- For types of vegetarian foods, see vegetarian cuisine. For plant-based diets in animals, see herbivore.
||Generally, the avoidance of meat, poultry, fish, and animal by-products
||Ancient India, Ancient Greece-6th century BCE and earlier
||Lacto, ovo, ovo-lacto, veganism, raw veganism, fruitarianism, su vegetarianism
Vegetarianism is the practice of following a plant-based diet including fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, mushrooms, with or without dairy products and eggs. A vegetarian does not eat meat, including red meat, game, poultry, fish, crustacea, and shellfish, and may also abstain from by-products of animal slaughter such as animal-derived rennet, found in some cheeses, and gelatin. Vegetarians may unknowingly consume animal-derived rennet, gelatin, or other unfamiliar animal ingredients, however.
The diet is adopted for various reasons: ethical, health, environmental, religious, political, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or other reasons, and there are a number of vegetarian diets. A lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs, an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products. A vegan diet excludes all animal products, such as dairy products, eggs, and usually honey.
Semi-vegetarian diets consist largely of vegetarian foods, but may include fish or poultry, or other meats on an infrequent basis. Those with diets containing fish or poultry may define "meat" only as mammalian flesh and may identify with vegetarianism. A pescetarian diet, for example, includes "fish but no meat". The common use association between such diets and vegetarianism has led vegetarian groups such as the Vegetarian Society to state diets containing these ingredients are not vegetarian, because fish and birds are animals.
The Vegetarian Society, founded in 1847, writes that it created the word "vegetarian" from the Latin "vegetus" meaning "lively". The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and other standard dictionaries state that the word was formed from the term "vegetable" and the suffix "-arian". The OED writes that the word came into general use after the formation of the Vegetarian Society at Ramsgate in 1847, though it offers two examples of usage from 1839 and 1842.
The earliest records of (lacto) vegetarianism come from ancient India and ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE. In both instances the diet was closely connected with the idea of nonviolence towards animals (called ahimsa in India) and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers.[nb 1] Following the Christianisation of the Roman Empire in late antiquity, vegetarianism practically disappeared from Europe. Several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them eschewed fish. It re-emerged during the Renaissance, becoming more widespread in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1847, the first Vegetarian Society was founded in the United Kingdom; Germany, the Netherlands, and other countries followed. The International Vegetarian Union, a union of the national societies, was founded in 1908. In the Western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the 20th century as a result of nutritional, ethical, and more recently, environmental and economic concerns.
 Varieties of vegetarianism
Roadside café near Kullu
There are a number of types of vegetarianism, which exclude or include various foods.
- Ovo-lacto vegetarianism includes animal products such as eggs, milk, and honey.
- Lacto vegetarianism includes milk but not eggs.
- Ovo vegetarianism includes eggs but not milk.
- Veganism excludes all animal flesh and animal products, including milk, honey, eggs.
- Raw veganism includes only fresh and uncooked fruit, nuts, seeds, and vegetables.
- Fruitarianism permits only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the plant.
- Su vegetarianism (such as in Buddhism), excludes all animal products as well as vegetables in the allium family (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and garlic): onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, or shallots.
- Macrobiotic diets consist mostly of whole grains and beans.
Strict vegetarians also avoid products that may use animal ingredients not included in their labels or which use animal products in their manufacturing e.g. cheeses that use animal rennet (enzymes from animal stomach lining), gelatin (from animal skin, bones, and connective tissue), some sugars that are whitened with bone char (e.g. cane sugar, but not beet sugar) and alcohol clarified with gelatin or crushed shellfish and sturgeon.
Individuals may describe themselves as "vegetarian" while practicing a semi-vegetarian diet. In other cases, they may simply describe themselves as "flexitarians". These diets may be followed by those who reduce animal flesh consumed as a way of transitioning to a vegetarian diet or for health, environmental, or other reasons. The term "semi-vegetarian" is contested by most vegetarian groups, which state that vegetarians must exclude all animal flesh. Semi-vegetarian diets include pescetarianism, which includes fish and sometimes other seafood; pollotarianism, which includes poultry; and macrobiotic diets consisting mostly of whole grains and beans, but at times may include fish.
 Health benefits and concerns
The American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada have stated that at all stages of life, a properly planned vegetarian diet is "healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases". Large-scale studies have shown that mortality from ischemic heart disease was 30% lower among vegetarian men and 20% lower among vegetarian women than in nonvegetarians. Necessary nutrients, proteins, and amino acids for the body's sustenance can be found in vegetables, grains, nuts, soymilk, eggs and dairy. Vegetarian diets offer lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals.
Vegetarians tend to have lower body mass index, lower levels of cholesterol, lower blood pressure, and less incidence of heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, renal disease, osteoporosis, dementias such as Alzheimer's Disease and other disorders. Non-lean red meat, in particular, has been found to be directly associated with increased risk of cancers of the esophagus, liver, colon, and the lungs. Other studies have shown no significant differences between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, or prostate cancer, although the sample of vegetarians was small and included ex-smokers who had switched their diet within the last five years. A 2010 study compared a group of vegetarian and meat-eating Seventh Day Adventists in which vegetarians scored lower on depression tests and had better mood profiles.
Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12. Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin B and calcium if they do not eat enough items such as collard greens, leafy greens, tempeh and tofu (soy). High levels of dietary fibre, folic acid, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat are all considered to be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet.
Protein intake in vegetarian diets is only slightly lower than in meat diets and can meet daily requirements for any person, including athletes and bodybuilders. Studies at Harvard University as well as other studies conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and various European countries, have confirmed that vegetarian diets provide sufficient protein intake as long as a variety of plant sources are available and consumed. Proteins are composed of amino acids, and a common concern with protein acquired from vegetable sources is an adequate intake of the essential amino acids, which cannot be synthesised by the human body. While dairy and egg products provide complete sources for lacto-ovo vegetarians, the only vegetable sources with significant amounts of all eight types of essential amino acids are lupin, soy, hempseed, chia seed, amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa. However, the essential amino acids can also be obtained by eating a variety of complementary plant sources that, in combination, provide all eight essential amino acids (e.g. brown rice and beans, or hummus and whole wheat pita, though protein combining in the same meal is not necessary). A varied intake of such sources can be adequate, a 1994 study found.
Vegetarian diets typically contain similar levels of iron to non-vegetarian diets, but this has lower bioavailability than iron from meat sources, and its absorption can sometimes be inhibited by other dietary constituents. Vegetarian foods rich in iron include black beans, cashews, hempseed, kidney beans, lentils, oatmeal, raisins, black-eyed peas, soybeans, many breakfast cereals, sunflower seeds, chickpeas, tomato juice, tempeh, molasses, thyme, and whole-wheat bread. The related vegan diets can often be higher in iron than vegetarian diets, because dairy products are low in iron. Iron stores often tend to be lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, and a few small studies report higher rates of iron deficiency. However, the American Dietetic Association states iron deficiency is no more common in vegetarians than non-vegetarians (adult males are rarely iron deficient); iron deficiency anaemia is rare no matter the diet.
 Vitamin B12
Plants are not generally significant sources of vitamin B12. However, lacto-ovo vegetarians can obtain B12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from fortified foods and dietary supplements. Since the human body preserves B12 and reuses it without destroying the substance, clinical evidence of B12 deficiency is uncommon. The body can preserve stores of the vitamin for up to 30 years without needing its supplies to be replenished.
The only reliable vegan sources of B12 are foods fortified with B12 (including some soy products and some breakfast cereals) and B12 supplements. The research on vitamin B12 sources has increased in recent years.
 Fatty acids
Plant-based, or vegetarian, sources of Omega 3 fatty acids include soy, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, canola oil, kiwifruit and especially hempseed, chia seed, flaxseed, echium seed and purslane. Purslane contains more Omega 3 than any other known leafy green. Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid but not the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, which are found in low levels in eggs and dairy products. Vegetarians, and particularly vegans, have lower levels of EPA and DHA than meat-eaters. While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels. Recently, some companies have begun to market vegetarian DHA supplements containing seaweed extracts. Similar supplements providing both DHA and EPA have also begun to appear. Whole seaweeds are not suitable for supplementation because their high iodine content limits the amount that may be safely consumed. However, certain algae such as spirulina are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA).
