Queer theory is a field of critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of LGBT studies and feminist studies. It is a kind of interpretation devoted to queer readings of texts. Heavily influenced by the work of Michel Foucault, queer theory builds both upon feminist challenges to the idea that gender is part of the essential self and upon gay/lesbian studies' close examination of the socially constructed nature of sexual acts and identities. Whereas gay/lesbian studies focused its inquiries into "natural" and "unnatural" behavior with respect to homosexual behavior, queer theory expands its focus to encompass any kind of sexual activity or identity that falls into normative and deviant categories.
 Queer theory
"In the late 1960s, closets opened, and gay and lesbian scholars who had up till then remained silent regarding their sexuality or the presence of homosexual themes in literature began to speak."
Queer theory starts from critical analysis of the idea that any given sexuality is "natural" and immutable. Theorist David Halperin wrote:
"Queer is by definition whatever is at odds with the normal, the legitimate, the dominant. There is nothing in particular to which it necessarily refers. It is an identity without an essence. âÄėQueerâÄô then, demarcates not a positivity but a positionality vis-√†-vis the normative".
Queer theorist Michael Warner attempts to provide a definition of a concept that typically circumvents categorical definitions: "Social reflection carried out in such a manner tends to be creative, fragmentary, and defensive, and leaves us perpetually at a disadvantage. And it is easy to be misled by the utopian claims advanced in support of particular tactics. But the range and seriousness of the problem that are continually raised by queer practice indicate how much work remains to be done. Because the logic of the sexual order is so deeply embedded by now in an indescribably wide range of social institutions, and is embedded in the most standard accounts of the world, queer struggles aim not just at toleration or equal status but at challenging those institutions and accounts. The dawning realization that themes of homophobia and heterosexism may be read in almost any document of our culture means that we are only beginning to have an idea of how widespread those institutions and accounts are.
Queer theory's main project is exploring the contesting of the categorization of gender and sexuality; identities are not fixed âÄď they cannot be categorized and labeled âÄď because identities consist of many varied components and that to categorize by one characteristic is wrong. For example, a woman can be a woman without being labeled a lesbian or feminist, and she may have a different race from the dominant culture. She should, queer theorists argue, be classed as possessing an individual identity and not put in the collective basket of feminists or of colour or the like.
Queer theory is derived largely from post-structuralist theory, and deconstruction in particular. Starting in the 1970s, a range of authors brought deconstructionist critical approaches to bear on issues of sexual identity, and especially on the construction of a normative "straight" ideology. Queer theorists challenged the validity and consistency of heteronormative discourse, and focused to a large degree on non-heteronormative sexualities and sexual practices.
The term "queer theory" was introduced in 1990, with Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Judith Butler, Adrienne Rich and Diana Fuss (all largely following the work of Michel Foucault) being among its foundational proponents. Queer theory is not the same as queer activism, although there is overlap.
"Queer" as used within queer theory is less an identity than an embodied critique of identity. Major aspects of this critique include discussion of: the role of Performativity in creating and maintaining identity; the basis of sexuality and gender, either as natural, essential, or socially constructed; the way that these identities change or resist change; and their power relations vis-a-vis heteronormativity.
Teresa de Lauretis is the person credited with coining the phrase "Queer Theory". It was at a working conference on theorizing lesbian and gay sexualities that was held at the University of California, Santa Cruz in February 1990 that de Lauretis first made mention of the phrase. Barely three years later, she abandoned the phrase on the grounds that it had been taken over by mainstream forces and institutions it was originally coined to resist. Judith Butler's Gender Trouble, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick's Epistemology of the Closet, and David Halperin's One Hundred Years of Homosexuality inspired countless others' work.
 Background concepts
In many respects, Queer theory is grounded in gender and sexuality. Due to this association, a debate emerges as to whether sexual orientation is natural or essential to the person, as an essentialist believes, or if sexuality is a social construction and subject to change.
