expression in conversation and writing. It was picked up and stuck.
But wherever and whenever the term arose, there is evidence of some literary experimentation in the early 1960s, as when Norman Mailer broke away from fiction to write Superman Comes to the Supermarket A report of John F. Kennedy's nomination that year, the piece established a precedent which Mailer would later build on in his 1968 convention coverage (Miami and the Siege of Chicago) and in other nonfiction as well.
Wolfe wrote that his first acquaintance with a new style of reporting came in a 1962 Esquire article about Joe Louis by Gay Talese. âÄú âÄėJoe Louis at FiftyâÄô a wasn't like a magazine article at all. It was like a short story. It began with a scene, an intimate confrontation between Loius and his third wife...âÄĚ  Wolfe said Talese was the first to apply fiction techniques to reporting.
Esquire claimed credit as the seedbed for these new techniques. Esquire editor Harold Hayes later wrote that âÄúin the Sixties, events seemed to move too swiftly to allow the osmotic process of art to keep abreast, and when we found a good novelist we immediately sought to seduce him with the sweet mysteries of current events.âÄĚ Soon others, notably New York, followed Esquire's lead, and the style eventually infected other magazines and then books.
 The seventies
Much of the criticism favorable to this New Journalism came from the writers themselves. Talese and Wolfe, in a panel discussion cited earlier, asserted that, although what they wrote may look like fiction, it was indeed reporting: âÄúFact reporting, leg work.âÄĚ Talese called it.
Wolfe, in Esquire for December, 1972, hailed the replacement of the novel by the New Journalism as literature's âÄúmain eventâÄĚ and detailed the points of similarity and contrast between the New Journalism and the novel. The four techniques of realism that he and the other New Journalists employed, he wrote, had been the sole province of novelists and other literati. They are scene-by-scene construction, full record of dialogue, third-person point of view and the manifold incidental details to round out character (i.e., descriptive incidentals). the result
... is a form that is not merely like a novel. It consumes devices that happen to have originated with the novel and mixes them with every other device known to prose. And all the while, quite beyond matters of technique, it enjoys an advantage so obvious, so built-in, one almost forgets what power it has': the simple fact that the reader knows all this actually happened. The disclaimers have been erased. The screen is gone. The writer is one step closer to the absolute involvement of the reader that Henry James and James Joyce dreamed of but never achieved.
The essential difference between the new nonfiction and conventional reporting is, he said, that the basic unit of reporting was no longer the datum or piece of information but the scene. Scene is what underlies âÄúthe sophisticated strategies of prose.âÄĚ
Truman Capote, as photographed by Roger Higgins in 1959.
The first of the new breed of nonfiction writers to receive wide notoriety was Truman Capote, whose 1965 best-seller, In Cold Blood, was a detailed narrative of the murder of a Kansas farm family. Capote culled material from some 6000 pages of notes. The book brought its author instant celebrity. Capote announced that he had created a new art form which he labelled the âÄúnonfiction novel.âÄĚ
I've always had the theory that reportage is the great unexplored art form... I've had this theory that a factual piece of work could explore whole new dimensions in writing that would have a double effect fiction does not haveâÄĒthe every fact of its being true, every word of its true, would add a double contribution of strength and impact
Capote continued to stress that he was a literary artist, not a journalist, but critics hailed the book as a classic example of New Journalism.
Wolfe's The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby, whose introduction and title story, according to James E. Murphy, âÄúemerged as a manifest of sorts for the nonfiction genre,âÄĚ was published the same year. In his introduction Wolfe wrote that he encountered trouble fashioning an Esquire article out of material on a custom car extravaganza in Los Angeles, in 1963. Finding he could not do justice to the subject in magazine article format, he wrote a letter to his editor, Byron Dobell, which grew into a 49-page reportb detailing the custom car world, complete with scene construction, dialogue and flamboyant description. Esquire ran the letter, striking out âÄúDear Byron.âÄĚ and it became Wolfe's maiden effort as a New Journalist.
In an article entitled âÄúThe Personal Voice and the Impersonal Eye,âÄĚ Dan Wakefield acclaimed the nonfiction of Capote and Wolfe as elevating reporting to the level of literature, terming that work and some of Norman Mailer's nonfiction a journalistic breakthrough: reporting âÄúcharged with the energy of artâÄĚ
A review by Jack Newfield of Dick Schaap's Turned On saw the book as a good example of budding tradition in American journalism which rejected many of the constraints of conventional reporting:
This new genre defines itself by claiming many of the techniques that were once the unchalanged terrain of the novelist: tension, symbol, cadence, irony, prosody, imagination.