Calcium intake in vegetarians is similar to non-vegetarians. Some impaired bone mineralisation has been found among vegans who do not consume enough leafy greens, which are sources of abundant calcium. However, this is not found in lacto-ovo vegetarians. Some sources of calcium include collard greens, bok choy, kale, and turnip greens. Spinach, swiss chard and beet greens are high in calcium, but the calcium is bound to oxalate and therefore it is poorly absorbed.
 Vitamin D
Vitamin D levels do not appear to be lower in vegetarians (although studies have shown that much of the general population is deficient). Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and sensible UV sun exposure. Products including milk, soy milk and cereal grains may be fortified to provide a good source of Vitamin D and mushrooms provide over 2700 IU per serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup) of vitamin D2, if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested; for those who do not get adequate sun exposure and/or food sources, Vitamin D supplementation may be necessary.
A 1999 metastudy combined data from five studies from western countries. The metastudy reported mortality ratios, where lower numbers indicated fewer deaths, for fish eaters to be .82, vegetarians to be .84, occasional meat eaters to be .84. Regular meat eaters and vegans shared the highest mortality ratio of 1.00. The study reported the numbers of deaths in each category, and expected error ranges for each ratio, and adjustments made to the data. However, the "lower mortality was due largely to the relatively low prevalence of smoking in these [vegetarian] cohorts". Out of the major causes of death studied, only one difference in mortality rate was attributed to the difference in diet, as the conclusion states: "vegetarians had a 24% lower mortality from ischemic heart disease than nonvegetarians, but no associations of a vegetarian diet with other major causes of death were established."
In "Mortality in British vegetarians", a similar conclusion is drawn: "British vegetarians have low mortality compared with the general population. Their death rates are similar to those of comparable non-vegetarians, suggesting that much of this benefit may be attributed to non-dietary lifestyle factors such as a low prevalence of smoking and a generally high socio-economic status, or to aspects of the diet other than the avoidance of meat and fish."
The Adventist Health Study is an ongoing study of life expectancy in Seventh-day Adventists. This is the only study among others with similar methodology which had favourable indication for vegetarianism. The researchers found that a combination of different lifestyle choices could influence life expectancy by as much as 10 years. Among the lifestyle choices investigated, a vegetarian diet was estimated to confer an extra 1'1/2 to 2 years of life. The researchers concluded that "the life expectancies of California Adventist men and women are higher than those of any other well-described natural population" at 78.5 years for men and 82.3 years for women. The life expectancy of California Adventists surviving to age 30 was 83.3 years for men and 85.7 years for women.
The Adventist health study is again incorporated into a metastudy titled "Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?" published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, which concluded that low meat eating (less than once per week) and other lifestyle choices significantly increase life expectancy, relative to a group with high meat intake. The study concluded that "The findings from one cohort of healthy adults raises the possibility that long-term (' 2 decades) adherence to a vegetarian diet can further produce a significant 3.6-y increase in life expectancy." However, the study also concluded that "Some of the variation in the survival advantage in vegetarians may have been due to marked differences between studies in adjustment for confounders, the definition of vegetarian, measurement error, age distribution, the healthy volunteer effect, and intake of specific plant foods by the vegetarians." It further states that "This raises the possibility that a low-meat, high plant-food dietary pattern may be the true causal protective factor rather than simply elimination of meat from the diet." In a recent review of studies relating low-meat diet patterns to all-cause mortality, Singh noted that "5 out of 5 studies indicated that adults who followed a low meat, high plant-food diet pattern experienced significant or marginally significant decreases in mortality risk relative to other patterns of intake."
Statistical studies, such as comparing life expectancy with regional areas and local diets in Europe also have found life expectancy considerably greater in southern France, where a low meat, high plant Mediterranean diet is common, than northern France, where a diet with high meat content is more common.
A study by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, and Institute of Physiological Chemistry looked at a group of 19 vegetarians (lacto-ovo) and used as a comparison a group of 19 omnivorous subjects recruited from the same region. The study found that this group of vegetarians (lacto-ovo) have a significantly higher amount of plasma carboxymethyllysine and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) compared to this group of non-vegetarians. Carboxymethyllysine is a glycation product which represents "a general marker of oxidative stress and long-term damage of proteins in aging, atherosclerosis and diabetes." "Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may play an important adverse role in process of atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging and chronic renal failure."
The largest study ever of diet vs longevity and a host of western diseases was the China Project, a "survey of death rates for twelve different kinds of cancer for more than 2,400 counties and 880 million (96%) of their citizens" combined to study the relationship between various mortality rates and several dietary, lifestyle, and environmental characteristics in 65 mostly rural counties in China conducted jointly by Cornell University, Oxford University, and the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine over the course of twenty years. A strong dose-response relationship was found between the amount of animal foods in the diet, and the top causes of mortality in the West: heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
 Food safety
Libby Sande argued in a blog for USA Today that Vegetarianism reduces E. coli infections, and in a piece for The New York Times linked E. coli contamination in food to industrial scale meat and dairy farms. E. coli infections in the US during 2006 were traced to spinach and onions.
Transmission of pathogenic E. coli often occurs via fecal-oral transmission. Common routes of transmission include unhygienic food preparation and farm contamination. Dairy and beef cattle are primary reservoirs of the E. coli strain O157:H7, and they can carry it asymptomatically and shed it in their feces. Food products associated with E. coli outbreaks include raw ground beef, raw seed sprouts or spinach, raw milk, unpasteurized juice, and foods contaminated by infected food workers via fecal-oral route. In 2005, some people who had consumed triple-washed, pre-packaged lettuce were infected with E. coli. In 2007, packaged lettuce salads were recalled after they were found to be contaminated with E. coli. E. coli outbreaks have been traced to unpasteurised apples, orange juice, milk, alfalfa sprouts, and water.
Salmonella outbreaks have been traced to peanut butter, frozen pot pies & puffed vegetable snacks. BSE, also known as mad cow disease, is linked by the World Health Organization to Creutzfeldt'Jakob disease in humans.
There have been reports of fears of foot-and-mouth disease in sheep, PCBs in farmed salmon, mercury in fish, dioxin concentrations in animal products, artificial growth hormones, antibiotics, lead and mercury, pesticide contamination of vegetables and fruits, banned chemicals being used to ripen fruits.
 Medical use
In Western medicine, patients are sometimes advised to adhere to a vegetarian diet. Vegetarian diets have been used as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, but the evidence is inconclusive whether this is effective. Certain alternative medicines, such as Ayurveda and Siddha, prescribe a vegetarian diet as a normal procedure.[nb 2]
Humans are omnivores, based on the human ability to digest meat as well as plant foods. Arguments have been made that humans are more anatomically similar to herbivores, with long intestinal tracts and blunt teeth, unlike other omnivores and carnivores. Nutritional experts believe that early hominids evolved into eating meat as a result of huge climatic changes that took place three to four million years ago, when forests and jungles dried up and became open grasslands and opened hunting and scavenging opportunities.
 Animal-to-human disease transmissions
The consumption of meat can cause a transmission of a number of diseases from animals to humans. The connection between infected animal and human illness is well established in the case of salmonella; an estimated one-third to one-half of all chicken meat marketed in the United States is contaminated with salmonella. Only recently, however, have scientists begun to suspect that there is a similar connection between animal meat and human cancer, birth defects, mutations, and many other diseases in humans. In 1975, one study found 75 percent of supermarket samples of cow's milk, and 75 percent of egg samples to contain the leukemia (cancer) virus. By 1985, nearly 100 percent of the eggs tested, or the hens they came from, had the cancer virus. The rate of disease among chickens is so high that the Department of Labor has ranked the poultry industry as one of the most hazardous occupations. 20 percent of all cows are afflicted with a variety of cancer known as bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Studies have increasingly linked BLV with HTLV-1, the first human retrovirus discovered to cause cancer. Scientists have found that a bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), the equivalent of the AIDS virus in cows, can also infect human cells. It is supposed that BIV may have a role in the development of a number of malignant or slow viruses in humans.