The Essentialist theory was introduced to Queer Criticism as a by-product of feminism when the criticism was known by most as Lesbian/Gay Criticism. The essentialist feminists believed that both genders "have an essential nature (e.g. nurturing and caring versus being aggressive and selfish), as opposed to differing by a variety of accidental or contingent features brought about by social forces". Due to this belief in the essential nature of a person, it is also natural to assume that a person's sexual preference would be natural and essential to a personâÄôs personality.
The Constructivists counter that there is no natural identity, that all meaning is constructed through discourse and there is no subject other than the creation of meaning for social theory. In a Constructivist perspective, it is not proper to take gay or lesbian as subjects with objective reality; but rather they must be understood in terms of their social context, in how genealogy creates these terms through history.
For example, as Foucault explains in The History of Sexuality, two hundred years ago there was no linguistic category for gay male. Instead, the term applied to sex between two men was sodomy. Over time, the concept "homosexual" was created in a test tube through the discourses of medicine and especially psychiatry. What is conventionally understood to be the same practice was gradually transformed from a sinful lifestyle into an issue of sexual orientation. Foucault argues that prior to this discursive creation there was no such thing as a person who could think of himself as essentially gay.
There are three instances of mixed treatment of the subject in queer scholarship:
1. The homosexually identified queer in WarnerâÄôs fear of a queer planet
Michael Warner draws out the possibility of queer theory as a kind of critical intervention in social theory, and as an intellectual arm to a broader queer movement.
Warner begins the volume by invoking an ethnic identity politics, âÄúWhat do queers want?âÄĚ, solidified around a specific social cleavage. âÄúA lesbian and gay population is defined by multiple boundaries that make the question who is and is not âÄúone of themâÄĚ.
A similarly mixed treatment of the queer subject runs through the introduction section, wherein queer is used to signal a homosexual subject position, with a collective sense of alienation, and a particular vulnerability to âÄúheterosexual ideologyâÄĚ. WarnerâÄôs volume takes up the notion of a queer subject or self (Green 2002; 2007).
Sedgwick contributes a chapter on the historical relationship between âÄúgay kidsâÄĚ and the medicalization of gender and sexual identity in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual; Harper, a chapter on HIV prevention among âÄúminority groupsâÄĚ who share subject positions characterized as âÄúblack sexualityâÄĚ and âÄúblack male homosexualityâÄĚ; and a chapter by Crimp, who invokes the term queer to signal a lesbian and gay subject position and community struggling over contentious sexual politics.
In WarnerâÄôs volume one of the leading volumes of queer theory engages the subject via conventional sociological epistemologies that conceive of subject positions constituted through systems of stratification and organized around shared experience and identity (Green 2002).
2. Decidedly racialized queers of color in BarnardâÄôs âÄúQueer RaceâÄĚ (Green 2007)
A similar set of incommensurable propositions are found in theoretical work that attempts to marry queer theory to concerns around race, class, and gender identities. For Barnard, any consideration of sexuality must include its inextricability with racialized subjectivities (Green 2007). âÄúsexuality is always racially marked, as every racial marking is imbued with a specific sexualityâÄĚ
Barnard rejects queer theoretical conception of sexuality on the grounds that such work fails to account for the particularity of racialized sexualities. He reasons that the failure to incorporate racial specificity arises because queer theorists are themselves white, and therefore operate from the particularity of a white racial standpoint (Green 2007).
Barnard aspires to recuperate an analysis of race in queer theory, proposes that the deconstructionist epistemology of queer theory can be used to decompose a white queerness, in the first instance, in order to recover a racialized queerness, in the second (Green 2007).
Proposing that queer theory capture racialized subject positions, Barnard asks queer theory to account for knowable subjects with interiors that are congruent with, represented by, and accessible through dominant social classifications âÄď the very antithesis of the âÄúqueer turnâÄĚ. His defense, reinstates, rather than deconstructs, what it means to be a person of color. (Green 2007)
3. The oxymoronic project of JagoseâÄôs queer theory: an introduction (Green 2007)
Jagose aims toward epistemological ecumenicalism through the oxymoronic logic of pairing deconstructionism to an ethnicity model within a single framework. He underscores the strong deconstructionist epistemological premise of the term queer and queer theory more generally (Green 2007)
Jagose is left with a muddy variant of feminist intersectional analysis that offers neither the critical edge of queer theory nor the clarity of standpoint theory.