A 1968 review of Wolfe's The Pump House Gang and The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test said Wolfe and Mailer were applying âÄúthe imaginative resources of fictionâÄĚ to the world around them and termed such creative journalism âÄúhystoryâÄĚ to connote their involvement in what they reported. Talese in 1970, in his Author's Note to Fame and Obscurity, a collection of his pieces from the 1960s, wrote:
The new journalism, though often reading like fiction, is not fiction. It is, or should be, as reliable as the most reliable reportage although it seeks a larger truth than is possible through the mere compilation of verifiable facts, the use of direct quotations, and adherence to the rigid organizational style of the older form.
Seymour Krim's Shake It for the World, Smartass which appeared in 1970, contained âÄúAn Open Letter to Norman MailerâÄĚ which defined New Journalism as âÄúa free nonfictional prose that uses every resource of the best fiction.âÄĚ And in âÄúThe Newspaper As Literature/Literature As LeadershipâÄĚ he called journalism the de facto literature of the majority, a synthesis of journalism and literature that the book's postscript called âÄújournalit.âÄĚ In 1972, in âÄúAn Enemy of the NovelâÄĚ Krim identified his own fictional roots and declared that the needs of the time compelled him to move beyond fiction to a more âÄúdirectâÄĚ communication to which he promised to bring all of fiction's resources.
David McHam, in an article titled âÄúThe Authentic New Journalists,âÄĚ distinguished the nonfiction reportage of Capote, Wolfe and others from other, more generic interpretations of New Journalism. Also in 1971, William L. Rivers disparaged the former and embraced the latter, concluding, âÄúIn some hands, they add a flavor and a humanity to journalistic writing that push it into the realm of art.âÄĚ
Charles Brown in 1972 reviewed much that had been written as New Journalism and about New Journalism by Capote, Wolfe, Mailer and others and labelled the genre âÄúNew Art Journalism,âÄĚ which allowed him to test it both as art and as journalism. He concluded that the new literary form was useful only in the hands of literary artists of great talent.
In the first of two pieces by Wolfe in New York detailing the growth of the new nonfiction and its techniques. Wolfe returned to the fortuitous circumstances surrounding the construction of Kandy-Kolored and added:
Its virtue was precisely in showing me the possibility of there being something âÄúnewâÄĚ in journalism. What interested me was not simply the discovery that it was possible to write accurate nonfiction with techniques usually associated with novels and short stories. It was thatâÄĒplus. It was the discovery that it was possible in nonfiction, in journalism, to use any literary device, from the traditional dialogisms of the essay to stream-of-consciousness...
 The eighties
In the Eighties the use of New Journalism saw a decline, several of the old trailblazers still used fiction techniques in their nonfiction books. But younger writers in Esquire and Rolling Stone, where the style had flourished in the two earlier decades, shifted away from the New Journalism. Fiction techniques had not been abandoned by these writers, but they were used sparingly and less flamboyantly.
"Whatever happened to the New Journalism?" wondered Thomas Powers in a 1975 issue of Commonweal. In 1981, Joe Nocera published a postmortem in the Washington Monthly blaming its demise on the journalistic liberties taken by Hunter S. Thompson. Regardless of the culprit, less than a decade after Tom Wolfe's 1973 New Journalism anthology, the consensus was that New Journalism was dead.
As a literary genre, New Journalism has certain technical characteristics. It is an artistic, creative, literary reporting form with three basic traits: dramatic literary techniques; intensive reporting; and reporting of generally acknowledged subjectivity.
 As subjective journalism
Pervading many of the specific interpretations of New Journalism is a posture of subjectivity. Subjectivism is thus a common element among many (though not all) of its definitions. In contrast to a conventional journalistic striving for an objectivity, subjective journalism allows for the writer's opinion, ideas or involvement to creep into his story.
Much of the critical literature concerns itself with a strain of subjectivism which may be called activism in news reporting. In 1970 Gerald Grant wrote disparagingly in Columbia Journalism Review of a âÄúNew Journalism of passion and advocacyâÄĚ and in the Saturday Review Hohenberg discussed âÄúThe Journalist As MissionaryâÄĚ For Masterson in 1971, âÄúThe New JournalismâÄĚ provided a forum for discussion of journalistic and social activism. In another 1971 article under the same title Ridgeway called the counter-culture magazines such as The New Republic and Ramparts and the American underground press New Journalism.