The proximity of animals in industrial-scale animal farming leads to an increased rate of disease transmission. Transmission of animal influenza viruses to humans has been documented, but illness from such cases is rare compared to that caused by the now common human-adapted older influenza viruses, transferred from animals to humans in the more distant past.[nb 3] The first documented case was in 1959, and in 1998, 18 new human cases of H5N1 influenza were diagnosed, in which six people died. In 1997 more cases of H5N1 avian influenza were found in chickens in Hong Kong.
Whether tuberculosis originated in cattle and was then transferred to humans, or diverged from a common ancestor infecting a different species, is currently unclear. The strongest evidence for a domestic-animal origin exists for measles and pertussis, although the data do not exclude a non-domestic origin.
According to the 'Hunter Theory', the "simplest and most plausible explanation for the cross-species transmission" the AIDS virus was transmitted from a chimpanzee to a human when a bushmeat hunter was bitten or cut while hunting or butchering an animal.
Historian Norman Cantor suggests the Black Death might have been a combination of pandemics including a form of anthrax, a cattle murrain. He cites many forms of evidence including the fact that meat from infected cattle was known to have been sold in many rural English areas prior to the onset of the plague.
 Eating disorders
The American Dietetic Association indicates that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders but that the evidence suggests that the adoption of a vegetarian diet does not lead to eating disorders, rather that "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder." Other studies and statements by dietitians and counselors support this conclusion.[nb 4]
 Additional reasons for a vegetarian diet
Various ethical reasons have been suggested for choosing vegetarianism.
offers a wide range of vegetarian delicacies because Hinduism
, practiced by majority of India's populace, encourages vegetarian diet. Shown here is a vegetarian thali
Jainism teaches vegetarianism as moral conduct as do some major sects of Hinduism. Buddhism in general does not prohibit meat eating, while Mahayana Buddhism encourages vegetarianism as beneficial for developing compassion. Other denominations that advocate a fully vegetarian diet include the Seventh-day Adventists, the Rastafari movement and the Hare Krishnas. Sikhism does not equate spirituality with diet and does not specify a vegetarian or meat diet.
Most major paths of Hinduism hold vegetarianism as an ideal. There are three main reasons for this: the principle of nonviolence (ahimsa) applied to animals; the intention to offer only "pure" (vegetarian) food to a deity and then to receive it back as prasad; and the conviction that non-vegetarian food is detrimental for the mind and for spiritual development. Hindu vegetarians usually eschew eggs but consume milk and dairy products, so they are lacto-vegetarians.
However, the food habits of Hindus vary according to their community and according to regional traditions. Historically and currently, those Hindus who eat meat prescribe Jhatka meat.
Followers of Jainism believe that everything from animals to inanimate objects have life in different degree and they go to great lengths to minimise any harm to it. Most Jains are lacto-vegetarians but more devout Jains do not eat root vegetables because this would involve the killing of plants. Instead they focus on eating beans and fruits, whose cultivation do not involve killing of plants. No products obtained from dead animals are allowed. Jains hold self termination from starvation as the ideal state and some dedicated monks do perform this act of self annihilation. This is for them an indispensable condition for spiritual progress. Some particularly dedicated individuals are fruitarians. Honey is forbidden, because its collection is seen as violence against the bees. Some Jains do not consume plant parts that grow underground such as roots and bulbs, because tiny animals may be killed when the plants are pulled up.
A vegetarian dinner at a Japanese Buddhist temple
Theravadins in general eat meat. If Buddhist monks "see, hear or know" a living animal was killed specifically for them to eat, they must refuse it or else incur an offense. However, this does not include eating meat which was given as alms or commercially purchased. In the Theravada cannon, Buddha did not make any comment discouraging them to eat meat (except specific types, such as human, elephant, horse, dog, snake, lion, tiger, leopard, bear, and hyena flesh) but he specifically refused to institute vegetarianism in his monastic code when a suggestion had been made.
In Mahayana Buddhism, there are several Sanskrit texts where the Buddha instructs his followers to avoid meat. However, each branch of Mahayana Buddhism selects which sutra to follow and some branches of Mahayana Buddhists including the majority of Tibetan and Japanese Buddhists do eat meat while most Chinese Buddhists do not eat meat.
The tenets of Sikhism do not advocate a particular stance on either vegetarianism or the consumption of meat, but rather leave the decision of diet to the individual. The tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, however, prohibited "Amritdhari" Sikhs, or those that follow the Sikh Rehat Maryada (the Official Sikh Code of Conduct) from eating Kutha meat, or meat which has been obtained from animals which have been killed in a ritualistic way. This is understood to have been for the political reason of maintaining independence from the then-new Muslim hegemony, as Muslims largely adhere to the ritualistic halal diet.
"Amritdharis" that belong to some Sikh sects (e.g. Akhand Kirtani Jatha, Damdami Taksal, Namdhari, Rarionwalay, etc.) are vehemently against the consumption of meat and eggs (though they do consume and encourage the consumption of milk, butter, and cheese). This vegetarian stance has been traced back to the times of the British Raj, with the advent of many new Vaishnava converts. In response, to the varying views on diet throughout the Sikh population, Sikh Gurus have sought to clarify the Sikh view on diet, stressing their preference only for simplicity of diet. Guru Nanak said that over-consumption of food (Lobh, Greed) involves a drain on the Earth's resources and thus on life. Passages from the Guru Granth Sahib (the holy book of Sikhs, also known as the Adi Granth) say that it is "foolish" to argue for the superiority of animal life, because though all life is related, only human life carries more importance.
"Only fools argue whether to eat meat or not. Who can define what is meat and what is not meat? Who knows where the sin lies, being a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian?"
The Sikh langar, or free temple meal, is largely lacto-vegetarian, though this is understood to be a result of efforts to present a meal that is respectful of the diets of any person who would wish to dine, rather than out of dogma.
While it is neither required nor prohibited for Jews to eat meat, a number of medieval scholars of Jewish religion (e.g., Joseph Albo) regard vegetarianism as a moral ideal, not just because of a concern for the welfare of animals, but because the slaughter of animals might cause the individual who performs such acts to develop negative character traits. Therefore, their concern was with regard to possible harmful effects upon human character rather than with animal welfare. Indeed, Rabbi Joseph Albo maintains that renunciation of the consumption of meat for reasons of concern for animal welfare is not only morally erroneous but even repugnant.
One modern-day scholar who is often cited as in favour of vegetarianism is the late Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, the Chief Rabbi of Mandate Palestine. It is indeed the case that in his writings, Rabbi Kook speaks of vegetarianism as an ideal, and points to the fact that Adam did not partake of the flesh of animals. In context, however, Rabbi Kook makes those comments in his portrayal of the eschatological (messianic) era.
According to some Kabbalists, only a mystic, who is able to sense and elevate the reincarnated human souls and "divine sparks", is permitted to consume meat, though eating the flesh of an animal might still cause spiritual damage to the soul. A number of Orthodox Jewish vegetarian groups and activists promote such ideas and believe that the halakhic permission to eat meat is a temporary leniency for those who are not ready yet to accept the vegetarian diet.
Having ties with both ancient Judaism and Christianity, members of the ancient Essene religious group practiced strict vegetarianism sharing a similar belief with the Hindus'/Jains' idea of Ahimsa or "harmlessness".
Translation of the Torah's Ten Commandments state "thou shalt not murder." Some people argue that this can also be taken as meaning not to kill at all, animals nor humans, or at least "that one shall not kill unnecessarily," in the same manner that onerous restrictions on slavery in the Bible have been interpreted by modern theologians as to suggest banning the practice. The Torah also commands people to ritually slaughter animals when killing them, and goes into precise detail on the rituals of animal sacrifices.
