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An intern is someone who works in a temporary position with an emphasis on on-the-job training rather than merely employment (SIH-199), making it similar to an apprenticeship. Interns are usually college or university students, but they can also be high school students or post graduate adults seeking skills for a new career. Student internships provide opportunities for students to gain experience in their field, determine if they have an interest in a particular career, create a network of contacts, or gain school credit. Internships provide employers with cheap or free labor for (typically) low-level tasks, and also the prospect of interns returning to the company after completing their education and requiring little or no training.

An internship may be either paid, unpaid or partially paid (in the form of a stipend). Paid internships are most common in the medical, architecture science, engineering, law, business (especially accounting and finance), technology and advertising fields. Internships in non-profit organization such as charities and think tanks are often unpaid, volunteer positions. Internships may be part-time or full-time; typically they are part-time during the university year and full-time in the summer, and they typically last 6'12 weeks, but can be shorter or longer. The act of job shadowing may also constitute interning.

Internship positions are available from businesses, government departments, non-profit groups and organizations. Due to strict labor laws, European internships are mostly unpaid, although they are still popular among non-Europeans in order to gain international exposure on one's résumé and for foreign language improvement.


[edit] Types of internships

Internships exist in various industries and settings. Here are two primary types of internships that exist in the United States.

  1. Work experience internship: Most often this will be in the second or third year of the school period. The placement can be from 2 months to sometimes even one full school year. During this period the student is supposed to use the things he/she has learned in school and put it in practice. This way the student gets work experience in their field of study. The gained experience will be helpful to finish up the last year of the study.
  2. Research internship (graduation) or dissertation internship: This is mostly done by students who are in their last year. With this kind of internship a student does research for a particular company. The company can have something that they feel like they need to improve, or the student can choose a topic within the company themselves. The results of the research study will be put in a report and often will have to be presented.

The practice of a mid-career person taking an internship (see Returnship) is relatively new to the U.S. but becoming more common due to the current economic crisis.[1]

[edit] Paying for an internship

Some companies will find and place students in internships for a fee; such internships are mostly unpaid.[2] In some cases companies charge to assist with a search, promising to refund their fees if no internship is found.[3] What is included in such paid programs varies by company. Overall, the advantages are that they provide internship placements at reputable companies, provide controlled housing in a new city, mentorship and support throughout the summer, networking, weekend activities in some programs, and sometimes academic credit.[4]

Another form of paying for internships is through charity auctions, where a company with an internship will select a charity to get the proceeds of the auction. In some cases, companies have created internships simply to help charities.[2]

Fee-based programs, and charity auctions, restrict internship opportunities to students in wealthier families who can afford paying thousands of dollars while the student works for little or no wages, in exchange for improving professional work opportunities after graduation.[4] But the head of one company specializing in such internships said that "The average student comes from the middle class, and their parents dig deep" to pay for it. He said that his company had begun, in 2008, to fund scholarships and grants for low-income applicants.[2]

Beyond fee based programs, there has also been criticism against companies requiring college credit in exchange for eligibility to obtain an internship. Depending on the cost of the school, this is often seen as an unethical practice, as it requires students to exchange paid-for and often limited tuition credits in order to work an uncompensated job. Even if the school does not require credit to be received for an internship, companies often will require credit to be received so that they cannot be accused of giving the intern nothing. But in the case of most schools'though some do reserve internship credits that will not take away from your normal tuition's worth of credits'the student is taking a risk and a loss in their pursuit of possible future employment.[5][6][7]

[edit] Internships by country

[edit] Denmark

It is not seen as appropriate to work without pay unless it is done as part of a work-trial where a person is tested by the authorities as part of plan to get the individual back into the workspace[8]. Although it is common within most of the Danish universities to place students in free work jobs. The company is then compensated and the intern gets welfare during this period, which normally lasts about three months. The Trade Unions monitor this area very thoroughly so an intern cannot result in the loss of a paid job [9][10]

A new system of qualification for higher education imposed by the Department of Education does punish those students who take a period off to work for charity[11].

[edit] France

At the French universities it is also most common to do an internship, in France called stage, during the third or fourth year of your studies. The duration of the internships varies from 2 to 6 months, but very seldom longer than that. In France it is also becoming more popular to do an internship after one has finished studying. Mostly for students that did not get the chance to do an internship during their study career, and try to gain some working experience this way. Most times with the thought of getting hired after the internship period. An internship in France is also popular for international students. The number one reason to do an internship in France is to learn the language. A lot of French companies seem to be open to students from different countries. It is a big plus for companies to have employees who speak multiple languages. [12]

[edit] Germany

In Germany there are different kinds of internships as well. As in most other countries, most students take their internship during the fourth or fifth semester of their degree. In some fields of study it is common to write the final thesis in a company. Another type of internship has emerged, the post graduation internship. The high unemployment in Germany during the last years has made it hard for people to find the right job, especially for people that have just graduated and lack work experience. Because of this, many offer to do an internship at their preferred place of employment while earning very little, in the hope of landing a job there in the future. [13]