 Identity politics
Queer theory was originally associated with radical gay politics of ACT UP, OutRage! and other groups which embraced "queer" as an identity label that pointed to a separatist, non-assimilationist politics. Queer theory developed out of an examination of perceived limitations in the traditional identity politics of recognition and self-identity. In particular, queer theorists identified processes of consolidation or stabilization around some other identity labels (e.g. gay and lesbian); and construed queerness so as to resist this. Queer theory attempts to maintain a critique more than define a specific identity.
Acknowledging the inevitable violence of identity politics, and having no stake in its own ideology, queer is less an identity than a critique of identity. However, it is in no position to imagine itself outside the circuit of problems energized by identity politics. Instead of defending itself against those criticisms that its operations attract, queer allows those criticisms to shape its âÄď for now unimaginable âÄď future directions. "The term," writes Butler, "will be revised, dispelled, rendered obsolete to the extent that it yields to the demands which resist the term precisely because of the exclusions by which it is mobilized." The mobilization of queer foregrounds the conditions of political representation, its intentions and effects, its resistance to and recovery by the existing networks of power.
 Role of biology
Queer theorists focus on problems in classifying individuals as either male or female, even on a strictly biological basis. For example, the sex chromosomes (X and Y) may exist in atypical combinations (as in Klinefelter's syndrome [XXY]). This complicates the use of genotype as a means to define exactly two distinct sexes. Intersexed individuals may for many different biological reasons have ambiguous sexual characteristics.
Scientists who have written on the conceptual significance of intersexual individuals include Anne Fausto-Sterling, Ruth Hubbard, Carol Tavris, and Joan Roughgarden.
Some key experts in the study of culture, such as Barbara Rogoff, argue that the traditional distinction between biology and culture as independent entities is overly simplistic, pointing to the ways in which biology and culture interact with one another.
 The HIV/AIDS discourse
Much of queer theory developed out of a response to the AIDS crisis, which promoted a renewal of radical activism, and the growing homophobia brought about by public responses to AIDS. Queer theory became occupied in part with what effects âÄď put into circulation around the AIDS epidemic âÄď necessitated and nurtured new forms of political organization, education and theorizing in "queer".
To examine the effects that HIV/AIDS has on queer theory is to look at the ways in which the status of the subject or individual is treated in the biomedical discourses that construct them.
- The shift, affected by safer sex education in emphasizing sexual practices over sexual identities
- The persistent misrecognition of HIV/AIDS as a "gay" disease 
- Homosexuality as a kind of fatality
- The coalition politics of much HIV/AIDS activism that rethinks identity in terms of affinity rather than essence and therefore includes not only lesbians and gay men but also bisexuals, transsexuals, sex workers, people with AIDS, health workers, and parents and friends of gays; the pressing recognition that discourse is not a separate or second-order "reality"
- The constant emphasis on contestation in resisting dominant depictions of HIV and AIDS and representing them otherwise. The rethinking of traditional understandings of the workings of power in cross-hatched struggles over epidemiology, scientific research, public health and immigration policy
The material effects of AIDS contested many cultural assumptions about identity, justice, desire and knowledge, which some scholars felt challenged the entire system of Western thought, believing it maintained the health and immunity of epistemology: "the psychic presence of AIDS signifies a collapse of identity and difference that refuses to be abjected from the systems of self-knowledge." Thus queer theory and AIDS become interconnected because each is articulated through a postmodernist understanding of the death of the subject and both understand identity as an ambivalent site.
 Prostitution, pornography and S & M
Queer theory, unlike most feminist theory and lesbian and gay studies, includes a wide array of non-normative sexual identities and practices, not all of them non-heterosexual. Sadism and masochism, prostitution, sexual inversion, transgender, bisexuality, asexuality, intersexuality are seen by queer theorists as opportunities for more involved investigations into class difference and racial, ethnic and regional particulars. These practices are supposed to allow for a wide ranging field of investigation and reconfigure understandings of pleasure and desire.