 Classical Greek and Roman Thought
Ancient Greek philosophy has a long tradition of vegetarianism. Pythagoras was reportedly vegetarian (and studied at Mt. Carmel, where some historians say there was a vegetarian community), as his followers were expected to be. Socrates was reportedly vegetarian, and in his dialogue of what people, or at least Philosopher-rulers, in an ideal republic should eat, he described only vegetarian food. He specified that if meat-eating was allowed, then society would require more doctors.
Roman writer Ovid concluded his magnum opus Metamorphoses, in part, with the impassioned argument (uttered by the character of Pythagoras) that in order for humanity to change, or metamorphose, into a better, more harmonious species, it must strive towards more humane tendencies. He cited vegetarianism as the crucial decision in this metamorphosis, explaining his belief that human life and animal life are so entwined that to kill an animal is virtually the same as killing a fellow human.
Everything changes; nothing dies; the soul roams to and fro, now here, now there, and takes what frame it will, passing from beast to man, from our own form to beast and never dies...Therefore lest appetite and greed destroy the bonds of love and duty, heed my message! Abstain! Never by slaughter dispossess souls that are kin and nourish blood with blood!
Vegetarianism is not a common practice in current Christian culture. However, Seventh Day Adventists and traditional monastics stress vegetarianism. As well, members of the Orthodox Church may follow a vegetarian diet during 'fast' times, The concept and practice of vegetarianism have scriptural and historical support.
There is also a strong association between the Quaker tradition within Christianity and vegetarianism dating back at least to the 18th century. The association grew in prominence during the 19th century, coupled with growing Quaker concerns in connection with alcohol consumption, vivisection and social purity. The association between the Quaker tradition and vegetarianism, however, becomes most significant with the founding of the Friends' Vegetarian Society in 1902 "to spread a kindlier way of living amongst the Society of Friends."
Followers of Islam, or Muslims, have the freedom of choice to be vegetarian for medical reasons or if they do not personally like the taste of meat. However, the choice to become vegetarian for non-medical reasons can sometimes be controversial. Though some more traditional Muslims may keep quiet about their vegetarian diet, the number of vegetarian Muslims is increasing.
Vegetarianism has been practiced by some influential Muslims including the Iraqi theologian, female mystic and poet Râbi'ah al-'Adawîyah of Basrah, who died in the year 801, and the Sri Lankan sufi master Bawa Muhaiyaddeen who established The Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship of North America in Philadelphia.
In January 1996, The International Vegetarian Union announced the formation of the Muslim Vegetarian/Vegan Society.
Many non-vegetarian Muslims will select vegetarian (or seafood) options when dining in non-halal restaurants. However, this is a matter of not having the right kind of meat rather than preferring not to eat meat on the whole.
Within the Afro-Caribbean community, a minority are Rastafari and follow the dietary regulations with varying degrees of strictness. The most orthodox eat only Ital or natural foods, in which the matching of herbs or spices with vegetables is the result of long and skillfully laid down tradition originating from the African ancestry and cultural heritage of Rastafari. Most Rastafari are vegetarian. Utensils made from natural material such as stone or earthenware are preferred.
Environmental vegetarianism is based on the concern that the production of meat and animal products for mass consumption, especially through factory farming, is environmentally unsustainable. According to a 2006 United Nations initiative, the livestock industry is one of the largest contributors to environmental degradation worldwide, and modern practices of raising animals for food contributes on a "massive scale" to air and water pollution, land degradation, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The initiative concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global."
In July 2009 Nike and Timberland stopped buying leather from deforested Amazon Rainforest  a few weeks after Greenpeace report demonstrated the destruction caused by Amazon cattle ranchers. According to Arnold Newman every hamburger sold results in destruction of 6.25m2 of rain forest.
In addition, animal agriculture is a large source of greenhouse gases and is responsible for 18 percent of the world's greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. By comparison, all of the world's transportation (including all cars, trucks, buses, trains, ships, and planes) emits 13.5 percent of the CO2. Animal farming produces 65 percent of human-related nitrous oxide and 37 percent of all human-induced methane. Methane has about 21 times more Global Warming Potential (GWP) than carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide has 296 times the GWP of CO2.
Animals fed on grain, and those that rely on grazing, need far more water than grain crops. According to the USDA, growing the crops necessary to feed farmed animals requires nearly half of the United States' water supply and 80 percent of its agricultural land. Additionally, animals raised for food in the U.S. consume 90 percent of the soy crop, 80 percent of the corn crop, and a total of 70 percent of its grain.
When tracking food animal production from the feed through to consumption, the inefficiencies of meat, milk and egg production range from 4:1 up to 54:1 energy input to protein output ratio. This firstly because the feed first needs to be grown before it is eaten by the cattle, and secondly because warm-blooded vertebrates need to use a lot of calories just to stay warm (unlike plants or insects). An index which can be used as a measure is the efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance, which indicates, for example, that only 10% is converted to body substance by beef cattle, versus 19'31% by silkworms and 44% by German cockroaches. Ecology professor David Pimentel has claimed, "If all the grain currently fed to livestock in the United States were consumed directly by people, the number of people who could be fed would be nearly 800 million." To produce animal based food seems to be, according to these studies, typically much less efficient than the harvesting of grains, vegetables, legumes, seeds and fruits. However, this would not apply to animals that are grazed rather than fed, especially those grazed on land that could not be used for other purposes. Nor would it apply to cultivation of insects for food, which may be more environmentally sustainable than eating food coming from cattle farming. Meat produced in a laboratory (called in vitro meat) may be also more environmentally sustainable than regularly produced meat.
According to the theory of trophic dynamics, it requires 10 times as many crops to feed animals being bred for meat production as it would to feed the same number of people on a vegetarian diet. Currently, 70 percent of all the wheat, corn, and other grain produced is fed to farmed animals. This has led many proponents of vegetarianism to believe that it is ecologically irresponsible to consume meat. Rearing a relatively small number grazing animals is often beneficial, as observed by the Food Climate Research Network at Surrey University, which reports, "A little bit of livestock production is probably a good thing for the environment".
In May 2009, Ghent was reported to be "the first [city] in the world to go vegetarian at least once a week" for environmental reasons, when local authorities decided to implement a "weekly meatless day". Civil servants would eat vegetarian meals one day per week, in recognition of the United Nations' report. Posters were put up by local authorities to encourage the population to take part on vegetarian days, and "veggie street maps" were printed to highlight vegetarian restaurants. In September 2009, schools in Ghent are due to have a weekly veggiedag ("vegetarian day") too.
 Labour conditions
Some groups, such as PETA, promote vegetarianism as a way to offset poor treatment and working conditions of workers in the contemporary meat industry. These groups cite studies showing the psychological damage caused by working in the meat industry, especially in factory and industrialised settings, and argue that the meat industry violates its labourers' human rights by assigning difficult and distressing tasks without adequate counselling, training and debriefing. However, the working conditions of agricultural workers as a whole, particularly non-permanent workers, remain poor and well below conditions prevailing in other economic sectors. Accidents, including pesticide poisoning, among farmers and plantation workers contribute to increased health risks, including increased mortality. In fact, according to the International Labour Organization, agriculture is one of the three most dangerous jobs in the world.
Similar to environmental vegetarianism is the concept of economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint concerning issues such as public health and curbing world starvation, the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just out of necessity. According to the Worldwatch Institute, "Massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease their health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world's chronically hungry."
Taiwanese Buddhist cuisine
People may choose vegetarianism because they were raised in a vegetarian household or because of a vegetarian partner, family member, or friend.
A 1992 market research study conducted by the Yankelovich research organisation claimed that "of the 12.4 million people [in the US] who call themselves vegetarian, 68 percent are female while only 32 percent are male."
At least one study indicates that vegetarian women are more likely to have female babies. A study of 6,000 pregnant women in 1998 "found that while the national average in Britain is 106 boys born to every 100 girls, for vegetarian mothers the ratio was just 85 boys to 100 girls." Catherine Collins of the British Dietetic Association has dismissed this as a "statistical fluke".
 Country-specific information
Labeling used in India to distinguish vegetarian products (left) from non-vegetarian products (right).
