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White nationalism

White nationalism is a political ideology which advocates a racial definition of national identity for white people, as opposed to multiculturalism, and a separate all-white nation state. White separatism and white supremacism are subgroups within white nationalism.[1] The former seek a separate white nation state, while the latter add ideas from social Darwinism and National Socialism to their ideology.[1] The vast majority of white nationalists are separatists, and only a smaller number are supremacists.[1] Both schools of thought generally avoid the term supremacy, saying it has negative connotations.[2]

The contemporary white nationalist movement in the United States could be regarded as a reaction to what is perceived as a decline in white demographics, politics and culture.[3] According to Samuel P. Huntington, the contemporary white nationalist movement is increasingly cultured, intellectual and academically trained.[4] Some have suggested that rather than espousing violence, White Nationalists use statistics and social science data to argue for a self-conscious white identity.[5] By challenging established policy on immigration, civil rights and racial integration, they seek to build bridges with moderately conservative white citizens.[6]

Contents

[edit] Views

White nationalists argue that every nationality feels a natural affection for its own kind.[7] They advocate racial self-preservation and claim that culture is a product of race.[4] White nationalists argue that a natural hierarchy should triumph over the "false promise of egalitarianism",[8] and that the downfall of white dominance spells doom for representative government, the rule of law and freedom of speech.[9]

According to white nationalist Samuel T. Francis, it is "a movement that rejects equality as an ideal and insists on an enduring core of human nature transmitted by heredity."[8] Jared Taylor, another notable white nationalist, claims that similar racial views were held by many mainstream American leaders before the 1950s.[8] According to Huntington, white nationalists argue that the demographic shift in the US towards non-whites brings a new culture that is intellectually and morally inferior.[4] They argue that with this demographic shift comes affirmative action, immigrant ghettos and declining educational standards.[5] Most American white nationalists say immigration should be restricted to selected people of European ancestry.[10]

[edit] Definitions of whiteness

Most white nationalists define white people in a restricted way. In the United States, it sometimes implies European ancestry of non-Jewish descent. White nationalists draw primarily on 19th-century racial taxonomy, which neither reached a consensus on racial categories nor is accepted by contemporary geneticists.[11]

Different racial theories, such as Nordicism and Germanism, define different groups as white, both excluding some southern and eastern Europeans because of a perceived racial taint.[12] Pan-Aryanism defines whites as individuals native to Europe, the Americas, Australia and New Zealand, South Africa, the Middle East and Central/West Asia who are wholly of Caucasoid descent or are overwhelmingly from the following Caucasoid subraces, or any combination thereof: Indo-European ("Aryan")(including the Iranian peoples but not the Indo-Aryans), Old European (e.g. Basque), Ural Altaic Caucasoid (e.g. Finns), or Hamitic (in modern times basically confined to Berbers). Other white nationalists use the term Pan-Europeanism to include all European ethnic groups.

Some white nationalists, such as American author and writer Jared Taylor of the magazine American Renaissance, have argued that Jews can be considered as "white".[13]

[edit] History

According to one view, white nationalism is a product of the modern centralized state's emergence in the West, like all nationalisms.[14] The term originated as a self-description by some groups, primarily in the United States, to describe their belief in a racially defined collective identity of white people.

In the 19th and early 20th century, racial definitions of the American nation were common, resulting in race-specific immigration restrictions, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act. The 1915 film Birth of a Nation is an example of an allegorical invocation of white nationalism during this time.[7] The White Australia ideal was semi-official policy in Australia until 1975, while in South Africa, white nationalism was championed by the National Party[15] starting in 1948, as the struggle over apartheid heated up.[16]

Starting in the 1960s, white nationalism grew in the United States as the conservative movement developed in mainstream society.[17] Samuel Huntington argues that it developed as a reaction to a perceived decline in the essence of American identity as European, Anglo-Protestant and English-speaking.[18] The slogan "white power" was coined by American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell, who used the term in a debate with Stokely Carmichael of the Black Panther Party, after Carmichael issued a call for "black power".[citation needed]

In recent years, the Internet has provided an expansion of audiences for white nationalism.[19]

[edit] Criticism

Anti-racist organizations generally have argued that ideas such as white pride and white nationalism exist merely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy.[20] They claim that the unstated goal of white nationalism is to appeal to a larger audience, and that most white nationalist groups promote white separatism and racial violence.[21] Opponents accuse white nationalists of hatred, racial bigotry and destructive identity politics.[3][22] White nationalist groups have a history of perpetrating hate crimes, particularly against people of Jewish or African descent.[23] Examples include the lynching of black people by the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), as well as the violent depictions of ethnic cleansing in the novel, The Turner Diaries, which influenced numerous individuals to carry out acts of violence.[24]

Some critics argue that white nationalists â while posturing as civil rights groups advocating the interests of their racial group â frequently draw on the nativist traditions of the KKK and the British National Front.[25] Critics have noted the anti-semitic rhetoric used by white nationalists, as highlighted by the promotion of conspiracy theories such as Zionist Occupation Government.[26] Kofi Buenor Hadjor argues that black nationalism is a response to white nationalism, while white nationalism is the expression of white supremacy.[27]

