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Miosis (or myosis) is constriction of the pupil of the eye to less than or equal to two milimeters[1]. This is a normal response to an increase in light but can also be associated with certain pathological conditions, microwave radiation exposure, and certain drugs, especially opioids.

The opposite, mydriasis, is the dilation of the pupil.

Classification and external resources

Slight miosis of the left eye (there is also concurrent partial ptosis on the left, most likely part of Horner's syndrome)
ICD-10 H57.0
ICD-9 379.42
DiseasesDB 8243
MeSH D015877


[edit] Physiology of the photomotor reflex

Light entering the eye strikes three different photoreceptors in the retina: the familiar rods and cones used in image-forming and the more newly discovered photosensitive ganglion cells. The ganglion cells give information about ambient light levels, and react sluggishly compared to the rods and cones. Signals from ganglion cells have three functions: acute suppression of the hormone melatonin, entrainment of the body's circadian rhythms and regulation of the size of the pupil.

The retinal photoceptors convert light stimuli into electric impulses. Nerves pertaining to the resizing of the pupil connect to the pretectal nucleus of the high midbrain, bypassing the lateral geniculate nucleus and the primary visual cortex. From the pretectal nucleus neurons send axons to neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus whose visceromotor axons run along both the left and right oculomotor nerves. Visceromotor nerve axons (which constitute a portion of cranial nerve III, along with the somatomotor portion derived from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus) synapse on ciliary ganglion neurons, whose parasympathetic axons innervate the constrictor muscle of the iris, producing miosis. This occurs because sympathetic activity from the ciliary ganglion is lost thus parasympathetics are not inhibited. Image

[edit] Causes

[edit] Age

[edit] Diseases

[edit] Drugs

[edit] Miotics

A miotic substance causes the constriction of the pupil of the eye (or miosis). It is the opposite of a mydriatic substance, which causes dilation of the pupil.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Seidel, Henry M.; Jane W. Ball, Joyce E. Dains, G. William Benedict (2006-03-29). Mosby's Guide to Physical Examination. Mosby. ISBN 0323035736, 9780323035736. 

[edit] External links

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