Vegetarianism is viewed in different ways around the world. In some areas In many countries food labelling is in place that makes it easier for vegetarians to identify foods compatible with their diets.
there is cultural and even legal support, but in others the diet is poorly understood or even frowned upon.
In India, which has more vegetarians than the rest of the world combined (399 million as of 2006), not only is there food labelling, but many restaurants are marketed and signed as being either "Vegetarian" or "Non-Vegetarian". People who are vegetarian in India are usually lacto-vegetarians, and therefore, to cater for this market, the majority of vegetarian restaurants in India do serve dairy products while eschewing egg products. Most Western vegetarian restaurants, in comparison, do serve eggs and egg-based products.
 See also
- ^ Indian emperor Ashoka has asserted protection to fauna , from his edicts we could understand, i.e. "Twenty-six years after my coronation various animals were declared to be protected -- parrots, mainas, //aruna//, ruddy geese, wild ducks, //nandimukhas, gelatas//, bats, queen ants, terrapins, boneless fish, //vedareyaka//, //gangapuputaka//, //sankiya// fish, tortoises, porcupines, squirrels, deer, bulls, //okapinda//, wild asses, wild pigeons, domestic pigeons and all four-footed creatures that are neither useful nor edible. Those nanny goats, ewes and sows which are with young or giving milk to their young are protected, and so are young ones less than six months old. Cocks are not to be caponized, husks hiding living beings are not to be burnt and forests are not to be burnt either without reason or to kill creatures. One animal is not to be fed to another."'Edict of Ashoka on Fifth Pillar
- ^ Maya Tiwara notes that Ayurveda recommends small portions of meat for some people, though "the rules of hunting and killing the animal, practiced by the native peoples, were very specific and detailed. Now, that such methods of hunting and killing are not observed, she does not recommend the use of "any animal meat as food, not even for the Vata types."
- ^ Sometimes a virus contains both avian adapted genes and human adapted genes. Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the 'Spanish flu' in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)."
- ^ Vesanto Melina, a British Columbian registered dietitian and author of Becoming Vegetarian, stresses there is no cause and effect relationship between vegetarianism and eating disorders, although people who have eating disorders may label themselves as vegetarians "so that they won't have to eat." Indeed, research indicates that the large majority of vegetarian or vegan anorexics and bulimics chose their diets after the onset of their disease. The "restricted" eating patterns of vegetarianism and veganism can legitimize the removal of numerous high-fat, energy-dense foods such as meat, eggs, cheese, ... However, the eating pattern chosen by those with anorexia or bulimia nervosa is far more restrictive than a healthful vegetarian diet, eliminating nuts, seeds, avocados, and limiting overall caloric intake.
- ^ Definitions Information Sheet, The Vegetarian Society, accessed May 2, 2010.
- ^ Forrest, Jamie (December 18, 2007). "Is Cheese Vegetarian?". Serious Eats. http://www.seriouseats.com/2007/12/is-cheese-vegetarian.html. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
- ^ "Frequently Asked Questions - Food Ingredients". Vegetarian Resource Group. http://www.vrg.org/nutshell/faqingredients.htm. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
- ^ Merriam-Webster, "meat": definition 2b, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (2007) defines "vegetarian" (noun) as "A person who on principle abstains from animal food; esp. one who avoids meat but will consume dairy produce and eggs and sometimes also fish (cf. VEGAN noun)."
- ^ Barr, Susan I.; Gwen E. Chapman (March 2002). "Perceptions and practices of self-defined current vegetarian and nonvegetarian women". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 102 (3): 354'360. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90083-0. PMID 11902368.
- ^ Pescetarian, Merriam Webster, accessed May 2, 2010.
- ^ VEGETARIANS DO NOT EAT FISH, Vegetarian Society, accessed May 2, 2010.
- ^ Celebrate Christmas, Vegetarian Society, November 1, 2000, accessed May 2, 2010.
- ^ OED vol. 19, second edition (1989), p. 476; Webster's Third New International Dictionary p. 2537; The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Oxford 1966, p. 972; The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology (1988), p. 1196; Colin Spencer, The Heretic's Feast. A History of Vegetarianism, London 1993, p. 252.
- 1839: "If I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian." (F. A. Kemble, Jrnl. Residence on Georgian Plantation (1863) 251)
- 1842: "To tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature." (Healthian, Apr. 34)
- ^ Spencer, Colin. The Heretic's Feast: A History of Vegetarianism. Fourth Estate Classic House, pp. 33'68, 69'84.
- ^ Religious Vegetarianism From Hesiod to the Dalai Lama, ed. Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess, Albany 2001, p. 13'46.
- ^ Passmore, John. "The Treatment of Animals," Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (1975) p. 196'201.
- ^ Lutterbach, Hubertus. "Der Fleischverzicht im Christentum," Saeculum 50/II (1999) p. 202.
- ^ Spencer p. 180'200.
- ^ Spencer p. 252'253, 261'262.
- ^ What is a Vegan?, Vegan Society (UK), accessed May 12, 2010.
- ^ International Vegetarian Union (IVU), accessed May 2, 2010.
- ^ Mangels, AR. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2009, vol 109, issue 7, pp. 1266'1282.
- ^ a b Yabroff, Jennie. "No More Sacred Cows", Newsweek, December 31, 2009.
- ^ Gale, Catharine R. et al. "IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study", British Medial Journal, December 15, 2006, vol 333, issue 7581, p. 245.
- ^ "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets". June 2003. http://www.vrg.org/nutrition/2003_ADA_position_paper.pdf. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- ^ a b Key et al. Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70 (3): 516S.
- ^ Rejecting meat 'keeps weight low', BBC News, March 14, 2006.
- ^ Soymilk at soyfoods.com
- ^ Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada, 2003, vol 103, issue 6, pp. 748'65. doi 10.1053/jada.2003.50142.
- ^ Mattson, Mark P. Diet-Brain Connection: Impact on Memory, Mood, Aging and Disease. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.
- ^ Maggie Fox, Meat raises lung cancer risk, too, study finds, Reuters, December 10, 2007; A Prospective Study of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to Cancer Risk, PLoS Medicine. April 21, 2008.
- ^ "Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in Seventh Day Adventist adults". June 1, 2010. http://www.nutritionj.com/content/9/1/26. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- ^ Timothy J Key, Paul N Appleby, Magdalena S Rosell (2006). "Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 65 (1): 35'41. doi:10.1079/PNS2005481. PMID 16441942.
- ^ a b Davey GK, Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Allen NE, Knox KH, Key TJ (2003). "EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK". Public Health Nutrition 6 (3): 259'69. doi:10.1079/PHN2002430. PMID 12740075.
- ^ Peter Emery, Tom Sanders (2002). Molecular Basis of Human Nutrition. Taylor & Francis Ltd. p. 32. ISBN 978-0748407538.
- ^ Brenda Davis, Vesanto Melina (2003). The New Becoming Vegetarian. Book Publishing Company. pp. 57'58. ISBN 978-1570671449.
- ^ VR Young and PL Pellett (May 1994). "Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition" (PDF). Am. J. Clinical Nutrition 59 (59): 1203S'1212S. PMID 8172124. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/reprint/59/5/1203S.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- ^ "// Health Issues // Optimal Vegan Nutrition". Goveg.com. http://goveg.com/essential_nutrients.asp#iron. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ Annika Waldmann, Jochen W. Koschizke, Claus Leitzmann, Andreas Hahn (2004). "Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study". Ann Nutr Metab 48 (2): 103'108. doi:10.1159/000077045. PMID 14988640.
- ^ Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Simoncic R, Bederova A, Grancicova E, Magalova T (1997). "Influence of vegetarian and mixed nutrition on selected haematological and biochemical parameters in children". Nahrung 41: 311'14. doi:10.1002/food.19970410513.
- ^ Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets
- ^ a b Mozafar, A. (1997). "Is there vitamin B12 in plants or not? A plant nutritionist's view". Vegetarian Nutrition: an International Journal (1/2): pp. 50'52.