The key element is that of viewing sexuality as constructed through discourse, with no list or set of constituted preexisting sexuality realities, but rather identities constructed through discursive operations. It is important to consider discourse in its broadest sense as shared meaning making, as Foucault and Queer Theory would take the term to mean. In this way sexual activity, having shared rules and symbols would be as much a discourse as a conversation, and sexual practice itself constructs its reality rather than reflecting a putatively proper, biologically predefined sexuality.
This point of view places these theorists in conflict with some branches of feminism that view prostitution, and pornography, for example, as mechanisms for the oppressions of women. Other branches of feminism tend to vocally disagree with this interpretation and celebrate (some) pornography as a means of adult sexual representation.
 The role of language
For language use as associated with sexual identity, see Lavender linguistics.
Queer theory is likened to language because it is never static, but is ever-evolving. Richard Norton suggests that the existence of queer language is believed to have evolved from the imposing of structures and labels from an external mainstream culture.
Early discourse of queer theory involved leading theorists: Michel Foucault, Judith Butler, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and others. This discourse centered on the way that knowledge of sexuality was structured through the use of language. Heteronormativity was the main focus of discourse, where heterosexuality was viewed as normal and any deviations, such as homosexuality, as abnormal or "queer".
In later years there was an explosion of discourse on sexuality and sexual orientations with the coming-of-age of the Internet. Prior to this, discourse was controlled by institutional publishing, and with the growth of the internet and its popularity, the community could have its own discussion on what sexuality and sexual orientation was. Homosexual and heterosexual were no longer the main topics of discourse; BDSM, transgender and bisexuality became topics of discourse.
 Media and other creative works
Many queer theorists have produced creative works that reflect theoretical perspectives in a wide variety of media. For example, science fiction authors such as Samuel R. Delany and Octavia Butler feature many values and themes from queer theory in their work. Patrick Califia's published fiction also draws heavily on concepts and ideas from queer theory. Some lesbian feminist novels written in the years immediately following Stonewall, such as Lover by Bertha Harris or Les Gu√©rill√®res by Monique Wittig, can be said to anticipate the terms of later queer theory.
In film, the genre christened by B. Ruby Rich as New Queer Cinema in 1992 continues, as Queer Cinema, to draw heavily on the prevailing critical climate of queer theory; a good early example of this is the Jean Genet-inspired movie Poison by the director Todd Haynes. In fan fiction, the genre known as slash fiction rewrites straight or nonsexual relationships to be gay, bisexual, and queer in sort of a campy cultural appropriation. And in music, some Queercore groups and zines could be said to reflect the values of queer theory.
Queer theorists analyze texts and challenge the cultural notions of "straight" ideology; that is, does "straight" imply heterosexuality as normal or is everyone potentially gay? As Ryan states: "It is only the laborious imprinting of heterosexual norms that cuts away those potentials and manufactures heterosexuality as the dominant sexual format." For example, Hollywood pursues the "straight" theme as being the dominant theme to outline what masculine is. This is particularly noticeable in gangster films, action films and westerns, which never have "weak" (read: homosexual) men playing the heroes, with the recent exception of the film Brokeback Mountain. Queer theory looks at destabilizing and shifting the boundaries of these cultural constructions.
Queer theorists also analyze texts to expose underlying meanings in texts and investigate the discrepancies between homosocial male bonding, homophobia and homosexuality in English literature. King Lear is often used as an example.
New Media artists have a long history of queer theory inspired works, including cyberfeminism works, porn films like I.K.U. which feature transgender cyborg hunters and "Sharing is Sexy", an "open source porn laboratory", using social software, creative commons licensing and netporn to explore queer sexualities beyond the male/female binary.
Typically, critics of queer theory are concerned that the approach obscures or glosses altogether the material conditions that underpin discourse . Tim Edwards argues that queer theory extrapolates too broadly from textual analysis in undertaking an examination of the social. Adam Green argues that queer theory ignores the social and institutional conditions within which lesbians and gays live.