Another version of subjectivism in reporting is what is sometimes called participatory reporting. Robert Stein, in Media Power, defines New Journalism as âÄúA form of participatory reporting that evolved in parallel with participatory politics...âÄĚ
 As form and technique
The above interpretations of New Journalism view it as an attitude toward the practice of journalism. But a significant portion of the critical literature deals with form and technique. Critical comment dealing with New Journalism as a literary-journalistic genre (a distinct type of category of literary work grouped according to similar and technical characteristics) treats it as the new nonfiction. Its traits are extracted from the criticism written by those who claim to practice it and by others. Admittedly it is hard to isolate from a number of the more generic meanings
The new nonfiction where sometimes taken for advocacy of subjective journalism. A 1972 article by Dennis Chase defines New Journalism as a subjective journalism emphasizing âÄútruthâÄĚ over âÄúfactsâÄĚ but uses major nonfiction stylists as its example.
 As intensive reportage
Although much of the critical literature discussed the use of literary or fictional techniques as the basis for a New Journalism, critics also referred to the form as stemming from intensive reporting. Stein, for instance, found the key to New Journalism not its fictionlike form but the âÄúsaturation reportingâÄĚ which precedes it, the result of the writer's immersion in his subject. Consequently, Stein concluded, the writer is as much part of his story as is the subject and he thus linked saturation reporting with subjectivity. For him New Journalism is inconsistent with objectivity or accuracy.
But others have argued that total immersion enhances accuracy. As Wolfe put the case:
I am the first to agree that the New Journalism should be as accurate as traditional journalism. In fact my claims for the New Journalism, and my demands upon it, go far beyond that. I contend that it has already proven itself more accurate than traditional journalismâÄĒwhich unfortunately i saying but so much...
Wolfe coined âÄúsaturation reportingâÄĚ in his Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors article. After citing the opening paragraphs of Talese's Joe Louis piece, he confessed believing that Talese had âÄúpipedâÄĚ or faked the story, only later to be convinced, after learning that Talese so deeply delved into the subject, that he could report entire scenes and dialogues.
The basic units of reporting are no longer who-what-when-where-how and why but whole scenes and stretches of dialogue. The New Journalism involves a depth of reporting and an attention to the most minute facts and details that most newspapermen, even the most experienced, have never dreamed of.
In his âÄúBirth of the New JournalismâÄĚ in New York, Wolfe returned to the subject, which he here described as a depth of information never before demanded in newspaper work. The New Journalist, he said, must stay with his subject for days and weeks at a stretch. In Wolfe's Esquire piece saturation became the âÄúLocker Room GenreâÄĚ of intensive digging into the lives and personalities of one's subject, in contrast to the aloof and genteel tradition of the essayists and âÄúThe Literary Gentlemen in the Grandstand.âÄĚ
For Talese, intensive reportage took the form of interior monologue to discover from his subjects what they were thinking, not, he said in a panel discussion reported in Writer's Digest, merely reporting what people did and said.
Wolfe identified the four main devices New Journalists borrowed from literary fiction:
- Telling the story using scenes rather than historical narrative as much as possible
- Dialogue in full (Conversational speech rather than quotations and statements)
- Point-of-view (present every scene through the eyes of a particular character)
- Recording everyday details such as behavior, possessions, friends and family (which indicate the "status life" of the character)
Despite these elements, New Journalism is not fiction. It maintains elements of reporting including strict adherence to factual accuracy and the writer being the primary source. To get "inside the head" of a character, the journalist asks the subject what they were thinking or how they felt.
Which writer who are New Journalists is hard to define. In The New Journalism: A Critical Perspective Murphy writes, âÄúA a literary genre, New Journalism [...] involves a more or less well defined group of writers [...]. Each is stylistically unique, but all sharing common formal elements.âÄĚ Among the most prominenet writers of New Journalism, Murphy lists: Jimmy Breslin, Truman Capote, Joan Didion, David Halberstam, Pete Hamill, Larry King, Norman Mailer, Joe McGinniss, Rex Reed, Mike Royko, John Sack, Dick Schaap, Terry Southern, Gail Sheehy, Gay Talese, Hunter S. Thompson, Dan Wakefield, and Tom Wolfe. In The New Journalism, Johnson and Wolfe, also includes George Plimpton for his Paper Lion, Life writer James Mills, Robert Christgau and a few others. Christgau, however, stated in an 2001 interview that he did not see himself as a New Journalist.