- ^ ALGAE from STANDARD TABLES OF FOOD COMPOSITION IN JAPAN Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition 2005
- ^ Vegans (pure vegetarians) and vitamin B_12 deficiency
- ^ Herrmann W, Schorr H, Obeid R, Geisel J (2003). "Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians". Am J Clin Nutr 78 (1): 131'6. PMID 12816782.
- ^ Antony AC (2003). "Vegetarianism and vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) deficiency". Am J Clin Nutr 78 (1): 3'6. PMID 12816765.
- ^ Walsh, Stephen, RD. "Vegan Society B12 factsheet". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/food/nutrition/b12/. Retrieved 2008-01-17.
- ^ Donaldson, MS. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements. Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44:229-234.
- ^ "Ch05". http://www.unu.edu/unupress/food/8F052e/8F052E05.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- ^ Rosell MS, Lloyd-Wright Z, Appleby PN, Sanders TA, Allen NE, Key TJ (2003). "Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men". Am J Clin Nutr 82 (2): 327'34. PMID 16087975.
- ^ "Water4life: health-giving vegetarian dietary supplements". http://www.water4.net/. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
- ^ Babadzhanov, A.S., et al. "Chemical Composition of Spirulina Platensis Cultivated in Uzbekistan." Chemistry of Naturoul Compounds. 40, 3, 2004.
- ^ Tokusoglu, O., Unal, M.K. "Biomass Nutrient Profiles of Three Microalgae: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Isochrisis galbana." Journal of Food Science. 68, 4, 2003.
- ^ "Calcium and Milk: Nutrition Source, Harvard School of Public Health". Web.archive.org. 2007-08-25. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20070825133156/http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/calcium.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ P Appleby, A Roddam, N Allen, T Key (2007). "Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61 (12): 1400. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602659. PMID 17299475.
- ^ vrg.org
- ^ "Vegan Sources of Calcium". http://www.vegansociety.com/food/nutrition/calcium.php. Retrieved Nov 01 2009.
- ^ "Many vitamin D deficient in winter". United Press International. http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Health/2008/02/21/many_vitamin_d_deficient_in_winter/5452/. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- ^ "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 2007-09-10. http://www.webcitation.org/5Rl5u0LB5. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
- ^ "Bringing Mushrooms Out of the Dark". MSNBC. April 18, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12370708. Retrieved 2007-08-06.
- ^ a b Timothy J Key, Gary E Fraser, Margaret Thorogood, Paul N Appleby, Valerie Beral, Gillian Reeves, Michael L Burr, Jenny Chang-Claude, Rainer Frentzel-Beyme, Jan W Kuzma, Jim Mann and Klim McPherson (September 1999). ""Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies"". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (3): 516S'524S. PMID 10479225. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/70/3/516S. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- ^ Key, Timothy J, et al., "Mortality in British vegetarians: review and preliminary results from EPIC-Oxford" American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 3, 533S-538S, September 2003 http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/78/3/533S
- ^ Appleby PN, Key TJ, Thorogood M, Burr ML, Mann J., Mortality in British vegetarians, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, The Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK, February 2002. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
- ^ Loma Linda University Adventist Health Sciences Center, New Adventist Health Study research noted in Archives of Internal Medicine, Loma Linda University, 26 July 2001. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
- ^ Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?'Singh et al. 78 (3): 526'American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Abstract
- ^ Trichopoulou, et al. 2005 "Modified Mediterranean diet and survival: EPIC-elderly prospective cohort study", British Medical Journal 330:991 (30 April) http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/bmj;330/7498/991
News story based on this article: Science Daily, April 25, 2005 "Mediterranean Diet Leads To Longer Life" http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/04/050425111008.htm
- ^ "Advanced Glycation End Products and Nutrition". PHYSIOLOGY RESEARCH. http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/2002/issue3/krajcovic.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
- ^ Sande, Libby (2006-09-25). "Vegetarianism reduces E. coli infections". USA Today. http://blogs.usatoday.com/oped/2006/09/veggie_diet_red.html. Retrieved 2007-04-28.
- ^ Sander, Libby (2006-10-13). "Source of Deadly E. Coli Is Found". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/13/us/13spinach.html. Retrieved 2006-10-13.
- ^ "E. Coli Outbreak". NBC News. 2006-09-15. http://www.kpvi.com/index.cfm?page=nbcstories.cfm&ID=3034. Retrieved 2006-12-13.
- ^ Taco Bell removes green onions after outbreak Dec. 6, 2006 MSNBC
- ^ Evans Jr., Doyle J.; Dolores G. Evans. "Escherichia Coli". Medical Microbiology, 4th edition. The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. http://www.gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch025.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
- ^ a b c "Retail Establishments; Annex 3 - Hazard Analysis". Managing Food Safety: A Manual for the Voluntary Use of HACCP Principles for Operators of Food Service and Retail Establishments. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. April 2006. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/hret2-a3.html. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
- ^ Gehlbach, S.H.; J.N. MacCormack, B.M. Drake, W.V. Thompson (April 1973). "Spread of disease by fecal-oral route in day nurseries". Health Service Reports 88 (4): 320'322. PMID 4574421.
- ^ a b Sabin Russell (October 13, 2006). "Spinach E. coli linked to cattle; Manure on pasture had same strain as bacteria in outbreak". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2006/10/13/MNG71LOT711.DTL. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
- ^ Heaton JC, Jones K (March 2008). "Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and the behaviour of enteropathogens in the phyllosphere: a review". J. Appl. Microbiol. 104 (3): 613'26. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03587.x. PMID 17927745. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=1364-5072&date=2008&volume=104&issue=3&spage=613.
- ^ Thomas R. DeGregori (2007-08-17). "CGFI: Maddening Media Misinformation on Biotech and Industrial Agriculture". http://www.cgfi.org/cgficommentary/maddening-media-misinformation-on-biotech-and-industrial-agriculture-part-5-of-5. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
- ^ a b Bach, S.J.; T.A. McAllister, D.M. Veira, V.P.J. Gannon, and R.A. Holley (2002). "Transmission and control of Escherichia coli O157:H7". Canadian Journal of Animal Science 82: 475'490. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/aic-journals/2002ab/cjas02/dec02/cjas02-021.html.
- ^ Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2002). Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef: Review of a Draft Risk Assessment. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-08627-2. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10528.
- ^ "FDA targets lettuce industry with ''E. coli'' guidance". Foodnavigator-usa.com. http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/news/ng.asp?n=63793-fda-lettuce-e-coli. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ Dole Lettuce Recalled in U.S., Canada By Lisa Leff Associated Press
- ^ Apple Cider & E. coli Food Safety Update Retrieved July 26, 2007
- ^ Raw Sprouts pose Salmonella and E. coli 0157 risk, says FDA Medical Reporter Retrieved July 26, 2007
- ^ health & fitness. "''E. coli'': Dangers of eating raw or undercooked foods". Health.msn.com. http://health.msn.com/dietfitness/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100136394&wa=wsignin1.0. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ "CDC: U.S. Food Safety Hasn't Improved". CBS News. 11 April 2008. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/04/10/health/webmd/main4007944.shtml.
- ^ WHO 2002 "Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease" , Fact sheet N–180 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs180/en/
- ^ Graham Farrell and John E. Orchard, Peter Golob (2002). Crop Post-Harvest: Science and Technology: Principles and Practice: v. 1. Blackwell Science Ltd. p. 29. ISBN 978-0632057238.
- ^ Consumers Union of United States Inc., Do You Know What You're Eating? - an analysis of U.S. government data on pesticide residues in foods, February 1999. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
- ^ "NDTV.com: Artificial ripeners used for mangoes". http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20070013183. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- ^ "The Hindu Business Line : Something is rotten in fruit trade". http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2005/05/16/stories/2005051600881500.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- ^ L M Tierney, S J McPhee, M A Papadakis (2002). Current medical Diagnosis & Treatment. International edition. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-137688-7.
- ^ Hagen KB, Byfuglien MG, Falzon L, Olsen SU, Smedslund G (2009). "Dietary interventions for rheumatoid arthritis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD006400. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006400.pub2. PMID 19160281.