[edit] Notable organizations

[edit] Notable individuals

[edit] Notable media

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b c Swain, Carol M. (2003-04-11). "Interviews offer unprecedented look into the world and words of the new white nationalism". Vanderbilt University. http://www.vanderbilt.edu/news/releases/2003/4/11/interviews_offer_unprecedented_look_into_the_world_and_words_of_the_new_white_nationalism. 
  2. ^ The New Nativism; The alarming overlap between white nationalists and mainstream anti-immigrant forces. The American Prospect November, 2005
  3. ^ a b McConnell, Scott (August/September 2002). "The New White Nationalism in America". First Things. http://www.firstthings.com/article.php3?id_article=2047. 
  4. ^ a b c The Hispanic challenge. Foreign Policy March 1, 2004
  5. ^ a b Despite new leaders, and with them new tactics and new ideas, the goal of white separatists remains to convince Americans that racial separation is the only way to survive. National Public Radio (NPR) August 14, 2003 Thursday
  6. ^ Can We Improve Race Relations by Giving Racists Some of What They Want? The Chronicle of Higher Education July 19, 2002
  7. ^ a b In its darkness, 'Kong' shows the human heart. Newsday (New York) December 15, 2005
  8. ^ a b c White Nationalists Seek Respectability in Meeting of 'Uptown Bad Guys' Newhouse News Service April 4, 2000
  9. ^ Jared Taylor, A Racist In The Guise Of 'Expert', Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pennsylvania), January 23, 2005
  10. ^ Dating the White Way Newsweek August 9, 2004
  11. ^ New York Times: Race Is Seen as Real Guide to Track Roots of Disease, 2002. [1]
  12. ^ http://www.white-history.com/refuting_rm
  13. ^ Mark Potok and Heidi Beirich (Summer 2006). "Schism Threatens White Nationalist Group". Intelligence Report. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=644&printable=1. Retrieved July 20, 2010. 
  14. ^ Can Nationalism studies and ethnic, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies July 1, 2004
  15. ^ Apartheid-era party is ending its existence, The International Herald Tribune August 9, 2004
  16. ^ Kani explores a post-apartheid world on stage. ABC Transcripts (Australia) May 11, 2005
  17. ^ Black politics are in a black hole, Newsday (New York), January 14, 2005
  18. ^ Bush and Kerry show opposing faces of two different Americas. Business Day (South Africa) October 21, 2004
  19. ^ Patriotism in Black and White The American Prospect January 13, 2003
  20. ^ Moriz, Justin J. "Case 45: 'White Pride' vs. U.S. Patents and Trademarks Office". Adversity.net for Victims of Reverse Discrimination. 2005. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
  21. ^ Swain, Carol M. (2002). The New White Nationalism in America: Its Challenge to Integration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0521808863. 
  22. ^ Znet: December 16, 2002, Making Nice With Racists: David Horowitz and The Soft Pedaling Of White Supremacy, by Tim Wise
  23. ^ Swain,C.M âThe New White Nationalism in America: its challenge to integrationâ, pp.114-117. Cambridge University Press, 2002
  24. ^ http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/Pierce.asp
  25. ^ "BNP: A party on the fringe". BBC News. August 24, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1507680.stm. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  26. ^ Boler. M âDigital media and democracy: tactics in hard timesâ, pp.440-443. MIT Press, 2008
  27. ^ Hadjor, Kofi Buenor (1995). Another America: The Politics of Race and Blame. Haymarket Books. p. 100. ISBN 1931859345. 
  28. ^ "Council of Conservative Citizens". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/CCCitizens.asp?xpicked=3&item=12. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  29. ^ "Nazis, racists join Minuteman Project". Southern Poverty Law Center. April 22, 2005. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/news/item.jsp?aid=13. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  30. ^ "National Alliance". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. http://www.adl.org/learn/Ext_US/N_Alliance.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  31. ^ "Anti-Immigration Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?sid=175. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  32. ^ "White Nationalism". Southern Poverty Law Center. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=790. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  33. ^ "New Century Foundation (American Renaissance)". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. http://www.adl.org/learn/Ext_US/amren.asp?&&MSHiC=1252&L. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 

[edit] References

  • Josey, Charles Conant (1983 [1923]). The Philosophy of Nationalism. Washington, DC: Cliveden Press. ISBN 1-87846-510-4. 
  • Levin, Michael E. (1997). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-27595-789-6. 
  • McDaniel, George (ed.) (2003). A Race Against Time: Racial Heresies for the 21st Century. Oakton, VA: New Century Foundation. 
  • Ankerl, Guy (2000). Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations,. Geneva, INUPRESS. pp. 150â156. ISBN 0-96563-832-4. 
  • Robertson, Wilmot (1981). The Dispossessed Majority. Cape Canaveral, FL: Howard Allen. ISBN 0-91457-615-1. 
  • Robertson, Wilmot (1993). The Ethnostate. Cape Canaveral, FL: Howard Allen. ISBN 0-91457-622-4. 
  • Swain, Carol M. (2003). Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism in America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. pp. 312 pages. ISBN 0-52101-693-2. 


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