The editors Clay Felker and Harold Hayes also contributed to the rise of New Journalism.
While many praised the New Journalist's style of writing, Wolfe et al., also received severe criticism from contemporary journalists and writers. Essentially two different charges were leveled against New Journalism: criticism against it as a distinct genre and criticism against it as a new form.
Robert Stein believed that âÄúIn the New Journalism the eye of the beholder is allâÄĒor almost all,âÄĚ and in 1971 Philip M. Howard, wrote that the new nonfiction writers rejected objectivity in favor of a more personal, subjective reportage. This parallels much of what Wakefield said in his 1966 Atlantic article.
The important and interesting and hopeful trend to me in the new journalism is its personal natureâÄĒnot in the sense of personal attacks, but in the presence of the reporter himself and the significance of his own involvement. This is sometimes felt to be egotistical, and the frank identification of the author, especially as the âÄúIâÄĚ instead of merely the impersonal âÄúeyeâÄĚ is often frowned upon and taken as proof of âÄúsubjectivity,âÄĚ which is the opposite of the usual journalistic pretense.
And in spite of the fact that Capote believed in the objective accuracy of In Cold Blood and strove to keep himself totally out of the narrative, one reviewer found in the book the âÄútendency among writers to resort to subjective sociology, on the other hand, or to super-creative reportage, on the other.âÄĚ Charles Self termed this characteristic of New Journalism as âÄúadmittedâÄĚ subjectivity, whether first-person or third-person, and acknowledged the subjectivity inherent in his account.
Lester Markel polemically criticized New Journalism in the Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors, he rejected the claim to greater in-depth reporting and labelled the writers âÄúfactual fictionistsâÄĚ and âÄúdeep-see reporters.âÄĚ He feared they were performing as sociologists and psychoanalysts rather than as journalists.
More reasoned, though still essentially negative, Arlen in his 1972 âÄúNotes on the New Journalism,âÄĚ put the New Journalism into a larger socio-historical perspective by tracing the techniques from earlier writers and from the constraints and opportunities of the current age. But much of the more routine New Journalism âÄúconsists in exercises by writer . . . in gripping and controlling and confronting a subject within the journalist's own temperament. Presumably, âÄĚ he wrote, âÄúthis is the âÄėnovelistic technique.âÄô âÄĚ But he conceded that the best of this work had âÄúconsiderably expanded the possibilities of journalism.âÄĚ
Much negative criticism of New Journalism were directed at individual writers For example, Cynthia Ozick asserted in The New Republic, that Capote in In Cold Blood was doing little more than trying to devise a form: âÄúOne more esthetic manipulation.âÄĚ Sheed offered, in âÄúA Fun-House Mirror,âÄĚ a witty refutation of Wolfe's claim that he takes on the expression and the guise of whomever he is writing about. âÄúThe Truman Capotes may hold up a tolerably clear glass to nature,âÄĚ he wrote, âÄúbut Wolfe holds up a fun-house mirror, and I for one don't give a hoot whether he calls the reflection fact or fiction.âÄĚ
 âÄúParajournalismâÄĚ and the New Yorker affair
Among the hostile critics of the New Journalism were Dwight MacDonald, whose most vocal criticism compromised a chapter in what became known as âÄúthe New Yorker affairâÄĚ of 1965. Wolfe had written a two-part semi-fictional parody in New York of the New Yorker and its editor, William Shawn. Reaction notably from New Yorker writers, was loud and prolonged,c but the most significant reaction came from MacDonald, who counterattacked in two articles in the New York Review of Books In the first, MacDonald termed Wolfe's approach âÄúparajournalismâÄĚ and applied it to all similar styles. âÄúParajournalism,âÄĚ MacDonald wrote,
... seems to be journalismâÄĒâÄúthe collection and dissemination of current newsâÄĚâÄĒbut the appearance is deceptive. It is a bastard form, having it both ways, exploiting the factual authority of journalism and the atmospheric license of fiction.
