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Stand in the Schoolhouse Door

Attempting to block integration at the University of Alabama, Governor George Wallace stands defiantly at the door of the Foster Auditorium while being confronted by Deputy U.S. Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach.
Vivian Malone Jones arrives to register for classes at the University of Alabama's Foster Auditorium.

The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door took place at Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. George Wallace, the Governor of Alabama, in a symbolic attempt to keep his inaugural promise of "segregation now, segregation tomorrow and segregation forever" and stop the desegregation of schools, stood at the door of the auditorium to try to block the entry of two black students, Vivian Malone Jones and James Hood.[1]

The incident brought George Wallace into the national spotlight.[2]

Contents

[edit] Background

On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court of the United States handed down its decision regarding the case called Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, in which the plaintiffs charged that the education of black children in separate public schools from their white counterparts was unconstitutional.

Brown v. Board of Education meant that the University of Alabama had to be desegregated. In the years following, hundreds of African-Americans applied for admission, but all were denied. The University worked with police to find any disqualifying qualities, or when this failed, intimidated the applicants. But in 1963, three African-Americans with perfect qualificationsâVivian Malone Jones, Dave McGlathery and James Hoodâapplied, refusing to be intimidated. In early June a federal judge ordered that they be admitted, and forbade Governor Wallace from interfering.[3]

[edit] The incident

On June 11, Malone and Hood arrived to register. Wallace, attempting to uphold his promise as well as for political show,[3] blocked the entrance to Foster Auditorium with the media watching. Then, flanked by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach told Wallace to step aside.[1] However, Wallace cut Katzenbach off and refused, giving a speech on States' rights.[3] Katzenbach called President John F. Kennedy, who mobilized the Alabama National Guard. General Henry Graham then commanded Wallace to step aside, saying, "Sir, it is my sad duty to ask you to step aside under the orders of the President of the United States." Wallace then spoke further, but eventually moved, and Malone and Hood registered as students.[4]

[edit] In film

The event was depicted in the 1994 film Forrest Gump, in which the title character appeared at the event.[5][6][7]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Elliot, Debbie. Wallace in the Schoolhouse Door. NPR. June 11, 2003. Accessed February 19, 2009.
  2. ^ Governor George C. Wallace's School House Door Speech. Accessed February 19, 2009.
  3. ^ a b c Standing In the Schoolhouse Door (June). Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement. Accessed February 19, 2009
  4. ^ Lesher, Stephan (1995). George Wallace: American Populist. Da Capo Press. pp. 233. ISBN 0201407981, 9780201407983. http://books.google.com/?id=uzJ7-p31HRwC&pg=PA233&lpg=PA233&dq=It+is+my+sad+duty+to+ask+you+to+step+aside+under+the+orders+of+the+President+of+the+United+States.%22. 
  5. ^ Byers, Thomas (1996). "History Re-Membered: Forrest Gump, Postfeminist Masculinity, and the Burial of the Counterculture". Modern Fiction Studies 42.2: 419â44. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/modern_fiction_studies/v042/42.2byers.html. Retrieved 2009-02-28. 
  6. ^ Paul Grainge (2003). Memory and Popular Film. Manchester University Press. p. 229. ISBN 9780719063756. http://books.google.com/?id=W4CONLVHWGUC&pg=PA229&dq=forrest+gump+wallace#PPA229,M1. Retrieved February 28, 2009. 
  7. ^ Behind the Magic of Forrest Gump: "George Wallace." in Forrest Gump special collector's edition. [DVD]. 2001. 

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