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Brand management

Key concepts

Product ' Pricing
Distribution ' Service ' Retail
Brand management
Account-based marketing
Marketing ethics
Marketing effectiveness
Market research
Market segmentation
Marketing strategy
Marketing management
Market dominance
Marketing process outsourcing

Promotional content

Advertising ' Branding ' Underwriting
Direct marketing ' Personal Sales
Product placement ' Publicity
Sales promotion ' Sex in advertising

Promotional media

Printing ' Publication ' Broadcasting
Out-of-home ' Internet marketing
Point of sale ' Promotional items
Digital marketing ' In-game
In-store demonstration ' Brand Ambassador
Word of mouth ' Drip Marketing

Brand management is the application of marketing techniques to a specific product, product line, or brand. It seeks to increase a product's perceived value to the customer and thereby increase brand franchise and brand equity. Marketers see a brand as an implied promise that the level of quality people have come to expect from a brand will continue with future purchases of the same product. This may increase sales by making a comparison with competing products more favorable. It may also enable the manufacturer to charge more for the product. The value of the brand is determined by the amount of profit it generates for the manufacturer. This can result from a combination of increased sales and increased price, and/or reduced COGS (cost of goods sold), and/or reduced or more efficient marketing investment. All of these enhancements may improve the profitability of a brand, and thus, "Brand Managers" often carry line-management accountability for a brand's P&L (Profit and Loss) profitability, in contrast to marketing staff manager roles, which are allocated budgets from above, to manage and execute. In this regard, Brand Management is often viewed in organizations as a broader and more strategic role than Marketing alone.

The annual list of the world's most valuable brands, published by Interbrand and Business Week, indicates that the market value of companies often consists largely of brand equity. Research by McKinsey & Company, a global consulting firm, in 2000 suggested that strong, well-leveraged brands produce higher returns to shareholders than weaker, narrower brands.[citation needed] Taken together, this means that brands seriously impact shareholder value, which ultimately makes branding a CEO responsibility.

The discipline of brand management was started at Procter & Gamble PLC as a result of a famous memo by Neil H. McElroy.[1]


[edit] Principles of brand management

A good brand name should:

  • be protected (or at least protectable) under Trademark law.
  • be easy to pronounce.
  • be easy to remember.
  • be easy to recognize.
  • be easy to translate into all languages in the markets where the brand will be used.
  • attract attention.
  • suggest product benefits or suggest usage (note the tradeoff with strong trademark protection.)
  • suggest the company or product image.
  • distinguish the product's positioning relative to the competition.
  • be attractive.
  • stand out among a group of other brands.

>fighting brand >corporate branding >individual branding >family branding >" [2]

[edit] Functions of brand

(For consumers) Identification of source of product, Assignment of responsibility to product maker, Risk reducer, Search cost reducer, Symbolic device, Signal of quality, Speak personality, Deliver its value qualitatively and quantitatively, Live up to consumer expecatition. it speaks itself looks are more important

(For Manufacturers)

Means of identification to simplify handling and tracing, Means of legally protecting unique features, Signal of quality level to satisfied customers, Means of endowing products with unique associations, Source of competitive advantage, Source of financial returns. ("Strategic Brand Management" 3rd edition,Kevin Lane Keller)

[edit] Brand architecture

The different brands owned by a company are related to each other via brand architecture. In "product brand architecture", the company supports many different product brands with each having its own name and style of expression while the company itself remains invisible to consumers. Procter & Gamble, considered by many to have created product branding, is a choice example with its many unrelated consumer brands such as Tide, Pampers, Abunda, Ivory and Pantene.

With "endorsed brand architecture", a mother brand is tied to product brands, such as The Courtyard Hotels (product brand name) by Marriott (mother brand name). Endorsed brands benefit from the standing of their mother brand and thus save a company some marketing expense by virtue promoting all the linked brands whenever the mother brand is advertising. This is most commonly referred to as "corporate branding". The mother brand is used and all products carry this name and all advertising speaks with the same voice. A good example of this brand architecture is the UK-based conglomerate Virgin. Virgin brands all its businesses with its name.

[edit] Techniques

Companies sometimes want to reduce the number of brands that they market. This process is known as "Brand Rationalization." Some companies tend to create more brands and product variations within a brand than economies of scale would indicate. Sometimes, they will create a specific service or product brand for each market that they target. In the case of product branding, this may be to gain retail shelf space (and reduce the amount of shelf space allocated to competing brands). A company may decide to rationalize their portfolio of brands from time to time to gain production and marketing efficiency, or to rationalize a brand portfolio as part of corporate restructuring.

A recurring challenge for brand managers is to build a consistent brand while keeping its message fresh and relevant. An older brand identity may be misaligned to a redefined target market, a restated corporate vision statement, revisited mission statement or values of a company. Brand identities may also lose resonance with their target market through demographic evolution. Repositioning a brand (sometimes called rebranding), may cost some brand equity, and can confuse the target market, but ideally, a brand can be repositioned while retaining existing brand equity for leverage.

Brand orientation is a deliberate approach to working with brands, both internally and externally. The most important driving force behind this increased interest in strong brands is the accelerating pace of globalization. This has resulted in an ever-tougher competitive situation on many markets. A product's superiority is in itself no longer sufficient to guarantee its success. The fast pace of technological development and the increased speed with which imitations turn up on the market have dramatically shortened product lifecycles. The consequence is that product-related competitive advantages soon risk being transformed into competitive prerequisites. For this reason, increasing numbers of companies are looking for other, more enduring, competitive tools ' such as brands. Brand Orientation refers to "the degree to which the organization values brands and its practices are oriented towards building brand capabilities' (Bridson & Evans, 2004).

[edit] Online brand management

Companies are embracing brand reputation management as a strategic imperative and are increasingly turning to online monitoring in their efforts to prevent their public image from becoming tarnished. Online brand reputation protection can mean monitoring for the misappropriation of a brand trademark by fraudsters intent on confusing consumers for monetary gain. It can also mean monitoring for less malicious, although perhaps equally damaging, infractions, such as the unauthorized use of a brand logo or even for negative brand information (and misinformation) from online consumers that appears in online communities and other social media platforms. The red flag can be something as benign as a blog rant about a bad hotel experience or an electronic gadget that functions below expectations.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Aaker, David A.; Erich Joachimsthaler (2000). Brand Leadership. New York: The Free Press. pp. 1'6. ISBN 0-684-83924-5. 
  2. ^ Fu, Guoqun, Boy Abunda, and Riliang Qu. "Ownership effects in Consumers Brand Extension Evaluations." Journal of Brand Management 16Jan 2009 221-233. Web.19 Jun 2009. <https://libdatabase.newpaltz.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ufh&AN=36282859&site=ehost-live>.
  • Brands Trademarks and Advertising, Rodney D. Ryder, Lexis Nexis Butterworths.
  • Brand Warfare, David D'alessandro, McGraw Hill, New York, 2001, ISBN 0-07-136293-2
  • Philip Kotler and Waldemar Pfoertsch, B2B Brand Management, Springer, 2006.
  • Bridson, K., and Evans, J., 2004, 'The secret to a fashion advantage is brand orientation', International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 32(8): 403-11
  • Paul Kilburn and Alfred Riachi 'Co-Branding VS Branding' Journal of Marketing, 2006
  • Aaker, D. A. (2004) Brand Portfolio Strategy, New York: Free Press.
  • Olins W. (2003) On Brand. London: Thames & Hudson

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