The New Yorker parody, he added, âÄú... revealed the ugly side of Parajournalism when it tries to be serious.âÄĚ
In his second article, MacDonald addressed himself to the accuracy of Wolfe's report. He charged that Wolfe âÄútakes a middle course, shifting gears between fact and fantasy, spoof and reportage, until nobody knows which end is, at the moment, upâÄĚ New Yorker writers Renata Adler and Gerald Jonas joined the fray in the Winter 1966 issue of Columbia Journalism Review.
Wolfe himself returned to the affair a full seven years later., devoting the second of his two February New York articles (1972) to his detractors but not to dispute their attack on his factual accuracy. He argued that most of the contentions arose because for traditional literati nonfiction should not succeedâÄĒwhich his nonfiction obviously had.
 Gail Sheehy and âÄúRedpantsâÄĚ
In The New Journalism: A Critical Perspective Murphy writes, âÄúPartly because Wolfe took liberties with the facts in his New Yorker parody, New Journalism began to get a reputation for juggling the facts in the search for truth, fictionalizing some details to get a larger âÄėreality.âÄô âÄĚ Widely criticized was the technique of the composite character, the most notorious example of which was âÄúRedpants,âÄĚ a presumed prostitute whom Gail Sheehy wrote about in New York in a series on that city's sexual subculture. When it later became known that the character was distilled from a number of prostitutes, there was an outcry against Sheehy's method and, by extension, to the credibility of all of New Journalism. In the Wall Street Journal, one critic wrote:
It's all part of the New Journalism, or the Now Journalism, and it's practiced widely these days. Some editors and reporters vigorously defend it. Others just as vigorously attack it. No one has polled the reader, but whether he approves or disapproves, it's getting harder and harder for him to know what he can believe.
Newsweek reported that critics felt Sheehy's energies were better suited to fiction than fact John Tebbel in an article in Saturday Review, although treating New Journalism in its more generic sense as new a trend, chided it for the fictional technique of narrative leads which the new nonfiction writers had introduced into journalism and deplored its use in newspapers.
 Criticism against New Journalism as a distinct genre
Newfield, in 1972, changed his attitude since his earlier, 1967, review of Wolfe. âÄúNew Journalism does not exist,âÄĚ the later article titled âÄúIs there a âÄėnew journalismâÄô?âÄĚ says. âÄúIt is a false category. There is only good writing and bad writing, smart ideas and dumb ideas, hard work and laziness.âÄĚ While the practice of journalism had improved during the past fifteen years, he argued, it was because of an influx of good writers notable for unique styles, not because they belonged to any school or movement.
Jimmy Breslin, who is often labelled a New Journalist, took the same view: âÄúBelieve me, there is no new journalism. It is a gimmick to say there is . . . Story telling is older than the alphabet and that is what it is all about.âÄĚ
- Ault, Philip H.; Emery, Edwin (1959). Reporting the News. Dodd, Mead and Company.
- Bellows, James G. (2002). The Last Editor: How I Saved the New York Times, the Washington Post, and the Los Angeles Times from Dullness and Complacency. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-7407-1901-7.
- Burgess, Ernest W.; Park, Robert E., eds (1967) . "Natural History of the Newspaper". The City: Suggestions for Investigation of Human Behavior in the Urban Environment. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226646114.
- Eason, David (Spring 1982). "New Journalism, Metaphor and Culture". Journal of Popular Culture 15: 142âÄď149.
- Dennis, Everette E., ed (1971). The Magic Writing MachineâÄĒStudent Probes of the New Journalism. University of Oregon Press.
- Dennis, Everette E.; Rivers, William L., eds (1974). Other Voices: The New Journalism in America. Canfield Press. ISBN 0063825627.
- Grant, Gerald (Spring 1970). "The âÄúNew JournalismâÄĚ We Need". Columbia Journalism Review (Columbia University Press).
- Hohenberg, John (February 11, 1970). "The Journalist As Missionary". Saturday Review: pp. 76âÄď77.
- Hayes, Harold, ed (1970). Smiling Through the ApocalypseâÄĒEsquire's History of the Sixties. McCall. )
- Hohenberg, John (1960). The Professional Journalist: A Guide to the Practices and Principles of the News Media. Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0030182263.
- Johnson, Michael (1971). The New Journalism: The Underground Press, the Artists of Nonfiction, and Changes in the Established Media. University of Kansas Press. ISBN 0023731109.