Queer theory's commitment to deconstruction makes it nearly impossible to speak of a "lesbian" or "gay" subject, since all social categories are denaturalized and reduced to discourse. Thus, queer theory cannot be a framework for examining selves or subjectivitiesâÄĒincluding those that accrue by race and classâÄĒbut rather, must restrict its analytic focus to discourse . Hence, sociology and queer theory are regarded as methodologically and epistemologically incommensurable frameworks  by critics such as Adam Green.
Foucault's account of the modern construction of the homosexual, a starting point for much work in Queer Theory, is itself challenged by Rictor Norton, using the Molly House as one counter-example of a distinctly homosexual subculture before 1836. He critiques the idea that people distinctly identifying in ways now associated with being gay did not exist before the medical construction of homosexual pathology in his book The Myth of the Modern Homosexual.
Queer theory underestimates the Foucauldian insight that power produces not just constraint, but also, pleasure, according to Barry Adam (2000) and Adam Isaiah Green (2010). Adam suggests that sexual identity categories, such as "gay", can have the effect of expanding the horizon of what is imaginable in a same-sex relationship, including a richer sense of the possibilities of same-sex love and dyadic commitment. And Green argues that queer is itself an identity category that some self-identified "queer theorists" and "queer activists" use to consolidate a subject-position outside of the normalizing regimes of gender and sexuality. . These examples call into question the degree to which identity categories need be thought of as negative, in the evaluative sense of that term, as they underscore the self-determining potentials of the care of the self âÄď an idea advanced first by Foucault in Volumes II and III of The History of Sexuality.
The role of Queer Theory, and specifically its replacement of historical and sociological scholarship on lesbian and gay people's lives with the theorising of lesbian and gay issues, and the displacement of gay and lesbian studies by gender and queer studies, has been criticised by activist and writer Larry Kramer.
 See also
(in alphabetical order)
 Further reading
- Ahmed, Sara. Queer Phenomenology, 2006
- Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble, 1990.
- Edelman, Lee. No Future, 2004
- Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality, volume I: La Volont√© de savoir, 1976.
- Grosz, Elizabeth. Space, Time, and Perversion: Essays on the Politics of Bodies, 1995.
- Halberstam, Judith. In a Queer Time and Place, 2005
- Jagose, Annamarie. Queer Theory, 1996.
- Probyn, Elspeth. Outside Belongings, 1996.
- Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Between Men, 1985.
- Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Epistemology of the Closet, 1990.
- Turner, William B. A Genealogy of Queer Theory, 2000.
- ^ Ryan, M., 1999. Literary Theory: a practical introduction. Oxford. Blackwell. P. 115
- ^ David Halperin (1997-02-06), Saint Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography, Oxford University Press, p. 62, ISBN 0195111273, http://books.google.com/?id=o9ct-YPs66UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Saint+Foucault:+Towards+a+Gay+Hagiography&q=queer%20odds, retrieved 2010-05-10
- ^ Warner, Michael. Fear of a Queer Planet: Queer Politics and Social Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1993. Print.
- ^ David Halperin. "The Normalizing of Queer Theory." Journal of Homosexuality, v.45, pp. 339âÄď343
- ^ Jagose, A 1996, "Queer Theory".
- ^ Barry, P 2002, Lesbian/gay criticism, in P Barry (eds), Beginning theory: an introduction to literary and cultural theory, Manchester University Press, Manchester, pp139-155.
- ^ a b Blackburn, S 1996, âÄúessentialismâÄĚ, Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, (Oxford Reference Online).
- ^ Green, Adam Isaiah. 2007. âÄúQueer Theory and Sociology: Locating the Subject and the Self in Sexuality Studies.âÄĚ Sociological Theory. 25,1:26âÄď45; and Green, Adam. I. 2002. âÄúGay But Not Queer: Toward a Post-Queer Sexuality Studies.âÄĚ Theory and Society 31:521âÄď45.