[edit] India

India has become an important destination for international internship from several western developed countries since early 2000.Some organisations also organize an intensive Indian language, culture, ayurveda and yoga courses from few weeks to several months depending on the length of stay before the intern joins associate host organisations. [14]

'InStep' of Infosys is an example of quality international internship programs in India in the corporate sector for international students and youth.[15][16]

Unlike in most other countries, very few students pursue internships during their college in India. This is primarily because, the university education system in India is focused more on marks than on students gaining practical exposure. As a result, even companies in India do not use internships as a recruitment model, in contrast with more developed countries where internships are extensively used as a tool to recruit talent.

This trend seems to be changing in the recent years.

[edit] Italy

Since the Italian University System entered into the Bologna process, an internship experience (commonly referred to by the French term stage) has been made compulsory for almost all those studying for a bachelor's or a master's degree (especially in technical, economic or scientific faculties). Its goal should be reducing the gap between the companies' demands and the too theoretical learning offered by Italian universities. However, since the internship is usually made at university as well and since the few companies that accept student interns don't offer a proper training, it is not a real work experience. Almost all the students therefore have to do a second or a third internship after they are done with their studies, this time in a company, hoping to receive a proper professional training, being hired afterwards in the same company, or in another company in a close or related business. The internship period can last up to 6 months, renewable for other 6 months, so the total period can be up to 12 months. Internships in Italy can be both paid and not paid: students internships, especially the ones not involved with the development of a thesis, are usually not paid; almost all the graduate internships, instead, are paid, but the remuneration is extremely low, around 600 euros gross per month, about 1/4 of the gross monthly remuneration of an hired young graduate employee, and without benefits other than the lunch (so no housing, no 13th/14th mensilities, no paid holidays, no parental leave)[citation needed]. This poses a huge problem for fresh graduates, considering as well that some companies use graduate interns just to save money, making them work for 6 to 12 months without giving them a decent remuneration, without offering them a proper training/formation, and without hiring them after the internship even if they showed to be productive,fast-learner and trustworthy workers. In other words, a relevant percentage of the Italian graduates, after one or even two years from the end of their studies (in some cases even master's studies), are still searching for a real job, that can offer stability and a decent remuneration. This, together with the long time necessary to graduate in Italy (Italian universities are very difficult), is part of the reason why graduate Italians leave the family home very late, usually in their early 30s.

[edit] Netherlands

In the Netherlands it is also common to do an internship during college. Just like in France it is called stage. Students will go intern for approximately 5 months. Companies are not obligated to pay the student, so sometimes small companies won't pay anything. The normal internship compensation rate in the Netherlands is around '300.

[edit] Spain

At Spanish universities it is uncommon to do an internship during the education period. The real working experience for students starts when they are done with their study. However, Spanish companies are getting more used to having students doing an internship at their company nowadays. Mostly these are international students from other European countries. Spain is a popular country for students to go to for a short period of time to do an internship. Often, students want to learn Spanish, and this is a perfect opportunity for them to do so. Another reason to go to Spain for an internship could be the opportunity to increase their cultural awareness or to experience working in an international setting. Students found that it is hard to get in contact with most Spanish businesses. The best way to find a good company to work at will be with the help of a placement organization. The normal stage compensation rate in Spain would be around 1000'/mo, retribution is regulated in many universities starting from 6'/hr. It's not uncommon to find employers taking advantage of unpaid interships in order to get free labor.[citation needed]

[edit] South Africa

South Africa and Cape Town in particular are becoming more popular among international students for internships, student exchange and volunteer work. Cape Town is also popular for medical students who want to do a summer internship at for instance Groote Schuur hospital. Gaining work experience in this different environment with more pressure and different challenges is very valuable for future employees. Most internship's in South Africa are unpaid at present but some companies are willing to cover some of the living costs. However, a great deal of companies are not familiar to interns and do not fully know the educational or academic value it provides its students. When this is not explained to the company, it could happen that the intern is merely seen as a cheap labourer rather than a valuable asset to the company. It is therefore practice by many students to pay an internship company that sorts out the agreements with the companies and arranges accommodation during their stay in for example Cape Town. However, there are also new initiatives that provide students with all the necessary information and tools to sort out their own internship [17] in South Africa.

[edit] United Kingdom, Canada and Australia

Internships are often referred to as 'sandwich placements' in the UK and are validated work experienced opportunity as part of a degree program. University staff give students access to vacancies and students apply direct to employers. Some universities hold fairs and exhibitions to encourage students to consider the option and to enable students to meet potential employers.(AGR report 2008) In the modern labour market graduates with work experience in the form of sandwich placements are not only deemed more desirable to employers but also research has demonstrated they attain higher level degree classifications than those graduates without such experience.