- Krim, Seymour (1970). Shake It for the World, Smartass. Dial Press.
- MacDougal, Curtis D. (1972). Interpretative Reporting (Sixth ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 0023731109.
- Mailer, Norman (November, 1960). "Superman Comes to the Supermarket". Esquire (Hearst Corporation). http://www.esquire.com/features/superman-supermarket.
- McQuade, Donald, ed (1974). Popular Writing in America: The Interaction of Style and Audience. Oxford University Press.
- Murphy, James E. (May 1974). Westley, Bruce H.. ed. "The New Journalism: A Critical Perspective". Journalism Monographs (The Association for Education in Journalism) 34.
- Russello, Gerald J. (November 21, 2005). "How New Journalism Became Old News". The New York Sun (ONE SL LLC). http://www.nysun.com/arts/how-new-journalism-became-old-news/23300/.
- Stein, Robert (1972). Media Power; Who Is Shaping Your Picture of the World?. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395140064.
- Talese, Gay (1970). Fame and Obscurity. World Publishing Corporation. ISBN 0030182263.
- Wolfe, Tom (July 14, 2008). "A City Built of Clay". New York Magazine (New York Media LLC). http://nymag.com/news/media/48341/index5.html.
- Wolfe, Tom (February 14, 1972). "The Birth of 'The New Journalism'; Eyewitness Report by Tom Wolfe". New York Magazine (New York Media LLC): p. 44. http://nymag.com/news/media/47353/.
- Wolfe, Tom (February 21, 1972). "The New Journalism: A la Recherche des Whichy Thickets". New York Magazine (New York Media LLC): p. 46.
- Wolfe, Tom (December 1972). "Why They Aren't Writing the Great American Novel Anymore". Esquire (Hearst Corporation).
 See also
- ^ Park 1967 , p. 93.
- ^ Ault & Emery 1959, p. 11.
- ^ Hohenberg 1960, p. 322.
- ^ Murphy 1974, p. 2
- ^ MacDougal 1971, p. v.
- ^ Dennis ed. The Magic Writing Machine.(1971) see also The New Journalism in America. Dennis & Rivers eds (1974).
- ^ Johnson 1971
- ^ a b c d e Murphy 1974, p. 4.
- ^ a b âÄúThe Birth of 'The New Journalism'; Eyewitness Report by Tom WolfeâÄĚ New York, February 14, 1972. p. 45
- ^ a b âÄúWhy They Aren't Writing the Great American Novel Anymore,âÄĚ Esquire, December, 1972, p. 152.
- ^ In a private letter to James E. Murphy, dated February 6, 1973 (see Murphy 1974, p. 5.)
- ^ Esquire, November, 1960.
- ^ a b Wolfe. âÄúThe New JournalismâÄĚ Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors. September, 1970.
- ^ Hayes ed., 1970, p. xxi.
- ^ Murphy 1974, p. 5.
- ^ a b Hayes, Gay Talese and Wolfe, with Leonard W. Robinson, âÄúThe New Journalism.âÄĚ Writer's Digest. January. 1970, p. 34.
- ^ Esquire, pp. 152-159: 272-280
- ^ Esquire, p. 158.
- ^ Esquire, p. 272.
- ^ Esquire, p. 278.
- ^ a b c d e f Murphy 1974, p. 7.
- ^ See for example. J. Howard, âÄúSix Year Literary Virgil,âÄĚ Life, January 7, 1966: George Plimpton, âÄúStory behind a Nonfiction Novel,âÄĚ New York Times Book Review, January 16, 1966: G. Hicks, âÄúStory of an American Tragedy,âÄĚ Saturday Review, January 22, 1966: Neil Compton, âÄúHyjinks' Journalism,âÄĚ Commentary, February, 1966.
- ^ Capote, as quoted by Roy Newquist, Counterpoint, (Rand McNally, 1964), p. 78.
- ^ Wolfe 1965, pp. ix-xii.
- ^ a b Dan Wakefield, âÄúThe Personal Voice and the Impersonal Eye,âÄĚ The Atlantic, June, 1966, pp. 86-89.
- ^ a b Jack Newfield, âÄúHooked and Dead,âÄĚ New York Times Book Review, May 7, 1967, p. 20.
- ^ Robert Scholes, âÄúDouble Perspective on Hysteria,âÄĚ Saturday Review, August 24. 1968. p. 37.
- ^ Talese 1970, p. vii.