- ^ Maya Tiwari. Ayurveda: A Life of Balance Healing Arts Press. Rochester, VT. 1995.
- ^ "www.vrg.org". www.vrg.org. http://www.vrg.org/nutshell/omni.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ "www.beyondveg.com". www.beyondveg.com. http://www.beyondveg.com/billings-t/comp-anat/comp-anat-1a.shtml. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ "Shattering The Meat Myth: Humans Are Natural Vegetarians". Huffington Post. 2009-06-11. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kathy-freston/shattering-the-meat-myth_b_214390.html. Retrieved 2010-02-21.
- ^ Milton, Katharine, "A hypothesis to explain the role of meat-eating in human evolution",Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews Volume 8, Issue 1, 1999, Pages: 11'21
- ^ "ABC". ABC. 2003-02-25. http://www.abc.net.au/dimensions/dimensions_health/Transcripts/s792589.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Hill, John Lawrence (1996). The case for vegetarianism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 89. ISBN 0847681386. http://books.google.com/?id=W-XR1T-pXFwC&printsec=frontcover#PPA89,M1. Retrieved 2009-04-26.
- ^ a b c Stanley, Tyler (1998). Diet by Design. TEACH Services, Inc.. p. 14. ISBN 1572580968. http://books.google.com/?id=MdS3x6Vn2q4C&printsec=frontcover#PPA14,M1. Retrieved 2009-04-26.
- ^ Trash, Agatha; Calvin Trash (1982). Nutrition For Vegetarians. Seale, Alabama: New Lifestyle Books. pp. 82'85.
- ^ Trash, Agatha; Calvin Trash (1982). Nutrition For Vegetarians. Seale, Alabama: New Lifestyle Books. p. 84.
- ^ Oski, Frank (1992). Don't Drink Your Milk. Brushton, New York: TEACH Services Inc.. pp. 48'49.
- ^ Shelton, Herbert (1984). The Science and Fine Art of Food and Nutrition. Oldsmar, Florida: Natural Hygiene Press. p. 148.
- ^ "Aflatoxins" (1990). Health Protection Branch Issues. Ottawa, Ontario: Health Canada, May. pp. 2'3.
- ^ a b Brown, Corrie (2000). Emerging diseases of animals. ASM Press. pp. 116'117. ISBN 1555812015. http://books.google.com/?id=yKgsMbsxtfEC&printsec=frontcover#PPA116,M1. Retrieved 2009-04-26.
- ^ Timm C. Harder and Ortrud Werner, Avian Influenza, Influenza Report 2006, 2006: Chapter two.
- ^ Taubenberger JK, Reid AH, Lourens RM, Wang R, Jin G, Fanning TG (October 2005). "Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes". Nature 437 (7060): 889'93. doi:10.1038/nature04230. PMID 16208372.
- ^ Antonovics J, Hood ME, Baker CH (April 2006). "Molecular virology: was the 1918 flu avian in origin?". Nature 440 (7088): E9; discussion E9'10. doi:10.1038/nature04824. PMID 16641950.
- ^ Vana G, Westover KM (June 2008). "Origin of the 1918 Spanish influenza virus: a comparative genomic analysis". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47 (3): 1100'10. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.02.003. PMID 18353690.
- ^ Pearce-Duvet J (2006). "The origin of human pathogens: evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution of human disease". Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 81 (3): 369'82. doi:10.1017/S1464793106007020. PMID 16672105.
- ^ Pearce-Duvet_2006
- ^ Sharp PM, Bailes E, Chaudhuri RR, Rodenburg CM, Santiago MO, Hahn BH (2001). "The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: where and when?". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356 (1410): 867'76. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0863. PMID 11405934. PMC 1088480. http://journals.royalsociety.org/content/lxtlqmn9urgcvb7x/fulltext.pdf.
- ^ Cantor, Norman (2001). In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made. Free Press. ISBN 0684857359.
- ^ Craig, WJ; Mangels, AR; American Dietetic, Association (July 2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.". J Am Diet Assoc 109 (7): 1266'1282. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864. http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_933_ENU_HTML.htm.
- ^ Katherine Dedyna, Healthy lifestyle, or politically correct eating disorder?, Victoria Times Colonist, CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc., 30 January 2004. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- ^ Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina, Becoming Vegan: The Complete Guide to Adopting a Healthy Plant-Based Diet, Healthy Living Publications, 2002: p. 224.
- ^ O'Connor MA, Touyz SW, Dunn SM, Beumont PJ (1987). "Vegetarianism in anorexia nervosa? A review of 116 consecutive cases". Med J Aust 147 (11'12): 540'2. PMID 3696039. "In only four (6.3%) of these did meat avoidance predate the onset of their anorexia nervosa.".
- ^ Junior encyclopaedia of Sikhism 1985 By H. S. Singha Page 124 ISBN 10: 070692844X / 0-7069-2844-X
- ^ Kakshi, S.R. (2007). "12". in S.R. Bakshi, Rashmi Pathak,. Punjab Through the Ages. 4 (1st ed.). New Delhi: Sarup and Sons. p. 241. ISBN 8176257389 (Set). http://books.google.com/?id=-dHzlfvHvOsC&pg=PA7&dq=Punjab+Through+the+Ages+By+S.R.+Bakshi,+Rashmi+Pathak,+Rashmi+Pathak+volume+4#v=onepage&q=Punjab%20Through%20the%20Ages%20By%20S.R.%20Bakshi%2C%20Rashmi%20Pathak%2C%20Rashmi%20Pathak%20volume%204.
- ^ "Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandhak Committee". Sgpc.net. http://sgpc.net/sikhism/sikhism4.asp. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- ^ "The Sikhism Home Page". Sikhs.org. 1980-02-15. http://www.sikhs.org/meat.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- ^ Tähtinen, Unto: Ahimsa. Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London 1976, p. 107'109.
- ^ Mahabharata 12.257 (note that Mahabharata 12.257 is 12.265 according to another count); Bhagavad Gita 9.26; Bhagavata Purana 7.15.7.
- ^ "The Hindu : Sci Tech / Speaking Of Science : Changes in the Indian menu over the ages". Hinduonnet.com. 2004-10-21. http://www.hinduonnet.com/seta/2004/10/21/stories/2004102100111600.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
- ^ "Vegetarianism Good For The Self And Good For The Environment" at The Jain Study Circle
- ^ "Spiritual Traditions and Vegetarianism" at the Vegetarian Society of Colorado website.
- ^ Matthews, Warren: World Religions, 4th edition, Belmont: Thomson/Wadsworth 2004, p. 180. ISBN 0-534-52762-0
- ^ "Jainism" at JainUniversity.org
- ^ Mahavagga Pali - Bhesajjakkhandhaka - Vinaya Pitaka
- ^ a b "Misconceptions About Eating Meat - Comments of Sikh Scholars," at The Sikhism Home Page
- ^ Sikhs and Sikhism by I.J. Singh, Manohar, Delhi ISBN 9788173040580 Throughout Sikh history, there have been movements or subsects of Sikhism which have espoused vegetarianism. I think there is no basis for such dogma or practice in Sikhism. Certainly Sikhs do not think that a vegetarian's achievements in spirituality are easier or higher. It is surprising to see that vegetarianism is such an important facet of Hindu practice in light of the fact that animal sacrifice was a significant and much valued Hindu Vedic ritual for ages. Guru Nanak in his writings clearly rejected both sides of the arguments - on the virtues of vegetarianism or meat eating - as banal and so much nonsense, nor did he accept the idea that a cow was somehow more sacred than a horse or a chicken. He also refused to be drawn into a contention on the differences between flesh and greens, for instance. History tells us that to impart this message, Nanak cooked meat at an important Hindu festival in Kurukshetra. Having cooked it he certainly did not waste it, but probably served it to his followers and ate himself. History is quite clear that Guru Hargobind and Guru Gobind Singh were accomplished and avid hunters. The game was cooked and put to good use, to throw it away would have been an awful waste.