- ^ Brooker, P, A Concise Glossary of Cultural Theory, 1999
- ^ Rogoff, Barbara. The Cultural Nature of Human Development. New York: Oxford UP, USA, 2003: 63âÄď64. Print.
- ^ Donna Haraway, The Biopolitics of Postmodern Bodies, 1989.
- ^ Michael Bartos, Meaning of Sex Between Men, 1993 and G.W. Dowsett, Men Who Have Sex With Men, 1991.
- ^ Richard Meyer, Rock Hudson's Body, 1991.
- ^ Ellis Hanson, Unread, 1991.
- ^ Catherine Saalfield, hocking Pink Praxis, 1991.
- ^ Jagose, A 1996, Queer Theory, .
- ^ Edelman, L 1994, Homographesis, . Accessed 19-04-2007.
- ^ David Halperin, Homosexuality: A Cultural Construct, 1990.
- ^ Thomas Yingling AIDS in America, 1991.
- ^ Ibid., p. 292.
- ^ XXX: A Woman's Right to Pornography
- ^ Norton, R 2002, âÄúQueer language, A Critique of Social Constructionism and Postmodern Queer Theory .
- ^ Matias Viegener, "The only haircut that makes sense anymore," in Queer Looks: Lesbian & Gay Experimental Media (Routledge, New York: 1993) & "Kinky Escapades, Bedroom Techniques, Unbridled Passion, and Secret Sex Codes," in Camp Grounds: Gay & Lesbian Style (U Mass, Boston: 1994)
- ^ Ryan, M., 1999. Literary Theory: a practical introduction. Oxford. Blackwell, p.117.
- ^ a b Edwards, Tim (1998), "Queer Fears: Against the Cultural Turn", Sexualities Vol= 1 pages= 471âÄď484
- ^ Green, Adam (2002), "Gay But Not Queer: Toward a Post-Queer Study of Sexuality", Theory and Society 31 (4): 521âÄď545, doi:10.1023/A:1020976902569
- ^ Gamson, J (2000), "Sexualities, queer theory, and qualitative research", Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage Publications
- ^ a b Green, Adam (2007), "Queer Theory and Sociology: Locating the Subject and the Self in Sexuality Studies", Sociological Theory 25 (1): 26âÄď45, doi:10.1111/j.1467-9558.2007.00296.x
- ^ Norton, Rictor (2006), Mother Clap's Molly House: The Gay Subculture in England, 1700âÄĒ1830, Chalfont Press
- ^ Norton, Rictor (1997), The Myth of the Modern Homosexual: Queer History and the Search for Cultural Unity, Cassell
- ^ Adam, Barry (2000), "Age Preferences among Gay and Bisexual Men", GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies (Duke University Press) 6 (3)
- ^ Green, Adam Isaiah (2010), "Remembering Foucault: Queer Theory & Disciplinary Power", Sexualities (Sage) 13 (3)
- ^ Larry Kramer's Case Against "Queer"
- ^ Larry Kramer Questions Gay Studies
- ^ Larry Kramer's Yale speech: 'Yale's Conspiracy of Silence'
Adam, B. 2000. âÄúLove and Sex in Constructing Identity Among Men Who Have Sex With Men.âÄĚ International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies 5(4):325âÄď29.
Edwards, T. 1998. âÄúQueer Fears: Against the Cultural Turn.âÄĚ Sexualities 1(3):471âÄď84.
Gamon, Josh. 2000. âÄúSexualities, Queer Theory, and Qualitative Research.âÄĚ Pp. 347âÄď65 in Handbook of Qualitative Research, 2nd ed., edited by N. Denzin and Y. Lincoln. Sage
Green, Adam. I. 2002. âÄúGay But Not Queer: Toward a Post-Queer Sexuality Studies.âÄĚ Theory and Society 31:521âÄď45.
Green, Adam Isaiah. 2007. "Queer Theory and Sociology: Locating the Subject and the Self in Sexuality Studies,âÄĚ Sociological Theory 25,1:26âÄď45.
 External links
 Queer theory journals