- ^ First published in Evergreen Review, February 1, 1967.
- ^ Krim 1970, p. 115.
- ^ First published in Evergreen Review, August 1, 1967.
- ^ Krim 1970, p. 359. âÄúLet once-mighty literature swallow its whitefaced pride and give its mythic propensity to journalismâÄĒthe de facto literature of our time.âÄĚ
- ^ Krim 1970, p. 365.
- ^ Krim. âÄúAn Enemy of the Novel.âÄĚ The Iowa Review, Winter 1972, pp. 60-62.
- ^ David McHam, âÄúThe Authentic New Journalists,âÄĚ Quill, September, 1971, pp. 9-14.
- ^ William L. Rivers , âÄúThe New Confusion,âÄĚ The Progressive, December, 1971, p. 28.
- ^ Charles Brown, âÄúNew Art Journalism Revisited,âÄĚ Quill, March, 1972, pp. 18-23.
- ^ For example, Tom Wolfe (The Right Stuff, 1979), Gay Talese (Thy NeighborâÄôs Wife, 1980), and Hunter S. Thompson (The Curse of Lono, 1983)
- ^ Robert Boynton (January 23, 2005). "Whatever happened to New Journalism?". Los Angeles Times.
- ^ a b c Murphy 1974, p. 16.
- ^ a b Murphy 1974, p. 3.
- ^ 1970, pp. 12-17.
- ^ Saturday Review. February 11, 1970, pp. 76-77.
- ^ Stein 1972, p. 165.
- ^ The definition is based on that of William F. Thrall, et al., A Handbook to Literature (1960), p. 211.
- ^ Dennis Chase. âÄúFrom Lippmann to Irving to New Journalism,âÄĚ Quill August, 1972. pp. 19-21.
- ^ See, for example, Charles Self, âÄúThe New Journalism?âÄĚ Quill and Scroll, December-January, 1973, pp. 10-11: âÄúThe new journalism requires days, weeks or even months of research for each story. The new journalist writes from a detailed knowledge of his subject.âÄĚ (p. 11)
- ^ Smith 1972, p. 167.
- ^ Murphy 1972, p. 10.
- ^ *Wolfe, Tom (February 21, 1972). "The New Journalism: A la Recherche des Whichy Thickets". New York Magazine (New York Media LLC): p. 46.
- ^ Beuttler, Bill. "Whatever Happened to the New Journalism?". BillBeuttler.com. http://billbeuttler.com/work50.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-09.
- ^ Cartwright, Garth (May 12, 2001). "Master of the Rock Review". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/may/12/music. "âÄúBeing a reporter was another path I could have gone down, but the kind of journalism New Journalism requires is not only powers of observation but the ability to hang around people for hours and hours . . . the qualities of being a real asshole . . . and it's just not me.âÄĚ"
- ^ Murphy 1974, p. 15
- ^ See for example, Jack Newfield, Columbia Journalism Review, July-August, 1972, p. 45., âÄúWhat is called the New Journalism is really a dozen different styles of writing.âÄĚ
- ^ Stein 1972, p. 168.
- ^ Philip M. Howard. Jr., âÄúThe New Journalism: A Nonfiction Concept of Writing,âÄĚ unpublished master's thesis, University of Utah, August, 1971, 5 ff. (see Murphy 1974, p. 11.)
- ^ F. W. Dupre, âÄúTruman Capote's Score,âÄĚ New York Review of Books, February 3, 1966, p. 5.
- ^ Charles Self, âÄúThe New Journalism?âÄĚ Quill and Scroll, December-January, 1973, pp. 10-11
- ^ Lester Markel, âÄúSo What's New?âÄĚ Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors, January, 1972, p. 8.
- ^ a b Michael J. Arlen, âÄúNotes on the New Journalism,âÄĚ Atlantic, may, 1972, p. 47.
- ^ Murphy 1974, p. 14.
- ^ Cynthia Ozick, âÄúReconsideration: Truman Capote,âÄĚ The New Republic, January 27, 1973, p. 34.
- ^ Wilfrid Sheed, âÄúA Fun-House Mirror,âÄĚ New York Times Book Review, December 3, 1972, p. 2.
- ^ Murphy 1974, p. 12.