- ^ Guru Granth Sahib, An Analytical Study by Surindar Singh Kohli, Singh Bros. Amritsar ISBN :8172050607 The ideas of devotion and service in Vaishnavism have been accepted by Adi Granth, but the insistence of Vaishnavas on vegetarian diet has been rejected.
- ^ a b A History of the Sikh People by Dr. Gopal Singh, World Sikh University Press, Delhi ISBN 9788170231394 However, it is strange that now-a-days in the Community-Kitchen attached to the Sikh temples, and called the Guru's Kitchen (or, Guru-ka-langar) meat-dishes are not served at all. May be, it is on account of its being, perhaps, expensive, or not easy to keep for long. Or, perhaps the Vaishnava tradition is too strong to be shaken off.
- ^ a b c d e Randip Singh, Fools Who Wrangle Over Flesh, Sikh Philosophy Network, 7 December 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ "Sikh Reht Maryada, The Definition of Sikh, Sikh Conduct & Conventions, Sikh Religion Living, India". www.sgpc.net. http://www.sgpc.net/sikhism/sikh-dharma-manual.html. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- ^ Jane Srivastava, Vegetarianism and Meat-Eating in 8 Religions, Hinduism Today, Spring 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
- ^ Philosophy of Sikhism by Gyani Sher Singh (Ph.D), Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee. Amritsar As a true Vaisnavite Kabir remained a strict vegetarian. Kabir far from defying Brahmanical tradition as to the eating of meat, would not permit so much, as the plucking of a flower (G.G.S. pg 479), whereas Nanak deemed all such scruples to be superstitions, Kabir held the doctrine of Ahinsa or the non-destruction of life, which extended even to that of flowers. The Sikh Gurus, on the contrary, allowed and even encouraged, the use of animal flesh as food. Nanak has exposed this Ahinsa superstition in Asa Ki War (G.G.S. pg 472) and Malar Ke War (G.G.S. pg. 1288)
- ^ "Langar," at http://www.sikhwomen.com
- ^ "The Sikhism Home Page". Sikhs.org. http://www.sikhs.org/meat_gn.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ Singh, Prithi Pal (2006). "3 Guru Amar Das". The History of Sikh Gurus. New Delhi: Lotus Press. p. 38. ISBN 8183820751. http://books.google.com/?id=EhGkVkhUuqoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+History+of+Sikh+Gurus+By+Prithi+Pal+Singh#v=onepage&q=.
- ^ "J. David Bleich - Contemporary Halakhic Problems". Innernet.org.il. http://www.innernet.org.il/article.php?aid=107.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ "Judaism & Vegetarianism". Jewishveg.com. http://www.jewishveg.com/torah.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ ""They Shall Not Hurt Or Destroy" and the Essenes". All-creatures.org. http://www.all-creatures.org/murti/tsnhod-03.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ "Judaism and Vegetarianism: Schwartz Collection - Thou Shalt Not "Kill" or "Murder"?". Jewishveg.com. http://www.jewishveg.com/schwartz/killormurder.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ "Exodus 20 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". Mechon-mamre.org. http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0220.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ Jewish philosophy of vegetarianism article by Philip L. Pick
- ^ Plato, The Republic.
- ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, Book XV, translated by A.D. Melville, Oxford University Press, 1986.
- ^ "Living an Orthodox Life: Fasting". Orthodoxinfo.com. 1997-05-27. http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/praxis/pr_fasting.aspx. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
- ^ "The Great War and the Interwar Period". ivu.org. http://www.ivu.org/history/thesis/quakers.html. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
- ^ a b Muslims can't be vegetarian? Retrieved 5/16/2008
- ^ Vegetarian quotations from Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Retrieved 5/16/2008
- ^ "IVU News - Islam and Vegetarianism". Ivu.org. http://www.ivu.org/news/1-96/muslim.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ Osborne, L (1980), The Rasta Cookbook, 3rd Ed. Mac Donald, London.
- ^ "Livestock's long shadow - Environmental issues and options". Fao.org. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.HTM. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ "Amazon rain forest". Thedailygreen.com. 2009-07-29. http://www.thedailygreen.com/environmental-news/latest/amazon-rain-forest-4702902#ixzz0Pk0D3YWk. Retrieved 2009-10-04.
- ^ ei=3ZKbSoyJOIP6_AbH17TGCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8#v=onepage&q=&f=false Hamburger per rain forest. Books.google.com. 1999-06-30. ISBN 9781566397056. http://books.google.com/?id=Z0s3X_vh1_EC&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=one+hamburger+is+50+rain+forrest. Retrieved 2009-10-04.
- ^ "Greenhouse gas neutral". Yogaindailylife.org.au. http://www.yogaindailylife.org.au/Articles/Environment/Going-Greenhouse-Gas-Neutral.html. Retrieved 2009-10-04.
- ^ Kirby, Alex for BBC NEWS 2004 Hungry world 'must eat less meat' http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3559542.stm
- ^ Vesterby, Marlow and Krupa, Kenneth S. 2001 Major Uses of Land in the United States, 1997 Statistical Bulletin No. (SB973) September 2001 http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/sb973/sb973.pdfPDF (333 KB)
- ^ a b c Peterson, Mark (2008-05-29). "Eating Bugs". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1810336,00.html. Retrieved 2008-11-14.
- ^ Cornell Science News, Aug. 7, 1997 http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Aug97/livestock.hrs.html
- ^ Olsson, Anna (2008-07-08). "Comment: Lab-grown meat could ease food shortage". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19926635.600-comment-growing-m. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- ^ Ed Ayres, "Will We Still Eat Meat?" Time, 8 Nov. 1999
- ^ Eco-Eating: Eating as if the Earth Matters (it does!) http://www.brook.com/veg/
- ^ Why eating less meat could cut global warming Guardian
- ^ "Shun meat, says UN climate chief", BBC, September 7, 2008
- ^ "Belgian city plans 'veggie' days", Chris Mason, BBC, May 12, 2009
- ^ "Killing for a Living: How the Meat Industry Exploits Workers". http://www.goveg.com/workerrights.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- ^ "Worker Health and Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry". Hrw.org. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2005/usa0105/4.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ "Food Safety, the Slaughterhouse, and Rights". Ncrlc.com. 2004-03-30. http://www.ncrlc.com/academic-SR-webpages/food_safety.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/contentPages/docs/meatCultureLiteratureReviewV81.pdfPDF (618 KB)
- ^ "Factory Farming'Making People Sick". Hfa.org. http://www.hfa.org/factory/. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ Working conditions in agriculture International Labour Organization
- ^ Working conditions in agriculture Berne Declaration
- ^ World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development, Published by World Bank Publications pg 207
- ^ Worldwatch Institute, News July 2, 1998, United States Leads World Meat Stampede Worldwatch Institute
- ^ "The gender gap: if you're a vegetarian, odds are you're a woman. Why?". Vegetarian Times. 2005-02-01. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0820/is_n210/ai_16019829. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
- ^ a b "'More girl babies' for vegetarians". BBC News. 2000-08-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/869696.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- ^ "The Number of Vegetarians In The World". Raw-food-health.net. http://www.raw-food-health.net/NumberOfVegetarians.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
 External links
This article is based on one or more articles in Wikipedia, with modifications and
additional content by SOURCES editors. This article is covered by a Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 License (CC-BY-SA) and the GNU Free Documentation License
(GFDL). The remainder of the content of this website, except where otherwise indicated,
is copyright SOURCES and may not be reproduced without written permission.
(For information use the
SOURCES.COM is an online portal and directory for journalists, news media, researchers
and anyone seeking experts, spokespersons, and reliable information resources. Use
SOURCES.COM to find experts, media contacts, news releases, background information,
scientists, officials, speakers, newsmakers, spokespeople, talk show guests, story
ideas, research studies, databases, universities, associations and NGOs, businesses,
government spokespeople. Indexing and search applications by Ulli Diemer and Chris
For information about being included in SOURCES as a expert or
spokesperson see the FAQ or use
the online membership form.
Check here for
information about becoming an
For partnerships, content and applications, and domain name opportunities
Sources home page