The purpose of these internships/placements is varied. Some University students see it as a way to develop their employability by utilising the academic elements of their degree in a practical setting. International students may also seek to get understanding about how work is conducted in the English-speaking world and to experience cultural diversity.It is also becoming more mandatory that students have to do an international internship and these countries are found to be of big interest to students due to their Western business culture and language.

[edit] United States

Many internships in the United States are career specific. Students often choose internships based on their major at the university/college level. It is not uncommon for former interns to acquire full-time employment at an organization once they have enough necessary experience. The challenging job market has made it essential for college students to gain real world experience prior to graduation.[18] Jeff Gunhus, CEO for one of the largest internship programs in the U.S. said, "Undergraduates face different challenges than the average person looking for a career."[19] In the US, company internships are at the center of NIGMS funded biotechnology training programs[20] for science PhD students. One example is the Biotechnology Training Program - University of Virginia.

Not all internships are paid. Nearly all interns working in the United States must be paid, and at least the minimum wage, for their work in accordance with the Fair Labor Standards Act.[21] A lot of internships that aren't paid have to do with getting class credit; if the internship is directly involved with a specific class the student is taking, many of the internships are unpaid. The U.S. Department of Labor's Wage and Hour Division allows an employer not to pay an trainee if all of the following are true:[22]

1. The training, even though it includes actual operation of the facilities of the employer, is similar to what would be given in a vocational school or academic educational instruction;[22]

2. The training is for the benefit of the trainees;[22]

3. The trainees do not displace regular employees, but work under their close observation;[22]

4. The employer that provides the training derives no immediate advantage from the activities of the trainees, and on occasion the employer's operations may actually be impeded;[22]

5. The trainees are not necessarily entitled to a job at the conclusion of the training period; and[22]

6. The employer and the trainees understand that the trainees are not entitled to wages for the time spent in training.[22]

An exception is allowed for individuals who volunteer their time, freely and without anticipation of compensation for religious, charitable, civic, or humanitarian purposes to non-profit organizations.[23] An exception is also allowed for work performed for a state or local government agency.[23]

Some states have their own laws on the subject.[21] Laws in the state of California, for example, require an employer to pay its interns working in California unless the intern receives college credit for the labor.[21]

[edit] European Union

The European Commission operates a sizeable traineeship programme.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Laid-off workers should try internships first
  2. ^ a b c Sue Shellenbarger (January 28, 2009). "Do You Want An Internship? It'll Cost You". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123310699999022549.html. 
  3. ^ Timothy Noah (January 28, 2009). "Opportunity for Sale; Psst! Wanna buy an internship?". http://www.slate.com/id/2209985/. 
  4. ^ a b "Unpaid internships face legal, ethical scrutiny", The Bowdoin Orient, Bowdoin College, April 30, 2004
  5. ^ http://www.slate.com/id/2143298
  6. ^ http://internships.about.com/od/internships101/qt/InternforCredit.htm
  7. ^ http://cob.fsu.edu/internships/credit_guidelines.cfm
  8. ^ Til debatten om sort arbejde, by Ellen Herkild, Arbejderen, September 4, 2004
  9. ^ Jobtræning eller grov udnyttelse, by Claus Andersen, Arbejderen, February 9, 2005
  10. ^ SiD Hillerød får ret i klage, January 7, 2003
  11. ^ Nyt kvote 2 system fjerner motivation fra unge frivillige (New system removes motivation from youth volunteers), by Morten Münster, Metroxpress, May 13, 2008
  12. ^ [1] Intership in France
  13. ^ [2] Internship in Germany
  14. ^ [3] Internship Programme for Diaspora Youth (IPDY) by Government of India
  15. ^ http://www.infosys.com/InStepWeb/about-internship/default.asp
  16. ^ http://www.expressindia.com/news/fullstory.php?newsid=65429
  17. ^ http://www.capeintern.com
  18. ^ "Management Adventure". College Works Painting. 2006. http://www.collegeworks.com/students/mngmt/. 
  19. ^ Jeff Gunhus Book Helps Graduates Jump Into Real World. The Tower Light.[dead link]
  20. ^ "National Institute of General Medical Sciences: Biotechnology Predoctoral Research Training Program Institutions". http://www.nigms.nih.gov/Training/InstPredoc/PredocInst-Biotechnology.htm. Retrieved 2 July 2009. 
  21. ^ a b c Greenhouse, Steven (April 2, 2010). "The Unpaid Intern, Legal or Not". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/03/business/03intern.html?pagewanted=1. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g "Advisory: Training and Employment Guidance Letter No. 12-09" (PDF). United States Department of Labor. January 29, 2010. http://wdr.doleta.gov/directives/attach/TEGL/TEGL12-09acc.pdf. 
  23. ^ a b "Fact Sheet #71: Internship Programs Under The Fair Labor Standards Act" (PDF). United States Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division. April 2010. http://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs71.pdf. 

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