- ^ Wolfe, âÄúTiny Mummies! The True Story of the Ruler of 43rd Street's Land of the Walking Dead,âÄĚ New York, April 11, 1965, pp. 7-9: 24-29: and âÄúLost in the Whichy Thicket,âÄĚ New York, April 18, 1965, 16 ff. At the time, New York was still the Sunday magazine for the now deceased New York Herald Tribune.
- ^ "The New Yorker Affair: From Other Angles". CNN.com. April 16, 2002. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/SHOWBIZ/News/04/16/bellows.abc/. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- ^ a b c Dwight MacDonald. âÄúParajournalism, or Tom Wolfe and His Magic Writing Machine,âÄĚ New York Review of Books, August 26, 1965, pp. 3-5
- ^ a b âÄúParajournalism II: Wolfe and the New Yorker,âÄĚ New York Review of Books, February 3, 1966, pp. 18-24.
- ^ Leonard C. Lewin, with Renata Adler and Gerald Jonas, âÄúIs Fact Necessary?âÄĚ, Columbia Journalism Review, Winter, 1966, pp. 29-34.
- ^ a b New York, February 21, 1972, pp. 39-48
- ^ a b c Murphy 1974, p. 13.
- ^ W. Steward Pinkerton. Jr., âÄúThe âÄėNew JournalismâÄô is Something Less Than Meets the Eye.âÄĚ Wall Street Journal, August 13, 1971, p. 1.
- ^ Newsweek, December 4, 1972, p. 61.
- ^ John Tebbel, âÄúThe Old New Journalism,âÄĚ Saturday Review, March 13, 1971, pp. 96-67.
- ^ a b c Jack Newfield, Columbia Journalism Review, July-August, 1972, pp. 45-47.
- ^ In a personal letter to Philip Howard, quoted on Howard's p. 9.
^a The article Wolfe referred to was actually titled âÄúJoe LouisâÄĒthe King As a Middle-Aged Man,âÄĚ Esquire, June, 1962.
^b Wolfe's letter had the original title There Goes (Varoom! Varoom!) That Kandy-Kolored (Thphhhhhh!) Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby (Rahghhh!) Around the Bend (Brummmmmmmmmmmmmmm).... The title was later contracted to The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby, which became the title of the book, published in 1965.
^c For example, J.D. Salinger wrote to Jock Whitney âÄúWith the printing of the inaccurate and sub-collegiate and gleeful and unrelievedly poisonous article on William Shawn, the name of the Herald Tribune, and certainly your own will very likely never again stand for anything either respect-worthy or honorable.âÄĚ E. B. White's letter to Whitney, dated âÄúApril 1965,âÄĚ contains the following passage: âÄúTom Wolfe's piece on William Shawn violated every rule of conduct I know anything about. It is sly, cruel, and to a large extent undocumented, and it has, I think, shocked everyone who knows what sort of person Shawn really is[...],âÄĚ and Shawn's hand-delivered letter to Whitney, sent Thursday before publication on April 11, 1965, read âÄúTo be technical for a moment, I think that Tom Wolfe's article on The New Yorker is false and libelous. But I'd rather not be technical ... I cannot believe that, as a man of known integrity and responsibility, you will allow it to reach your readers ... The question is whether you will stop the distribution of that issue of New York. I urge you to do so, for the sake of The New Yorker and for the sake of the Herald Tribune. In fact, I am convinced that the publication of that article will hurt you more than it will hurt me ...âÄĚ Bellows 2002, pp. 3âÄď4.
 Further reading
- Flippen, Charles C. (1974). Liberating the Media: The New Journalism. Acropolis Books. ISBN 0874913624.
- Hollowell, John (1977). Fact & Fiction: The New Journalism and the Nonfiction Novel. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807812811.
- Johnson, E. W.; Wolfe, Tom (1973). The New Journalism. Harper & Row. ISBN 0060147075.
- Mills, Nicolaus (1974). The New Journalism: A Historical Anthology. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070423504.
- Polsgrove, Carol (1995). It Wasn't Pretty, Folks, But Didn't We Have Fun?: Surviving the '60s with Esquire's Harold Hayes. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 1-57143-091-1.
- Weber, Ronald (1974). The Reporter as Artist: A Look at the New Journalism Controversy. Hastings House. ISBN 0803863306.
- Weingarten, Marc (2006). The Gang That Wouldn't Write Straight: Wolfe, Thompson, Didion, and the New Journalism Revolution. Crown Publishers. ISBN 1400049148.
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